The potential of desferrioxamine-gallium as an anti-Pseudomonas therapeutic agent.
ABSTRACT: The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This bacterium can cause biofilm infections where it shows tolerance to antibiotics. Here we report the novel use of a metallo-complex, desferrioxamine-gallium (DFO-Ga) that targets P. aeruginosa iron metabolism. This complex kills free-living bacteria and blocks biofilm formation. A combination of DFO-Ga and the anti-Pseudomonas antibiotic gentamicin caused massive killing of P. aeruginosa cells in mature biofilms. In a P. aeruginosa rabbit corneal infection, topical administration of DFO-Ga together with gentamicin decreased both infiltrate and final scar size by about 50% compared to topical application of gentamicin alone. The use of DFO-Ga as a Trojan horse delivery system that interferes with iron metabolism shows promise as a treatment for P. aeruginosa infections.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>With the increase of especially hospital-acquired infections, timely and accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections is crucial for effective patient care. Molecular imaging has the potential for specific and sensitive detection of infections. Siderophores are iron-specific chelators recognized by specific bacterial transporters, representing one of few fundamental differences between bacterial and mammalian cells. Replacing iron by gallium-68 without loss of bioactivity is possible allowing molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we report on the preclinical evaluation of the clinically used siderophore, desferrioxamine-B (Desferal®, DFO-B), radiolabelled with <sup>68</sup>Ga for imaging of bacterial infections.<h4>Methods</h4>In vitro characterization of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B included partition coefficient, protein binding and stability determination. Specific uptake of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B was tested in vitro in different microbial cultures. In vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice and dosimetric estimation for human setting performed. PET/CT imaging was carried out in animal infection models, representing the most common pathogens.<h4>Results</h4>DFO-B was labelled with <sup>68</sup>Ga with high radiochemical purity and displayed hydrophilic properties, low protein binding and high stability in human serum and PBS. The high in vitro uptake of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B in selected strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae could be blocked with an excess of iron-DFO-B. [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B showed rapid renal excretion and minimal retention in blood and other organs in healthy mice. Estimated human absorbed dose was 0.02 mSv/MBq. PET/CT images of animal infection models displayed high and specific accumulation of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B in both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus infections with excellent image contrast. No uptake was found in sterile inflammation, heat-inactivated P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and Escherichia coli lacking DFO-B transporters.<h4>Conclusion</h4>DFO-B can be easily radiolabelled with <sup>68</sup>Ga and displayed suitable in vitro characteristics and excellent pharmacokinetics in mice. The high and specific uptake of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo, proving the potential of [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B for specific imaging of bacterial infections. As DFO-B is used in clinic for many years and the estimated radiation dose is lower than for other <sup>68</sup>Ga-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, we believe that [<sup>68</sup>Ga]Ga-DFO-B has a great potential for clinical translation.
Project description:Biofilms consist of groups of bacteria attached to surfaces and encased in a hydrated polymeric matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are more resistant to the immune system and to antibiotics than their free-living planktonic counterparts. Thus, biofilm-related infections are persistent and often show recurrent symptoms. The metal chelator EDTA is known to have activity against biofilms of gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. EDTA can also kill planktonic cells of Proteobacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study we demonstrate that EDTA is a potent P. aeruginosa biofilm disrupter. In Tris buffer, EDTA treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms results in 1,000-fold greater killing than treatment with the P. aeruginosa antibiotic gentamicin. Furthermore, a combination of EDTA and gentamicin results in complete killing of biofilm cells. P. aeruginosa biofilms can form structured mushroom-like entities when grown under flow on a glass surface. Time lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that EDTA causes a dispersal of P. aeruginosa cells from biofilms and killing of biofilm cells within the mushroom-like structures. An examination of the influence of several divalent cations on the antibiofilm activity of EDTA indicates that magnesium, calcium, and iron protect P. aeruginosa biofilms against EDTA treatment. Our results are consistent with a mechanism whereby EDTA causes detachment and killing of biofilm cells.
Project description:Traditional antibiotic therapy to control medical device-based infections typically fails to clear biofilm infections and may even promote the evolution of antibiotic resistant species. We report here the development of two novel antibiofilm agents; gallium (Ga) or zinc (Zn) complexed with protoporphyrin IX (PP) or mesoprotoporphyrin IX (MP) that are both highly effective in negating suspended bacterial growth and biofilm formation. These chelated gallium or zinc complexes act as iron siderophore analogs, supplanting the natural iron uptake of most bacteria. Poly (ether urethane) (PEU; Biospan®) polymer films were fabricated for the controlled sustained release of the Ga- or Zn-complexes, using an incorporated pore-forming agent, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). An optimum formulation containing 8% PEG (MW=1450) in the PEU polymer effectively sustained drug release for at least 3months. All drug-loaded PEU films exhibited in vitro ? 90% reduction of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria in both suspended and biofilm culture versus the negative control PEU films releasing nothing. Cytotoxicity and endotoxin evaluation demonstrated no adverse responses to the Ga- or Zn-complex releasing PEU films. Finally, in vivo studies further substantiate the anti-biofilm efficacy of the PEU films releasing Ga- or Zn- complexes.
Project description:Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260??g/ml. It's antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110??g/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis.
