Musashi1 modulates cell proliferation genes in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Musashi1 (Msi1) is an RNA binding protein with a central role during nervous system development and stem cell maintenance. High levels of Msi1 have been reported in several malignancies including brain tumors thereby associating Msi1 and cancer. METHODS: We used the human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy as model system in this study to knock down the expression of Msi1 and determine the effects upon soft agar growth and neurophere formation. Quantitative RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Msi1 depleted Daoy cells. RESULTS: We observed that MSI1 expression was elevated in Daoy cells cultured as neurospheres compared to those grown as monolayer. These data indicated that Msi1 might be involved in regulating proliferation in cancer cells. Here we show that shRNA mediated Msi1 depletion in Daoy cells notably impaired their ability to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as neurospheres in culture. Moreover, differential expression of a group of Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathway related genes including MYCN, FOS, NOTCH2, SMO, CDKN1A, CCND2, CCND1, and DKK1, was also found in the Msi1 knockdown, demonstrating that Msi1 modulated the expression of a subset of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Daoy. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that Msi1 may promote cancer cell proliferation and survival as its loss seems to have a detrimental effect in the maintenance of medulloblastoma cancer cells. In this regard, Msi1 might be a positive regulator of tumor progression and a potential target for therapy.
Project description:Musashi1 (Msi1) is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that is required during the development of the nervous system. Msi1 has been characterized as a stem cell marker, controlling the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, and has also been implicated in tumorigenesis, being highly expressed in multiple tumor types. We analyzed Msi1 expression in a large cohort of medulloblastoma samples and found that Msi1 is highly expressed in tumor tissue compared with normal cerebellum. Notably, high Msi1 expression levels proved to be a sign of poor prognosis. Msi1 expression was determined to be particularly high in molecular subgroups 3 and 4 of medulloblastoma. We determined that Msi1 is required for tumorigenesis because inhibition of Msi1 expression by small-interfering RNAs reduced the growth of Daoy medulloblastoma cells in xenografts. To characterize the participation of Msi1 in medulloblastoma, we conducted different high-throughput analyses. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis (RIP-chip) was used to identify mRNA species preferentially associated with Msi1 protein in Daoy cells. We also used cluster analysis to identify genes with similar or opposite expression patterns to Msi1 in our medulloblastoma cohort. A network study identified RAC1, CTGF, SDCBP, SRC, PRL, and SHC1 as major nodes of an Msi1-associated network. Our results suggest that Msi1 functions as a regulator of multiple processes in medulloblastoma formation and could become an important therapeutic target.
Project description:A subset of medulloblastomas, the most common brain tumor in children, is hypothesized to originate from granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in which the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is over-activated. MXD3, a basic helix-look-helix zipper transcription factor of the MAD family, has been reported to be upregulated during postnatal cerebellar development and to promote GNP proliferation and MYCN expression. Mxd3 is upregulated in mouse models of medulloblastoma as well as in human medulloblastomas. Therefore, we hypothesize that MXD3 plays a role in the cellular events that lead to medulloblastoma biogenesis. In agreement with its proliferative role in GNPs, MXD3 knock-down in DAOY cells resulted in decreased proliferation. Sustained overexpression of MXD3 resulted in decreased cell numbers due to increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Structure-function analysis revealed that the Sin3 interacting domain, the basic domain, and binding to E-boxes are essential for this activity. Microarray-based expression analysis indicated up-regulation of 84 genes and down-regulation of 47 genes. Potential direct MXD3 target genes were identified by ChIP-chip. Our results suggest that MXD3 is necessary for DAOY medulloblastoma cell proliferation. However, increased level and/or duration of MXD3 expression ultimately reduces cell numbers via increased cell death and cell cycle arrest.
Project description:The proteome of the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line has been investigated by an LC-MS top-down platform. This approach, unlike bottom-up ones, allows identifying proteins and peptides in their intact/native forms, disclosing post-translational modifications, proteoforms and naturally occurring peptides. Indeed, 25 out of the 53 proteins identified, were not previously characterized in DAOY cells. Most of them were functionally interconnected, being mainly involved in binding, catalytic and structural activities, and metabolic processes. The top-down approach, applied in this preliminary study, disclosed the presence of several naturally occurring peptide fragments that characterize DAOY cells.
