High glucose induces toll-like receptor expression in human monocytes: mechanism of activation.
ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications, and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression and activity of TLRs in hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression and mechanism of their induction in monocytic cells under high-glucose conditions.High glucose (15 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression in THP-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). High glucose increased TLR expression, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65-dependent activation in THP-1 cells. THP-1 cell data were further confirmed using freshly isolated monocytes from healthy human volunteers (n = 10).Pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and NADPH oxidase significantly decreased TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein (P < 0.05). Knocking down both TLR2 and TLR4 in the cells resulted in a 76% (P < 0.05) decrease in high-glucose-induced NF-kappaB activity, suggesting an additive effect. Furthermore, PKC-alpha knockdown decreased TLR2 by 61% (P < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-delta decreased TLR4 under high glucose by 63% (P < 0.05). Small inhibitory RNA to p47Phox in THP-1 cells abrogated high-glucose-induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Additional studies revealed that PKC-alpha, PKC-delta, and p47Phox knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion.Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose induces TLR2 and -4 expression via PKC-alpha and PKC-delta, respectively, by stimulating NADPH oxidase in human monocytes.
Project description:Apolipoprotein (apo)CIII predicts risk for coronary heart disease. We recently reported that apoCIII directly activates human monocytes. Recent evidence indicates that toll-like receptor (TLR)2 can contribute to atherogenesis through transduction of inflammatory signals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that apoCIII activates human monocytoid THP-1 cells through TLR2. ApoCIII induced the association of TLR2 with myeloid differentiation factor 88, activated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in THP-1 cells, and increased their adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Anti-TLR2 blocking antibody, but not anti-TLR4 blocking antibody or isotype-matched IgG, inhibited these processes (P<0.05). ApoCIII bound with high affinity to human recombinant TLR2 protein and showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) and saturable binding to 293 cells overexpressing human TLR2 than to parental 293 cells with no endogenous TLR2. Overexpression of TLR2 in 293 cells augmented apoCIII-induced NF-kappaB activation and beta(1) integrin expression, processes inhibited by anti-apoCIII antibody as well as anti-TLR2 antibody. Exposure of peripheral blood monocytes isolated from C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice to apoCIII activated their NF-kappaB and increased their adhesiveness to HUVECs. In contrast, apoCIII did not activate monocytes from TLR2-deficient mice. Finally, intravenous administration to C57BL/6 mice of apoCIII-rich very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), but not of apoCIII-deficient VLDL, activated monocytes and increased their adhesiveness to HUVECs, processes attenuated by anti-TLR2 or anti-apoCIII antibody. ApoCIII-rich VLDL did not activate monocytes from TLR2-deficient mice. In conclusion, apoCIII activated monocytes at least partly through a TLR2-dependent pathway. The present study identifies a novel mechanism for proinflammatory and proatherogenic effects of apoCIII and a role for TLR2 in atherosclerosis induced by atherogenic lipoproteins.
Project description:Previously, IL-1beta secretion from Type 2 diabetic patients has been shown to be increased compared with controls. In this study, we aimed to delineate the mechanism of IL-1beta induction under high-glucose (HG) conditions in human monocytes. THP-1 cells cultured in normal glucose were treated with increasing concentrations of d-glucose (10-25 mM) for 6-72 h. IL-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist levels were measured by ELISA and Western blots, whereas mRNA was quantitated by RT-PCR. Specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs of PKC, p38, ERK1/2, NF-kappaB, and NADPH oxidase were used to determine the mediators in parallel experiments under HG conditions. IL-1beta-secreted protein, cellular protein, and mRNA increase under HG conditions is time and dose dependent, with maximum increase at 15 mM (48 h; P < 0.05). IL-1 receptor antagonist release was time and dose dependent, similar to IL-1beta expression pattern; however, the molar ratio of IL-1beta to IL-1RA was increased. Data from inhibitor and small interfering RNA experiments indicate that IL-1beta release under HG is mediated by PKC-alpha, via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 leading to NF-kappaB activation, resulting in increased mRNA and protein for IL-1beta. At the same time, it appears that NADPH oxidase via p47phox activates NF-kappaB, resulting in increased IL-1beta secretion. Data suggest that, under HG conditions, monocytes release significantly higher amounts of IL-1beta through multiple mechanisms, further compounding the disease progression. Targeting signaling pathways mediating IL-1beta release could result in the amelioration of inflammation and possibly diabetic vasculopathies.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis. The development of atherosclerosis involves reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress in vascular cells. Our previous study [Wang and O (2001) Biochem. J. 357, 233-240] demonstrated that Hcy (homocysteine) treatment caused a significant elevation of intracellular superoxide anion, leading to increased expression of chemokine receptor in monocytes. NADPH oxidase is primarily responsible for superoxide anion production in monocytes. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Hcy-induced superoxide anion production in monocytes. Hcy treatment (20-100 microM) caused an activation of NADPH oxidase and an increase in the superoxide anion level in monocytes (THP-1, a human monocytic cell line). Transfection of cells with p47phox siRNA (small interfering RNA) abolished Hcy-induced superoxide anion production, indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase. Hcy treatment resulted in phosphorylation and subsequently membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox subunits leading to NADPH oxidase activation. Pretreatment of cells with PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitors Ro-32-0432 (bisindolylmaleimide XI hydrochloride) (selective for PKCalpha, PKCbeta and PKCgamma) abolished Hcy-induced phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits in monocytes. Transfection of cells with antisense PKCbeta oligonucleotide, but not antisense PKCalpha oligonucleotide, completely blocked Hcy-induced phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits as well as superoxide anion production. Pretreatment of cells with LY333531, a PKCbeta inhibitor, abolished Hcy-induced superoxide anion production. Taken together, these results indicate that Hcy-stimulated superoxide anion production in monocytes is regulated through PKC-dependent phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits of NADPH oxidase. Increased superoxide anion production via NADPH oxidase may play an important role in Hcy-induced inflammatory response during atherogenesis.
