Pex17p is required for import of both peroxisome membrane and lumenal proteins and interacts with Pex19p and the peroxisome targeting signal-receptor docking complex in Pichia pastoris.
ABSTRACT: Pichia pastoris PEX17 was cloned by complementation of a peroxisome-deficient strain obtained from a novel screen for mutants disrupted in the localization of a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) reporter. PEX17 encodes a 267-amino-acid protein with low identity (18%) to the previously characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex17p. Like ScPex17p, PpPex17p contains a putative transmembrane domain near the amino terminus and two carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil regions. PpPex17p behaves as an integral PMP with a cytosolic carboxyl-terminal domain. pex17Delta mutants accumulate peroxisomal matrix proteins and certain integral PMPs in the cytosol, suggesting a critical role for Pex17p in their localization. Peroxisome remnants were observed in the pex17Delta mutant by morphological and biochemical means, suggesting that Pex17p is not absolutely required for remnant formation. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl terminus of Pex19p was required for interaction with Pex17p lacking the carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil domains. Biochemical evidence confirmed the interaction between Pex19p and Pex17p. Additionally, Pex17p cross-linked to components of the peroxisome targeting signal-receptor docking complex, which unexpectedly contained Pex3p. Our evidence suggests the existence of distinct subcomplexes that contain separable pools of Pex3p, Pex19p, Pex17p, Pex14p, and the peroxisome targeting signal receptors. These distinct pools may serve different purposes for the import of matrix proteins or PMPs.
Project description:The conserved CaaX box peroxin Pex19p is known to be modified by farnesylation. The possible involvement of this lipid modification in peroxisome biogenesis, the degree to which Pex19p is farnesylated, and its molecular function are unknown or controversial. We resolve these issues by first showing that the complete pool of Pex19p is processed by farnesyltransferase in vivo and that this modification is independent of peroxisome induction or the Pex19p membrane anchor Pex3p. Furthermore, genomic mutations of PEX19 prove that farnesylation is essential for proper matrix protein import into peroxisomes, which is supposed to be caused indirectly by a defect in peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) targeting or stability. This assumption is corroborated by the observation that mutants defective in Pex19p farnesylation are characterized by a significantly reduced steady-state concentration of prominent PMPs (Pex11p, Ant1p) but also of essential components of the peroxisomal import machinery, especially the RING peroxins, which were almost depleted from the importomer. In vivo and in vitro, PMP recognition is only efficient when Pex19p is farnesylated with affinities differing by a factor of 10 between the non-modified and wild-type forms of Pex19p. Farnesylation is likely to induce a conformational change in Pex19p. Thus, isoprenylation of Pex19p contributes to substrate membrane protein recognition for the topogenesis of PMPs, and our results highlight the importance of lipid modifications in protein-protein interactions.
Project description:Peroxisomes require peroxin (Pex) proteins for their biogenesis. The interaction between Pex3p, which resides on the peroxisomal membrane, and Pex19p, which resides in the cytosol, is crucial for peroxisome formation and the post-translational targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). It is not known how Pex3p promotes the specific interaction with Pex19p for the purpose of PMP translocation. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of the complex between a cytosolic domain of Pex3p and the binding-region peptide of Pex19p. The overall shape of Pex3p is a prolate spheroid with a novel fold, the 'twisted six-helix bundle.' The Pex19p-binding site is at an apex of the Pex3p spheroid. A 16-residue region of the Pex19p peptide forms an ?-helix and makes a contact with Pex3p; this helix is disordered in the unbound state. The Pex19p peptide contains a characteristic motif, consisting of the leucine triad (Leu18, Leu21, Leu22), and Phe29, which are critical for the Pex3p binding and peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:We report the cloning and characterization of Pichia pastoris PEX19 by complementation of a peroxisome-deficient mutant strain. Import of peroxisomal targeting signal 1- and 2-containing peroxisomal matrix proteins is defective in pex19 mutants. PEX19 encodes a hydrophilic 299-amino acid protein with sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex19p and human and Chinese hamster PxF, all farnesylated proteins, as well as hypothetical proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The farnesylation consensus is conserved in PpPex19p but dispensable for function and appears unmodified under the conditions tested. Pex19p localizes predominantly to the cytosolic fraction. Biochemical and two-hybrid analyses confirmed that Pex19p interacts with Pex3p, as seen in S. cerevisiae, but unexpectedly also with Pex10p. Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the amino-terminal 42 amino acids of Pex19p interact with the carboxyl-terminal 335 amino acids of Pex3p. In addition, the extreme carboxyl terminus of Pex19p (67 amino acids) is required for interaction with the amino-terminal 380 amino acids of Pex10p. Biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of pex19Delta cells identified the membrane protein Pex3p in peroxisome remnants that were not previously observed in S. cerevisiae. These small vesicular and tubular (early) remnants are morphologically distinct from other Pppex mutant (late) remnants, suggesting that Pex19p functions at an early stage of peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae pex17-1 mutant was isolated from a screen to identify mutants defective in peroxisome biogenesis. pex17-1 and pex17 null mutants fail to import matrix proteins into peroxisomes via both PTS1- and PTS2-dependent pathways. The PEX17 gene (formerly PAS9; Albertini, M., P. Rehling, R. Erdmann, W. Girzalsky, J.A.K.W. Kiel, M. Veenhuis, and W.-H Kunau. 1997. Cell. 89:83-92) encodes a polypeptide of 199 amino acids with one predicted membrane spanning region and two putative coiled-coil structures. However, localization studies demonstrate that Pex17p is a peripheral membrane protein located at the surface of peroxisomes. Particulate structures containing the peroxisomal integral membrane proteins Pex3p and Pex11p are evident in pex17 mutant cells, indicating the existence of peroxisomal remnants ("ghosts"). This finding suggests that pex17 null mutant cells are not impaired in peroxisomal membrane biogenesis. Two-hybrid studies showed that Pex17p directly binds to Pex14p, the recently proposed point of convergence for the two peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS)-dependent import pathways, and indirectly to Pex5p, the PTS1 receptor. The latter interaction requires Pex14p, indicating the potential of these three peroxins to form a trimeric complex. This conclusion is supported by immunoprecipitation experiments showing that Pex14p and Pex17p coprecipitate with both PTS receptors in the absence of Pex13p. From these and other studies we conclude that Pex17p, in addition to Pex13p and Pex14p, is the third identified component of the peroxisomal translocation machinery.
