Rapid turnover rate of phosphoinositides at the front of migrating MDCK cells.
ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositides (PtdInss) play key roles in cell polarization and motility. With a series of biosensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer, we examined the distribution and metabolism of PtdInss and diacylglycerol (DAG) in stochastically migrating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The concentrations of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate, and DAG were higher at the plasma membrane in the front of the cell than at the plasma membrane of the rear of the cell. The difference in the concentrations of PtdInss was estimated to be less than twofold between the front and rear of the migrating MDCK cells. To decode the spatial activities of PtdIns metabolic enzymes from the obtained concentration maps of PtdInss, we developed a one-dimensional reaction diffusion model of PtdIns metabolism. In this model, the activities of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, and PIP(3) 5-phosphatases were higher at the plasma membrane of the front than at the plasma membrane of the rear of the cell. This result suggests that, although the difference in the steady-state level of PtdInss is less than twofold, PtdInss were more rapidly turned over at the front than the rear of the migrating MDCK cells.
Project description:Contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton underlies both rear retraction in directed cell migration and cytokinesis. Here, we show that talin, a central component of focal adhesions, has a major role in these processes. We found that Dictyostelium talin A colocalized with myosin II in the rear of migrating cells and the cleavage furrow. During directed cell migration, talin A-null cells displayed a long thin tail devoid of actin filaments, whereas additional depletion of SibA, a transmembrane adhesion molecule that binds to talin A, reverted this phenotype, suggesting a requirement of the link between actomyosin and SibA by talin A for rear retraction. Disruptions of talin A also resulted in detachment of the actomyosin contractile ring from the cell membrane and concomitant regression of the cleavage furrow under certain conditions. The C-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD) of talin A exhibited a localization pattern identical to that of full-length talin A. The N-terminal FERM domain was found to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] in vitro. In vivo, however, PtdIns(4,5)P2, which is known to activate talin, is believed to be enriched in the rear of migrating cells and the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium. From these results, we propose that talin A activated by PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the cell posterior or cleavage furrow links actomyosin cytoskeleton to adhesion molecules or other membrane proteins, and that the force is transmitted through these links to retract the tail during cell migration or to cause efficient ingression of the equator during cytokinesis.
Project description:Dictyostelium discoideum shows chemotaxis towards folic acid (FA) throughout vegetative growth, and towards cAMP during development. We determined the spatiotemporal localization of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules and investigated the FA-mediated responses in a number of signaling mutants to further our understanding of the core regulatory elements that are crucial for cell migration. Proteins enriched in the pseudopods during chemotaxis also relocalize transiently to the plasma membrane during uniform FA stimulation. In contrast, proteins that are absent from the pseudopods during migration redistribute transiently from the PM to the cytosol when cells are globally stimulated with FA. These chemotactic responses to FA were also examined in cells lacking the GTPases Ras C and G. Although Ras and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity were significantly decreased in Ras G and Ras C/G nulls, these mutants still migrated towards FA, indicating that other pathways must support FA-mediated chemotaxis. We also examined the spatial movements of PTEN in response to uniform FA and cAMP stimulation in phospholipase C (PLC) null cells. The lack of PLC strongly influences the localization of PTEN in response to FA, but not cAMP. In addition, we compared the gradient-sensing behavior of polarized cells migrating towards cAMP to that of unpolarized cells migrating towards FA. The majority of polarized cells make U-turns when the cAMP gradient is switched from the front of the cell to the rear. Conversely, unpolarized cells immediately extend pseudopods towards the new FA source. We also observed that plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] levels oscillate in unpolarized cells treated with Latrunculin-A, whereas polarized cells had stable plasma membrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 responses toward the chemoattractant gradient source. Results were similar for cells that were starved for 4 hours, with a mixture of polarized and unpolarized cells responding to cAMP. Taken together, these findings suggest that similar components control gradient sensing during FA- and cAMP-mediated motility, but the response of polarized cells is more stable, which ultimately helps maintain their directionality.
1000-01-01 | S-EPMC3603517 | BioStudies
Project description:The ability of cells to polarize and move toward external stimuli plays a crucial role in development, as well as normal and pathological physiology. Migrating cells maintain dynamic complementary distributions of Ras activity and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2). Here we show lagging edge component PI(3,4)P2 also localizes to retracting leading edge protrusions and nascent macropinosomes, even in the absence of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Once internalized, the macropinosomes break up into smaller PI(3,4)P2-enriched vesicles, which fuse to the plasma membrane at the cell rear. The phosphoinositide then diffuses towards the front, where it is degraded. A computational model confirmed that this cycle brings about a stable back-to-front gradient. These results uncover a surprising "reverse fountain flow" of PI(3,4)P2 that regulates polarity.
