Reconstruction of the genome origins and evolution of the hybrid lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus.
ABSTRACT: Inter-specific hybridization leading to abrupt speciation is a well-known, common mechanism in angiosperm evolution; only recently, however, have similar hybridization and speciation mechanisms been documented to occur frequently among the closely related group of sensu stricto Saccharomyces yeasts. The economically important lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is such a hybrid, formed by the union of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus-related yeasts; efforts to understand its complex genome, searching for both biological and brewing-related insights, have been underway since its hybrid nature was first discovered. It had been generally thought that a single hybridization event resulted in a unique S. pastorianus species, but it has been recently postulated that there have been two or more hybridization events. Here, we show that there may have been two independent origins of S. pastorianus strains, and that each independent group--defined by characteristic genome rearrangements, copy number variations, ploidy differences, and DNA sequence polymorphisms--is correlated with specific breweries and/or geographic locations. Finally, by reconstructing common ancestral genomes via array-CGH data analysis and by comparing representative DNA sequences of the S. pastorianus strains with those of many different S. cerevisiae isolates, we have determined that the most likely S. cerevisiae ancestral parent for each of the independent S. pastorianus groups was an ale yeast, with different, but closely related ale strains contributing to each group's parentage.
Project description:Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma.
Project description:Saccharomyces pastorianus strains are hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus that have been domesticated for centuries in lager beer brewing environments. As sequences and structures of S. pastorianus genomes are being resolved, molecular mechanisms and evolutionary origins of several industrially relevant phenotypes remain unknown. This study investigates how maltotriose metabolism, a key feature in brewing, may have arisen in early S. eubayanus × S. cerevisiae hybrids. To address this question, we generated a nearly complete genome assembly of Himalayan S. eubayanus strains of the Holarctic subclade. This group of strains has been proposed to be the S. eubayanus subgenome origin of current S. pastorianus strains. The Himalayan S. eubayanus genomes harbored several copies of an S. eubayanus AGT1 (SeAGT1) ?-oligoglucoside transporter gene with high sequence identity to genes encountered in S. pastorianus Although Himalayan S. eubayanus strains cannot grow on maltose and maltotriose, their maltose-hydrolase and SeMALT1 and SeAGT1 maltose transporter genes complemented the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae Expression, in Himalayan S. eubayanus of a functional S. cerevisiae maltose metabolism regulator gene (MALx3) enabled growth on oligoglucosides. The hypothesis that the maltotriose-positive phenotype in S. pastorianus is a result of heterosis was experimentally tested by constructing an S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus laboratory hybrid with a complement of maltose metabolism genes that resembles that of current S. pastorianus strains. The ability of this hybrid to consume maltotriose in brewer's wort demonstrated regulatory cross talk between subgenomes and thereby validated this hypothesis. These results support experimentally the new postulated hypothesis on the evolutionary origin of an essential phenotype of lager brewing strains and valuable knowledge for industrial exploitation of laboratory-made S. pastorianus-like hybrids.IMPORTANCE S. pastorianus, an S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrid, is used for production of lager beer, the most produced alcoholic beverage worldwide. It emerged by spontaneous hybridization and colonized early lager brewing processes. Despite accumulation and analysis of genome sequencing data of S. pastorianus parental genomes, the genetic blueprint of industrially relevant phenotypes remains unresolved. Assimilation of maltotriose, an abundant sugar in wort, has been postulated to be inherited from the S. cerevisiae parent. Here, we demonstrate that although Asian S. eubayanus isolates harbor a functional maltotriose transporter SeAGT1 gene, they are unable to grow on ?-oligoglucosides, but expression of S. cerevisiae regulator MAL13 (ScMAL13) was sufficient to restore growth on trisaccharides. We hypothesized that the S. pastorianus maltotriose phenotype results from regulatory interaction between S. cerevisiae maltose transcription activator and the promoter of SeAGT1 We experimentally confirmed the heterotic nature of the phenotype, and thus these results provide experimental evidence of the evolutionary origin of an essential phenotype of lager brewing strains.
Project description:The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and ?-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.