Project description:Bacterial infection-induced sepsis is the leading cause of septic inflammatory disease. Rhodostomin (Rn), a snake venom disintegrin, was previously reported to interact with the αVβ3 integrin and the TLR4 on phagocyte in attenuating LPS-induced endotoxemia. In this report, we further evaluated the effects of Rn on TLR2-activated monocytes and its in vivo efficacy. Rn effectively suppressed the adhesion, migration, and cytokine release of Pam3CSK4-activated THP-1 cells. Rn specifically bound to integrin αVβ3 of TLR2-activated THP-1. Integrin αV and Akt siRNA transfection both restrained Pam3CSK4-elicited cytokine release. Rn decreased the Pam3CSK4-induced phosporylation of MAPKs, degradation of IκB and activation of FAK, Akt, c-Src and Syk. The Pam3CSK4-induced translocation of MyD88, a central adaptor of TLR2, to the cell membrane was also inhibited by Rn treatment. In the polymicrobial inflammatory caecal ligation and puncture model, Rn significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, alleviated tissue injury and elevated survival rate in vivo. Taken together, in addition to inhibiting the activation of TLR4, Rn exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through antagonizing the activation of phagocytes and interrupting the crosstalk between αVβ3 and TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.
Project description:Human TLRs are critical sensors for microbial components leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are controlled by various mechanisms. Monocytes pretreated with LPS exhibit a state of hyporesponsiveness, referred to as cross-tolerance, to both homologous and heterologous ligands, which play a broader role in innate immunity. To date, LPS-induced cross-tolerance has not been examined regarding microRNA expression kinetics. In this study, THP-1 monocytes treated with various inflammatory ligands showed a continuous amplification of microRNA (miR)-146a over 24 h that is inversely correlated to TNF-? production. In contrast, inhibition of miR-146a showed a reciprocal effect. Thus, the characteristic upregulation of miR-146a in LPS-exposed THP-1 monocytes was studied for cross-tolerance. Strikingly, in LPS-tolerized THP-1 monocytes, only miR-146a showed a continuous overexpression, suggesting its crucial role in cross-tolerance. Similarly, peptidoglycan-primed THP-1 cells showed homologous tolerance associated with miR-146a upregulation. Subsequently, interchangeable differential cross-regulation was observed among non-LPS ligands. TLR2 and TLR5 ligands showed both homologous and heterologous tolerance correlated to miR-146a overexpression. More importantly, inflammatory responses to TLR4, TLR2, and TLR5 ligands were reduced due to knockdown of miR-146a targets IL-1R-associated kinase 1 or TNFR-associated factor 6, suggesting the regulatory effect of miR-146a on these TLRs signaling. Transfection of miR-146a into THP-1 cells caused reduction of TNF-? production, mimicking LPS-induced cross-tolerance. Aside from individual ligands, a whole bacterial challenge in LPS-primed THP-1 monocytes was accompanied by less TNF-? production, which is conversely correlated to miR-146a expression. Our studies have thus demonstrated that miR-146a plays a crucial role for in vitro monocytic cell-based endotoxin-induced cross-tolerance.
Project description:This study examined the role of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) and protein kinase C (PKC) in oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL)-induced monocyte IL-1? production. In THP1 cells, Ox-LDL induced time-dependent secretory IL-1? and IRAK1 activity; IRAK4, IRAK3, and CD36 protein expression; PKC?-JNK1 phosphorylation; and AP-1 activation. IRAK1/4 siRNA and inhibitor (INH)-attenuated Ox-LDL induced secreted IL-1? and pro-IL-1? mRNA and pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? protein expression, respectively. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (NADPH oxidase INH) and N-acetylcysteine (free radical scavenger) attenuated Ox-LDL-induced reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-1 activity, and pro-IL-1? and mature IL-1? expression. Ox-LDL-induced secretory IL-1? production was abrogated in the presence of JNK INH II, Tanshinone IIa, Ro-31-8220, Go6976, Rottlerin, and PKC? siRNA. PKC? siRNA attenuated the Ox-LDL-induced increase in IRAK1 kinase activity, JNK1 phosphorylation, and AP-1 activation. In THP1 macrophages, CD36, toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, TLR6, and PKC? siRNA prevented Ox-LDL-induced PKC? and IRAK1 activation and IL-1? production. Enhanced Ox-LDL and IL-1? in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patient plasma demonstrated positive correlation with each other and with disease severity scores. Ox-LDL-containing plasma induced PKC? and IRAK1 phosphorylation and IL-1? production in a CD36-, TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR6-dependent manner in primary human monocytes. Results suggest involvement of CD36, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and the PKC?-IRAK1-JNK1-AP-1 axis in Ox-LDL-induced IL-1? production.