Project description:Two distinct pathways have recently been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs): a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex3p-independent class II pathway. We show here that Pex19p plays an essential role as the chaperone for full-length Pex3p in the cytosol. Pex19p forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Knockdown of Pex19p inhibits peroxisomal targeting of newly synthesized full-length Pex3p and results in failure of the peroxisomal localization of Pex3p. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pex16p functions as the Pex3p-docking site and serves as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. Based on these novel findings, we suggest a model for the import of PMPs that provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p.
Project description:Several yeast and mammalian peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are delivered to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescence microscopy showed a focused assembly of PMPs in a specialized domain of the ER, referred to as the preperoxisomal ER. It is proposed that preperoxisomal vesicles containing PMPs bud from this domain to either fuse with preexisting peroxisomes or to mature into functional peroxisomes by uptake of peroxisomal membrane and matrix proteins. However, such vesicular entities are not identified nor are the biochemical requirements for the budding process known. We developed an in vitro cell-free ER-budding assay using Pichia pastoris and followed two endogenous PMPs, Pex11p and Pex3p during their ER exit. Both the PMPs were copackaged in the ER-budded vesicles that float on a Nycodenz gradient. PMP budding from the ER was dependent on ATP, temperature, cytosol, and Pex19p and generated preperoxisomal vesicles with an incomplete complement of PMPs. Surprisingly, Pex11p budding was independent of Pex3p; however, the budded vesicles were devoid of most of the PMPs otherwise present in the wild-type vesicles and might represent peroxisomal remnants. Our findings provide a biochemical platform to uncover the mechanism of PMP budding from the ER.
Project description:We show that a comprehensive set of 16 peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) encompassing all types of membrane topologies first target to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These PMPs insert into the ER membrane via the protein import complexes Sec61p and Get3p (for tail-anchored proteins). This trafficking pathway is representative for multiplying wild-type cells in which the peroxisome population needs to be maintained, as well as for mutant cells lacking peroxisomes in which new peroxisomes form after complementation with the wild-type version of the mutant gene. PMPs leave the ER in a Pex3p-Pex19p-dependent manner to end up in metabolically active peroxisomes. These results further extend the new concept that peroxisomes derive their basic framework (membrane and membrane proteins) from the ER and imply a new functional role for Pex3p and Pex19p.
Project description:Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic to peroxisomes by two mechanisms: direct insertion from the cytosol into the peroxisomal membrane and indirect trafficking to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammals and yeast, several PMPs traffic via the ER in a Pex3- and Pex19-dependent manner. In Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) specifically, the indirect traffic of Pex2, but not of Pex11 or Pex17, depends on Pex3, but all PMPs tested for indirect trafficking require Pex19. In mammals, the indirect traffic of PMPs also requires PEX16, a protein that is absent in most yeast species. In this study, we isolated PEX36, a new gene in K. phaffii, which encodes a PMP. Pex36 is required for cell growth in conditions that require peroxisomes for the metabolism of certain carbon sources. This growth defect in cells lacking Pex36 can be rescued by the expression of human PEX16, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex34, or by overexpression of the endogenous K. phaffii Pex25. Pex36 is not an essential protein for peroxisome proliferation, but in the absence of the functionally redundant protein, Pex25, it becomes essential and less than 20% of these cells show import-incompetent, peroxisome-like structures (peroxisome remnants). In the absence of both proteins, peroxisome biogenesis and the intra-ER sorting of Pex2 and Pex11C are seriously impaired, likely by affecting Pex3 and Pex19 function.
Project description:Pex19p, a soluble cytoplasmic transport protein, is required for the traffic of the peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex3p and Pex15p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome. We documented Pex15p traffic from the ER using a chimeric protein containing a C-terminal glycosylation acceptor peptide. Pex15Gp expressed in wild-type yeast cells is N-glycosylated and functions properly in the peroxisome. In contrast, pex19?-mutant cells accumulate the glycoprotein Pex15Gp in the ER. We developed a cell-free preperoxisomal vesicle-budding reaction in which Pex15Gp and Pex3p are packaged into small vesicles in the presence of cytosol, Pex19p, and ATP. Secretory vesicle budding (COPII) detected by the packaging of a SNARE protein (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment protein receptor) occurs in the same incubation but does not depend on Pex19p. Conversely a dominant GTPase mutant Sar1p which inhibits COPII has no effect on Pex3p packaging. Pex15Gp and Pex3p budded vesicles sediment as low-buoyant-density membranes on a Nycodenz gradient and copurify by affinity isolation using native but not Triton X-100-treated budded vesicles. ER-peroxisome transport vesicles appear to rely on a novel budding mechanism requiring Pex19p and additional unknown factors.
Project description:We report the identification and molecular characterization of Pex19p, an oleic acid-inducible, farnesylated protein of 39.7 kDa that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells lacking Pex19p are characterized by the absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes and mislocalization of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol. The human HK33 gene product was identified as the putative human ortholog of Pex19p. Evidence is provided that farnesylation of Pex19p takes place at the cysteine of the C-terminal CKQQ amino acid sequence. Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p.