Peptidyl-CCA deacylation on the ribosome promoted by induced fit and the O3'-hydroxyl group of A76 of the unacylated A-site tRNA.
ABSTRACT: The last step in ribosome-catalyzed protein synthesis is the hydrolytic release of the newly formed polypeptide from the P-site bound tRNA. Hydrolysis of the ester link of the peptidyl-tRNA is stimulated normally by the binding of release factors (RFs). However, an unacylated tRNA or just CCA binding to the ribosomal A site can also stimulate deacylation under some nonphysiological conditions. Although the sequence of events is well described by biochemical studies, the structural basis of the mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. Two new structures of the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui complexed with a peptidyl-tRNA analog in the P site and two oligonucleotide mimics of unacylated tRNA, CCA and CA, in the A site show that the binding of either CA or CCA induces a very similar conformational change in the peptidyl-transferase center as induced by aminoacyl-CCA. However, only CCA positions a water molecule appropriately to attack the carbonyl carbon of the peptidyl-tRNA and stabilizes the proper orientation of the ester link for hydrolysis. We, thus, conclude that both the ability of the O3'-hydroxyl group of the A-site A76 to position the water and the A-site CCA induced conformational change of the PTC are critical for the catalysis of the deacylation of the peptidyl-tRNA by CCA, and perhaps, an analogous mechanism is used by RFs.
Project description:Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) cleaves the ester bond between the peptide and the tRNA of peptidyl-tRNA molecules, which are produced by aborted translation, to recycle tRNA for further rounds of protein synthesis. Pth is ubiquitous in nature, and its enzymatic activity is essential for bacterial viability. We have determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Pth in complex with the tRNA CCA-acceptor-T?C domain, the enzyme-binding region of the tRNA moiety of the substrate, at 2.4 Å resolution. In combination with site-directed mutagenesis studies, the structure identified the amino acid residues involved in tRNA recognition. The structure also revealed that Pth interacts with the tRNA moiety through the backbone phosphates and riboses, and no base-specific interactions were observed, except for the interaction with the highly conserved base G53. This feature enables Pth to accept the diverse sequences of the elongator-tRNAs as substrate components. Furthermore, we propose an authentic Pth:peptidyl-tRNA complex model and a detailed mechanism for the hydrolysis reaction, based on the present crystal structure and the previous studies' results.
Project description:Protein synthesis ends when a ribosome reaches an mRNA stop codon. Release factors (RFs) decode the stop codon, hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA to release the nascent protein, and then dissociate to allow ribosome recycling. To visualize termination by RF2, we resolved a cryo-EM ensemble of E. coli 70S•RF2 structures at up to 3.3 Å in a single sample. Five structures suggest a highly dynamic termination pathway. Upon peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, the CCA end of deacyl-tRNA departs from the peptidyl transferase center. The catalytic GGQ loop of RF2 is rearranged into a long ?-hairpin that plugs the peptide tunnel, biasing a nascent protein toward the ribosome exit. Ribosomal intersubunit rotation destabilizes the catalytic RF2 domain on the 50S subunit and disassembles the central intersubunit bridge B2a, resulting in RF2 departure. Our structures visualize how local rearrangements and spontaneous inter-subunit rotation poise the newly-made protein and RF2 to dissociate in preparation for ribosome recycling.
Project description:When the ribosome encounters a stop codon, it recruits a release factor (RF) to hydrolyze the ester bond between the peptide chain and tRNA. RFs have structural motifs that recognize stop codons in the decoding center and a GGQ motif for induction of hydrolysis in the peptidyl transfer center 70?Å away. Surprisingly, free RF2 is compact, with only 20?Å between its codon-reading and GGQ motifs. Cryo-EM showed that ribosome-bound RFs have extended structures, suggesting that RFs are compact when entering the ribosome and then extend their structures upon stop codon recognition. Here we use time-resolved cryo-EM to visualize transient compact forms of RF1 and RF2 at 3.5 and 4?Å resolution, respectively, in the codon-recognizing ribosome complex on the native pathway. About 25% of complexes have RFs in the compact state at 24?ms reaction time, and within 60?ms virtually all ribosome-bound RFs are transformed to their extended forms.