Project description:Markers of monocyte activation play a critical role in atherosclerosis, but little is known about the genetic influences on cellular levels. Therefore, we investigated the influence of genetic variants in monocyte differentiation antigen (CD14), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) on monocyte surface receptor levels. The study sample consisted of 1,817 members of a biracial cohort of adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid MRI Study. Monocyte receptors were measured using flow cytometry on fasting whole blood samples. TLR2 rs1816702 genotype was significantly associated with CD14+/TLR2+ percent of positive cells (%) and median fluorescence intensity (MFI) in whites but not in blacks (p < 0.001). Specifically, the presence of the minor T-allele was associated with increased receptor levels. In blacks, TLR4 rs5030719 was significantly associated with CD14+/TLR4+ monocytes (MFI) with mean ± SE intensities of 16.7 ± 0.05 and 16.0 ± 0.14 for GG and GT/TT genotypes, respectively (p < 0.001). Variants in TLR2 and TLR4 were associated with monocyte receptor levels of TLR2 and TLR4, respectively, in a biracial cohort of adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at associations between variants in the toll-like receptor family and toll-like receptor levels on monocytes.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both compounds inhibit the effects of LPS in human cells but display LPS-mimetic activity in hamster cells. We transfected human TLR4 or human TLR2 into hamster fibroblasts to determine if either of these LPS signal transducers is responsible for the species-specific pharmacology. RSLA and lipid IVa strongly induced NF-kappaB activity and IL-6 release in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts expressing CD14 (CHO/CD14), but these compounds antagonized LPS antagonists in CHO/CD14 fibroblasts that overexpressed human TLR4. No such antagonism occurred in cells overexpressing human TLR2. We cloned TLR4 from hamster macrophages and found that human THP-1 cells expressing the hamster TLR4 responded to lipid IVa as an LPS mimetic, as if they were hamster in origin. Hence, cells heterologously overexpressing TLR4 from different species acquired a pharmacological phenotype with respect to recognition of lipid A substructures that corresponded to the species from which the TLR4 transgene originated. These data suggest that TLR4 is the central lipid A-recognition protein in the LPS receptor complex.
Project description:Inflammation involves a coordinated, sequential, and self limiting sequence of events controlled by positive and negative regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), an evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, contribute to the regulation of inflammation by repressing gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, we characterize the profile of miRNAs induced by LPS in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes. In particular, we identify miR-9 as the only miRNA (among 365 analyzed) up-regulated in both cell types after TLR4 activation. miR-9 is also induced by TLR2 and TLR7/8 agonists and by the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, but not by IFNgamma. Among the 3 different genes encoding miR-9 precursors in humans, we show that LPS selectively induces the transcription of miR-9-1 located in the CROC4 locus, in a MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner. In PMN and monocytes, LPS regulates NFKB1 at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, and a conserved miR-9 seed sustained a miR-9-dependent inhibition of the NFKB1 transcript. Overall, these data suggest that TLR4-activated NF-kappaB rapidly increases the expression of miR-9 that operates a feedback control of the NF-kappaB-dependent responses by fine tuning the expression of a key member of the NF-kappaB family.
Project description:Extracellular nucleotides regulate a variety of cellular responses involved in inflammation via the activation of P2 receptors. Here, we show that nucleotides regulate TLR2-induced neutrophil migration both in vivo and in vitro. The nucleotide scavenger apyrase inhibited neutrophil recruitment in murine air pouches injected with the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4). In agreement, the supernatants of either human primary monocytes or monocytic cells (THP-1 and U937) treated with Pam(3)CSK(4) recruited significantly fewer neutrophils when the former cells were treated in the presence of apyrase. As demonstrated with inhibitory Ab, these supernatants induced neutrophil migration due to IL-8 secretion. In addition, IL-8 secretion was markedly diminished by the non-selective P2 receptor antagonists reactive blue 2 and suramin, and by a selective P2Y(6) antagonist, MRS2578. Selective antagonists of P2Y(1) (MRS2500) and P2Y(11) (NF157) did not affect IL-8 release. The knockdown of either P2Y(2) or P2Y(6) with specific shRNA diminished IL-8 secretion from Pam(3)CSK(4)-treated THP-1 cells. Altogether, these results show that extracellular nucleotides, via P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors, regulate neutrophil migration by controlling TLR2-induced IL-8 release from human monocytes. In line with our previous work on TLR4, this study further supports the importance of nucleotides in bacterial-induced neutrophil migration.