Project description:Lager brewing strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus are natural interspecific hybrids originating from the spontaneous hybridization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Over the past 500 years, S. pastorianus has been domesticated to become one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Production of lager-type beers requires a set of essential phenotypes, including the ability to ferment maltose and maltotriose at low temperature, the production of flavors and aromas, and the ability to flocculate. Understanding of the molecular basis of complex brewing-related phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for rational strain improvement. While genome sequences have been reported, the variability and dynamics of S. pastorianus genomes have not been investigated in detail. Here, using deep sequencing and chromosome copy number analysis, we showed that S. pastorianus strain CBS1483 exhibited extensive aneuploidy. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR and by flow cytometry. As a direct consequence of this aneuploidy, a massive number of sequence variants was identified, leading to at least 1,800 additional protein variants in S. pastorianus CBS1483. Analysis of eight additional S. pastorianus strains revealed that the previously defined group I strains showed comparable karyotypes, while group II strains showed large interstrain karyotypic variability. Comparison of three strains with nearly identical genome sequences revealed substantial chromosome copy number variation, which may contribute to strain-specific phenotypic traits. The observed variability of lager yeast genomes demonstrates that systematic linking of genotype to phenotype requires a three-dimensional genome analysis encompassing physical chromosomal structures, the copy number of individual chromosomes or chromosomal regions, and the allelic variation of copies of individual genes.
Project description:Today's beer market is challenged by a decreasing consumption of traditional beer styles and an increasing consumption of specialty beers. In particular, lager-type beers (pilsner), characterized by their refreshing and unique aroma and taste, yet very uniform, struggle with their sales. The development of novel variants of the common lager yeast, the interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus, has been proposed as a possible solution to address the need of product diversification in lager beers. Previous efforts to generate new lager yeasts through hybridization of the ancestral parental species (S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus) yielded strains with an aromatic profile distinct from the natural biodiversity. Unfortunately, next to the desired properties, these novel yeasts also inherited unwanted characteristics. Most notably is their phenolic off-flavor (POF) production, which hampers their direct application in the industrial production processes. Here, we describe a CRISPR-based gene editing strategy that allows the systematic and meticulous introduction of a natural occurring mutation in the FDC1 gene of genetically complex industrial S. cerevisiae strains, S. eubayanus yeasts and interspecific hybrids. The resulting cisgenic POF- variants show great potential for industrial application and diversifying the current lager beer portfolio.
Project description:In this work the potential of comparative transcriptomics was explored of Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae and S. pastorianus for their discrimination. This way an alternative should be demonstrated to comparative genomics, which can be difficult as a result of their aneuoploid genomes composed of mosaics of the parental genomes. Strains were selected according to their application in beer brewing, i.e. top and bottom fermenting yeasts. Comparative transcriptomics was performed for four strains each of commercially available S. cerevisiae (top fermenting) and Saccharomyces pastorianus (bottom fermenting) brewing yeasts grown at two different temperatures to mid-exponential growth phase. A non-reference based approach was chosen in the form of alignment against a de novo assembled brewery-associated pan transcriptome to exclude bias introduced by manual selection of reference genomes. The result is an analysis workflow for self-contained comparative transcriptomics of Saccharomyces yeasts including, but not limited to, the analysis of core and accessory gene expression, functional analysis and metabolic classification. The functionality of this workflow is demonstrated along the principal differentiation of accessory transcriptomes of S. cerevisiae versus S. pastorianus strains. Hence, this work provides a concept enabling studies under different brewing conditions.