Project description:Spliceosome mutations have been reported in various types of cancer and a number of antitumor drugs have been observed to tightly bind to spliceosome components. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein?associated polypeptide N (SNRPN) is a small ribonuclear protein and is a key spliceosome constituent. However, the role of SNRPN in human medulloblastoma remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of SNRPN on cell growth was investigated in vitro using the Daoy human medulloblastoma cell line. Lentivirus (Lv)-mediated short hairpin (sh) RNA was used to silence SNRPN expression, which was verified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and colony formation assays. Knockdown of SNRPN markedly reduced the proliferation and colony formation ability of Daoy medulloblastoma cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle distribution was altered when the Daoy cells were infected with Lv?shSNRPN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of SNRPN on cell proliferation in medulloblastoma. The results indicate that SNRPN may be a potential novel target for the development of pharmacological therapeutics in human medulloblastoma.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) expression correlates with metastatic medulloblastoma. PDGF stimulation of medulloblastoma cells phosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and promotes migration. We sought to determine whether blocking PDGFR activity effectively inhibits signaling required for medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion. DAOY and D556 human medulloblastoma cells were treated with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), a PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to PDGFRB to test the effects of blocking PDGFR phosphorylation and expression, respectively. PDGFR cell signaling, migration, invasion, survival, and proliferation following PDGF-BB stimulation, with and without PDGFR inhibition, were measured. PDGF-BB treatment of cells increased PDGFRB, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, and transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which correlated with enhanced migration, survival, and proliferation. Imatinib (1 ?mol/L) treatment of DAOY and D556 cells inhibited PDGF-BB- and serum-mediated migration and invasion at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and concomitantly inhibited PDGF-BB activation of PDGFRB, Akt, and ERK but increased PTEN expression and activity. Imatinib treatment also induced DAOY cell apoptosis at 72 h and inhibited DAOY and D556 cell proliferation at 48 h. siRNA silencing of PDGFRB similarly inhibited signaling, migration, and survival and both siRNA and imatinib treatment inhibited PDGF-BB-mediated EGFR transactivation, indicating that the effects of imatinib treatment are specific to PDGFRB target inhibition. These results indicate that PDGFRB tyrosine kinase activity is critical for migration and invasion of medulloblastoma cells possibly by transactivating EGFR; thus, imatinib may represent an important novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of medulloblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) acts as a transcriptional repressor by recruiting several chromatin modifiers, including histone deacetylase (HDAC). Elevated REST expression in medulloblastoma has been associated with tumor progression nevertheless, the tumor shows high sensitivity to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). However, the functional implications of REST and its requirement for HDACi-induced anti-cancer effects are not well understood. METHODS:In this study, the expression of REST was evaluated across the medulloblastoma subgroups and subtypes using published gene expression data. Further, the expression of REST was modulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout and shRNA knockdown in the Daoy medulloblastoma cell line. RESULTS:The results of this study showed that the expression of REST is elevated in most medulloblastoma subgroups compared to the non-cancerous cerebellum. Blocking of REST expression resulted in increasing the expression of REST-regulated genes, a moderate decrease in the fraction of the cells in the S-phase, and reducing the cells' migration ability. However, REST deficiency did not lead to a marked decrease in the Daoy cell viability and sensitivity to HDACi. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study indicate that REST is not essential for sustaining the proliferation/viability of the Daoy cells. It also revealed that the anti-proliferative effect of HDACi is independent of REST expression.
Project description:Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Patient survival has remained largely the same for the past 20 years, with therapies causing significant health, cognitive, behavioral and developmental complications for those who survive the tumor. In this study, we profiled the total transcriptome and proteome of two established MB cell lines, Daoy and UW228, using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and label-free nano-LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics, coupled with advanced pathway analysis. While Daoy has been suggested to belong to the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subtype, the exact UW228 subtype is not yet clearly established. Thus, a goal of this study was to identify protein markers and pathways that would help elucidate their subtype classification. A number of differentially expressed genes and proteins, including a number of adhesion, cytoskeletal and signaling molecules, were observed between the two cell lines. While several cancer-associated genes/proteins exhibited similar expression across the two cell lines, upregulation of a number of signature proteins and enrichment of key components of SHH and WNT signaling pathways were uniquely observed in Daoy and UW228, respectively. The novel information on differentially expressed genes/proteins and enriched pathways provide insights into the biology of MB, which could help elucidate their subtype classification.
Project description:The expression of members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands is frequently dysregulated in medulloblastomas. We assessed the expression and functional role of EphB1 in medulloblastoma cell lines and engineered mouse models. mRNA and protein expression profiling showed expression of EphB1 receptor in the human medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY and UW228. EphB1 downregulation reduced cell growth and viability, decreased the expression of important cell cycle regulators, and increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle. It also modulated the expression of proliferation, and cell survival markers. In addition, EphB1 knockdown in DAOY cells resulted in significant decrease in migration, which correlated with decreased ?1-integrin expression and levels of phosphorylated Src. Furthermore, EphB1 knockdown enhanced cellular radiosensitization of medulloblastoma cells in culture and in a genetically engineered mouse medulloblastoma model. Using genetically engineered mouse models, we established that genetic loss of EphB1 resulted in a significant delay in tumor recurrence following irradiation compared to EphB1-expressing control tumors. Taken together, our findings establish that EphB1 plays a key role in medulloblastoma cell growth, viability, migration, and radiation sensitivity, making EphB1 a promising therapeutic target.
Project description:Background:Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although the 5-year survival rate is high, patients with relapsed medulloblastoma have a guarded prognosis. HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been proved to be related to the metastasis of various tumors. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of HOTAIR in medulloblastoma cells was investigated in this study. Methods:HOTAIR was stably silenced in medulloblastoma cells (Daoy and D341). Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by 5'-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, immunohistochemical (IHC), Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry, respectively. The targeted relationship between HOTAIR/Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and miR-483-3p were predicted by bioinformatics and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Balb/C nude mice were inoculated with shRNA-HOTAIR transfected Daoy cells. Results:We found that the down-regulation of HOTAIR inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Sh-RNA-HOTAIR also inhibited the expression of CKD4. The CDK4 dependent increase of cell proliferation and decrease of cell apoptosis were reversed by shRNA-HOTAIR. Finally, a xenograft model of medulloblastoma in nude mice was built, and the effect of shRNA-HOTAIR on the growth of tumors was analyzed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and TUNEL staining. The data suggested interference of HOTAIR inhibited the growth, tumor weight, cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis. Conclusions:Our study altogether demonstrated HOTAIR influence cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulation of miR-483-3p and CDK4 in medulloblastoma cells. HOTAIR can be used as a candidate for potential applications in the treatment of medulloblastoma.
Project description:This project involves an examination of the effect of the small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 on the growth of the pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma. The small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 significantly inhibits the viability of the pediatric desmoplastic cerebellar human medulloblastoma cell line DAOY, with an IC50 = 58.1 nM, but does not affect the viability of noncancerous neural stem cells (NSC). 4SC-202 exposure inhibits hedgehog expression in the DAOY cell line. Furthermore, microarray analysis of human medulloblastoma patient tumors indicate significant upregulation of key targets in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK7).