Project description:Cell migration of transformed renal epithelial cells (MDCK-F) depends-in addition to cytoskeletal mechanisms-on the polarized activity of a Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel in the rear part of the cells. However, because of the lack of specific markers for this channel we are not able to determine whether a polarized distribution of the channel protein underlies its functional polarization. To determine whether the migrating MDCK-F cells have retained the ability to target K+ channels to distinct membrane areas we stably transfected the cells with the voltage-dependent K+ channel Kv1.4. Stable expression and insertion into the plasma membrane could be shown by reverse transcription-PCR, genomic PCR, Western blot, and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. The distribution of Kv1.4 was assessed with indirect immunofluorescence by using conventional and confocal microscopy. These experiments revealed that Kv1.4 is expressed only in transfected cells where it elicits the typical voltage-dependent, rapidly inactivating K+ current. The Kv1.4 protein is clustered at the leading edge of protruding lamellipodia of migrating MDCK-F cells. This characteristic distribution of Kv1.4 provides strong evidence that migrating MDCK-F cells are able to insert ion channels into the plasma membrane in an asymmetric way, which reflects the polarization of migrating cells in the plane of movement. These findings suggest that not only epithelial cells and nerve cells, but also migrating cells, can create functionally distinct plasma membrane areas.
Project description:Class I myosins have a single heavy chain comprising an N-terminal motor domain with actin-activated ATPase activity and a C-terminal globular tail with a basic region that binds to acidic phospholipids. These myosins contribute to the formation of actin-rich protrusions such as pseudopodia, but regulation of the dynamic localization to these structures is not understood. Previously, we found that Acanthamoeba myosin IC binds to acidic phospholipids in vitro through a short sequence of basic and hydrophobic amino acids, BH site, based on the charge density of the phospholipids. The tail of Dictyostelium myosin IB (DMIB) also contains a BH site. We now report that the BH site is essential for DMIB binding to the plasma membrane and describe the molecular basis of the dynamic relocalization of DMIB in live cells. Endogenous DMIB is localized uniformly on the plasma membrane of resting cells, at active protrusions and cell-cell contacts of randomly moving cells, and at the front of motile polarized cells. The BH site is required for association of DMIB with the plasma membrane at all stages where it colocalizes with phosphoinositide bisphosphate/phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP(2)/PIP(3)). The charge-based specificity of the BH site allows for in vivo specificity of DMIB for PIP(2)/PIP(3) similar to the PH domain-based specificity of other class I myosins. However, DMIB-head is required for relocalization of DMIB to the front of migrating cells. Motor activity is not essential, but the actin binding site in the head is important. Thus, dynamic relocalization of DMIB is determined principally by the local PIP(2)/PIP(3) concentration in the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic F-actin.
Project description:A growing body of evidence shows that membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphates (PtdIns(4,5)P(2), PIP(2)) play an important role in cell signaling. The presence of PIP(2) is fundamentally important for maintaining the functions of a large number of ion channels and transporters, and for other cell processes such as vesicle trafficking, mobility, and endo- and exocytosis. PIP(2) levels in the membrane are dynamically modulated, which is an important signaling mechanism for modulation of PIP(2)-dependent cellular processes. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of membrane PIP(2) modulation. Membrane depolarization induces an elevation in membrane PIP(2), and subsequently increases functions of PIP(2)-sensitive KCNQ potassium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Further evidence suggests that the depolarization-induced elevation of membrane PIP(2) occurs through increased activity of PI4 kinase. With increased recognition of the importance of PIP(2) in cell function, the effect of membrane depolarization in PIP(2) metabolism is destined to have important physiological implications.