Project description:Saccharomyces eubayanus is the non-S. cerevisiae parent of the lager-brewing hybrid S. pastorianus. In contrast to most S. cerevisiae and Frohberg-type S. pastorianus strains, S. eubayanus cannot utilize the ?-tri-glucoside maltotriose, a major carbohydrate in brewer's wort. In Saccharomyces yeasts, utilization of maltotriose is encoded by the subtelomeric MAL gene family, and requires transporters for maltotriose uptake. While S. eubayanus strain CBS 12357T harbors four SeMALT genes which enable uptake of the ?-di-glucoside maltose, it lacks maltotriose transporter genes. In S. cerevisiae, sequence identity indicates that maltotriose and maltose transporters likely evolved from a shared ancestral gene. To study the evolvability of maltotriose utilization in S. eubayanus CBS 12357T, maltotriose-assimilating mutants obtained after UV mutagenesis were subjected to laboratory evolution in carbon-limited chemostat cultures on maltotriose-enriched wort. An evolved strain showed improved maltose and maltotriose fermentation in 7 L fermenter experiments on industrial wort. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a novel mosaic SeMALT413 gene, resulting from repeated gene introgressions by non-reciprocal translocation of at least three SeMALT genes. The predicted tertiary structure of SeMalT413 was comparable to the original SeMalT transporters, but overexpression of SeMALT413 sufficed to enable growth on maltotriose, indicating gene neofunctionalization had occurred. The mosaic structure of SeMALT413 resembles the structure of S. pastorianus maltotriose-transporter gene SpMTY1, which has high sequences identity to alternatingly S. cerevisiae MALx1, S. paradoxus MALx1 and S. eubayanus SeMALT3. Evolution of the maltotriose transporter landscape in hybrid S. pastorianus lager-brewing strains is therefore likely to have involved mechanisms similar to those observed in the present study.
Project description:Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used to make beer, bread, and wine are genetically and phenotypically distinct from wild populations associated with trees. The origins of these domesticated populations are not always clear; human-associated migration and admixture with wild populations have had a strong impact on S. cerevisiae population structure. We examined the population genetic history of beer strains and found that ale strains and the S. cerevisiae portion of allotetraploid lager strains were derived from admixture between populations closely related to European grape wine strains and Asian rice wine strains. Similar to both lager and baking strains, ale strains are polyploid, providing them with a passive means of remaining isolated from other populations and providing us with a living relic of their ancestral hybridization. To reconstruct their polyploid origin, we phased the genomes of two ale strains and found ale haplotypes to both be recombinants between European and Asian alleles and to also contain novel alleles derived from extinct or as yet uncharacterized populations. We conclude that modern beer strains are the product of a historical melting pot of fermentation technology.
Project description:The lager-brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is a hybrid between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus with an exceptional degree of aneuploidy. While chromosome copy number variation (CCNV) is present in many industrial Saccharomyces strains and has been linked to various industrially-relevant traits, its impact on the brewing performance of S. pastorianus remains elusive. Here we attempt to delete single copies of chromosomes which are relevant for the production of off-flavor compound diacetyl by centromere silencing. However, the engineered strains display CNV of multiple non-targeted chromosomes. We attribute this unintended CCNV to inherent instability and to a mutagenic effect of electroporation and of centromere-silencing. Regardless, the resulting strains displayed large phenotypic diversity. By growing centromere-silenced cells in repeated sequential batches in medium containing 10% ethanol, mutants with increased ethanol tolerance were obtained. By using CCNV mutagenesis by exposure to the mitotic inhibitor MBC, selection in the same set-up yielded even more tolerant mutants that would not classify as genetically modified organisms. These results show that CCNV of alloaneuploid S. pastorianus genomes is highly unstable, and that CCNV mutagenesis can generate broad diversity. Coupled to effective selection or screening, CCNV mutagenesis presents a potent tool for strain improvement.
Project description:Gross chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to be evolutionarily advantageous to an adapting organism. The generation of a hybrid species increases opportunity for recombination by bringing together two homologous genomes. We sought to define the location of genomic rearrangements in three strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a natural lager-brewing yeast hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus, using whole genome shotgun sequencing. Each strain of S. pastorianus has lost species-specific portions of its genome and has undergone extensive recombination, producing chimeric chromosomes. We predicted 30 breakpoints that we confirmed at the single nucleotide level by designing species-specific primers that flank each breakpoint, and then sequencing the PCR product. These rearrangements are the result of recombination between areas of homology between the two subgenomes, rather than repetitive elements such as transposons or tRNAs. Interestingly, 28/30 S. cerevisiae-S. eubayanus recombination breakpoints are located within genic regions, generating chimeric genes. Furthermore we show evidence for the reuse of two breakpoints, located in HSP82 and KEM1, in strains of proposed independent origin.