Project description:The dispersal phase that completes the biofilm lifecycle is of particular interest for its potential to remove recalcitrant, antimicrobial tolerant biofilm infections. Here we found that temperature is a cue for biofilm dispersal and a rise by 5?°C or more can induce the detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Temperature upshifts were found to decrease biofilm biomass and increase the number of viable freely suspended cells. The dispersal response appeared to involve the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP, which is central to a genetic network governing motile to sessile transitions in bacteria. Furthermore, we used poly((oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate)-block-poly(monoacryloxy ethyl phosphate)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (POEGA-b-PMAEP@IONPs) to induce local hyperthermia in established biofilms upon exposure to a magnetic field. POEGA-b-PMAEP@IONPs were non-toxic to bacteria and when heated induced the detachment of biofilm cells. Finally, combined treatments of POEGA-b-PMAEP@IONPs and the antibiotic gentamicin reduced by 2-log the number of colony-forming units in both biofilm and planktonic phases after 20?min, which represent a 3.2- and 4.1-fold increase in the efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cells, respectively, compared to gentamicin alone. The use of iron oxide nanoparticles to disperse biofilms may find broad applications across a range of clinical and industrial settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacteria within a biofilm are phenotypically more resistant to antibiotics, desiccation, and the host immune system, making it an important virulence factor for many microbes. Cranberry juice has long been used to prevent infections of the urinary tract, which are often related to biofilm formation. Recent studies have found that the A-type proanthocyanidins from cranberries have anti-biofilm properties against Escherichia coli. METHODS: Using crystal violet biofilm staining, resazurin metabolism assays, and confocal imaging, we examined the ability of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) to disrupt the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the proteomic effects of PAC treatment. We also performed synergy assays and in vitro and in vivo infections to determine whether PACs, alone and in combination with gentamicin, could contribute to the killing of P. aeruginosa and the survival of cell lines and G. mellonella. RESULTS: Cranberry PACs reduced P. aeruginosa swarming motility. Cranberry PACs significantly disrupted the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Proteomics analysis revealed significantly different proteins expressed following PAC treatment. In addition, we found that PACs potentiated the antibiotic activity of gentamicin in an in vivo model of infection using G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that A-type proanthocyanidins may be a useful therapeutic against the biofilm-mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa and should be further tested.
Project description:Gram-negative (GN) rods cause about 10% periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and represent an increasing challenge due to emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most common cause of GN-PJI and ciprofloxacin is the first-line antibiotic. Due to emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance, we evaluated in vitro the activity of fosfomycin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, alone and in combinations, against E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Conventional microbiological tests and isothermal microcalorimetry were applied to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of the selected antibiotics against standard laboratory strains as well as clinical strains isolated from patients with prosthetic joint associated infections. The biofilm susceptibility to each antibiotic varied widely among strains, while fosfomycin presented a poor anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa. Synergism of two-pair antibiotic combinations was observed against different clinical strains from both species. Highest synergism was found for the fosfomycin/gentamicin combination against the biofilm of E. coli strains (75%), including a gentamicin-resistant but fosfomycin-susceptible strain, whereas the gentamicin/ciprofloxacin combination presented synergism with higher frequency against the biofilm of P. aeruginosa strains (71.4%). A hypothetical bacteriolysis effect of gentamicin could explain why combinations with this antibiotic seem to be particularly effective. Still, the underlying mechanism of the synergistic effect on biofilms is unknown. In conclusion, combinatorial antibiotic application has shown to be more effective against biofilms compared to monotherapy. Further in vivo and clinical studies are essential to define the potential treatment regimen based on our results.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an increasingly prevalent opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of life-threatening nosocomial infections. Novel strategies for the development of new antibacterial treatments as well as diagnostic tools are needed. One of the novel diagnostic strategies for the detection of infection could be the utilization of siderophores. Siderophores are low-molecular-weight chelators produced by microbes to scavenge essential iron. Replacing iron in siderophores by suitable radiometals, such as Ga-68 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, opens approaches for targeted imaging of infection. Here we report on pyoverdine PAO1 (PVD-PAO1), a siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa, labelled with Ga-68 for specific imaging of Pseudomonas infections. PVD-PAO1 was labelled with Ga-68 with high radiochemical purity. The resulting complex showed hydrophilic properties, low protein binding and high stability in human serum. In vitro uptake of 68Ga-PVD-PAO1 was highly dependent on the type of microbial culture. In normal mice 68Ga-PVD-PAO1 showed rapid pharmacokinetics with urinary excretion. PET imaging in infected animals displayed specific accumulation of 68Ga-PVD-PAO1 in infected tissues and better distribution than clinically used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and 68Ga-citrate. Ga-68 labelled pyoverdine PAO1 seems to be a promising agent for imaging of P. aeruginosa infections by means of PET.
Project description:Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections.
Project description:Tissues are exposed to exogenous and endogenous nitrogen dioxide ((·)NO(2)), which is the terminal agent in protein tyrosine nitration. Besides iron chelation, the hydroxamic acid (HA) desferrioxamine (DFO) shows multiple functionalities including nitration inhibition. To investigate mechanisms whereby DFO affects 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, we utilized gas-phase (·)NO(2) exposures, to limit introduction of other reactive species, and a lung surface model wherein red cell membranes (RCM) were immobilized under a defined aqueous film. When RCM were exposed to ()NO(2) covered by +/- DFO: (i) DFO inhibited 3-NT formation more effectively than other HA and non-HA chelators; (ii) 3-NT inhibition occurred at very low[DFO] for prolonged times; and (iii) 3-NT formation was iron independent but inhibition required DFO present. DFO poorly reacted with (·)NO(2) compared to ascorbate, assessed via (·)NO(2) reactive absorption and aqueous-phase oxidation rates, yet limited 3-NT formation at far lower concentrations. DFO also inhibited nitration under aqueous bulk-phase conditions, and inhibited 3-NT generated by active myeloperoxidase "bound" to RCM. Per the above and kinetic analyses suggesting preferential DFO versus (·)NO(2) reaction within membranes, we conclude that DFO inhibits 3-NT formation predominantly by facile repair of the tyrosyl radical intermediate, which prevents (·)NO(2) addition, and thus nitration, and potentially influences biochemical functionalities.