Project description:Cell migration is controlled by various Ca(2+) signals. Local Ca(2+) signals, in particular, have been identified as versatile modulators of cell migration because of their spatiotemporal diversity. However, little is known about how local Ca(2+) signals coordinate between the front and rear regions in directionally migrating cells. Here, we elucidate the spatial role of local Ca(2+) signals in directed cell migration through combinatorial application of an optogenetic toolkit. An optically guided cell migration approach revealed the existence of Ca(2+) sparklets mediated by L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the rear part of migrating cells. Notably, we found that this locally concentrated Ca(2+) influx acts as an essential transducer in establishing a global front-to-rear increasing Ca(2+) gradient. This asymmetrical Ca(2+) gradient is crucial for maintaining front-rear morphological polarity by restricting spontaneous lamellipodia formation in the rear part of migrating cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a clear link between local Ca(2+) sparklets and front-rear coordination during directed cell migration.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) accumulates at the leading edge of migrating cells and works, at least partially, as both a compass to indicate directionality and a hub for subsequent intracellular events. However, how PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) regulates the migratory machinery has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for efficient lamellipodium formation that depends on PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and the reciprocal regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) itself. LL5beta, whose subcellular localization is directed by membrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), recruits the actin-cross-linking protein Filamin A to the plasma membrane, where PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulates, with the Filamin A-binding Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2). A large and dynamic lamellipodium was formed in the presence of Filamin A and LL5beta by the application of epidermal growth factor. Conversely, depletion of either Filamin A or LL5beta or the overexpression of either an F-actin-cross-linking mutant of Filamin A or a mutant of LL5beta without its PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)-interacting region inhibited such events in COS-7 cells. Because F-actin initially polymerizes near the plasma membrane, it is likely that membrane-recruited Filamin A efficiently cross-links newly polymerized F-actin, leading to enhanced lamellipodium formation at the site of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulation. Moreover, we demonstrate that co-recruited SHIP2 dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) at the same location.
Project description:The tumour suppressor EWI2 associates with tetraspanins and regulates tumour cell movement and proliferation. The short cytoplasmic domain of EWI2 is positively charged; five out of the ten residues of this domain are basic. In the present study we demonstrated that the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail interacts specifically with negatively charged PIPs (phosphatidylinositol phosphates), but not with other membrane lipids. The PIPs that interact with EWI2 cytoplasmic tail include PtdIns5P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns3P, PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4)P2. The binding affinity of PIPs to the EWI2 tail, however, is not solely based on charge because PtdIns5P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P have a higher affinity to EWI2 than PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2) do. Mutation of either of two basic residue clusters in the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail abolishes PIP binding, and PIP binding is also determined by the position of basic residues in the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail. In addition, EWI2 is constitutively palmitoylated at the cytoplasmic cysteine residues located at the N-terminal of those basic residues. The PIP interaction is not required for, but appears to regulate, the palmitoylation, whereas palmitoylation is neither required for nor regulates the PIP interaction. Functionally, the PIP interaction regulates the stability of EWI2 proteins, whereas palmitoylation is needed for tetraspanin-EWI2 association and EWI2-dependent inhibition of cell migration and lamellipodia formation. For cell-cell adhesion and cell proliferation, the PIP interaction functions in opposition to the palmitoylation. In conclusion, the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail actively engages with the cell membrane via PIP binding and palmitoylation, which play differential roles in EWI2 functions.
Project description:Regulation of phosphatidylinositol kinase (EC 126.96.36.199) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) kinase (EC 188.8.131.52) was investigated in highly enriched plasma-membrane and cytosolic fractions derived from cloned rat pituitary (GH3) cells. In plasma membranes, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] added exogenously enhanced incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [gamma-32P]MgATP2- into PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P to 150% of control; half-maximal effect occurred with 0.03 mM exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2. Exogenous PtdIns4P and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) had no effect. When plasma membranes prepared from cells prelabelled to isotopic steady state with [3H]inositol were used, there was a MgATP2- dependent increase in the content of [3H]PtdIns(4,5)P2 and [3H]PtdIns4P that was enhanced specifically by exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2 also. Degradation of 32P- and 3H-labelled PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P within the plasma-membrane fraction was not affected by exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2. Phosphoinositide kinase activities in the cytosolic fraction were assayed by using exogenous substrates. Phosphoinositide kinase activities in cytosol were inhibited by exogenously added PtdIns(4,5)P2. These findings demonstrate that exogenously added PtdIns(4,5)P2 enhances phosphoinositide kinase activities (and formation of polyphosphoinositides) in plasma membranes, but decreases these kinase activities in cytosol derived from GH3 cells. These data suggest that flux of PtdIns to PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane cannot be increased simply by release of membrane-associated phosphoinositide kinases from product inhibition as PtdIns(4,5)P2 is hydrolysed.