Project description:During translation termination, release factor (RF) protein catalyzes a hydrolytic reaction in the large subunit peptidyl transferase center to release the finished polypeptide chain. While the mechanism of catalysis of peptide release remains obscure, important contributing factors have been identified, including conserved active-site nucleotides and a GGQ tripeptide motif in the RF. Here we describe pre-steady-state kinetic and nucleophile competition experiments to examine RF contributions to the rate and specificity of peptide release. We find that while unacylated tRNA stimulates release in a nondiscriminating manner, RF1 is very specific for water. Further analysis reveals that amino acid Q235 of the RF1 GGQ motif is critical for the observed specificity. These data lead to a model where RFs make two distinct contributions to catalysis--a relatively nonspecific activation of the catalytic center and specific selection of water as a nucleophile facilitated by Q235.
Project description:When a stop codon appears at the ribosomal A site, the class I and II release factors (RFs) terminate translation. In eukaryotes and archaea, the class I and II RFs form a heterodimeric complex, and complete the overall translation termination process in a GTP-dependent manner. However, the structural mechanism of the translation termination by the class I and II RF complex remains unresolved. In archaea, archaeal elongation factor 1 alpha (aEF1?), a carrier GTPase for tRNA, acts as a class II RF by forming a heterodimeric complex with archaeal RF1 (aRF1). We report the crystal structure of the aRF1·aEF1? complex, the first active class I and II RF complex. This structure remarkably resembles the tRNA·EF-Tu complex, suggesting that aRF1 is efficiently delivered to the ribosomal A site, by mimicking tRNA. It provides insights into the mechanism that couples GTP hydrolysis by the class II RF to stop codon recognition and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis by the class I RF. We discuss the different mechanisms by which aEF1? recognizes aRF1 and aPelota, another aRF1-related protein and molecular evolution of the three functions of aEF1?.
Project description:The 3'-peptidyl-tRNA conjugates that possess a hydrolysis-resistant ribose-3'-amide linkage instead of the natural ester linkage would represent valuable substrates for ribosomal studies. Up to date, access to these derivatives is severely limited. Here, we present a novel approach for the reliable synthesis of non-hydrolyzable 3'-peptidyl-tRNAs that contain all the respective genuine nucleoside modifications. In short, the approach is based on tRNAs from natural sources that are site-specifically cleaved within the T?C loop by using DNA enzymes to obtain defined tRNA 5'-fragments carrying the modifications. After dephosphorylation of the 2',3'-cyclophosphate moieties from these fragments, they are ligated to the respective 3'-peptidylamino-tRNA termini that were prepared following the lines of a recently reported solid-phase synthesis. By this novel concept, non-hydrolyzable 3'-peptidyl-tRNA conjugates possessing all natural nucleoside modifications are accessible in highly efficient manner.
Project description:During translation, a plethora of protein factors bind to the ribosome and regulate protein synthesis. Many of those factors are guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), proteins that catalyze the hydrolysis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) to promote conformational changes. Despite numerous studies, the function of elongation factor 4 (EF-4/LepA), a highly conserved translational GTPase, has remained elusive. Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.6-Å resolution of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome bound to EF-4 with a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog and A-, P-, and E-site tRNAs. The structure reveals the interactions of EF-4 with the A-site tRNA, including contacts between the C-terminal domain (CTD) of EF-4 and the acceptor helical stem of the tRNA. Remarkably, EF-4 induces a distortion of the A-site tRNA, allowing it to interact simultaneously with EF-4 and the decoding center of the ribosome. The structure provides insights into the tRNA-remodeling function of EF-4 on the ribosome and suggests that the displacement of the CCA-end of the A-site tRNA away from the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) is functionally significant.
Project description:Stabilization of the ribosomal complexes plays an important role in translational control. Mechanisms of ribosome stabilization have been studied in detail for initiation and elongation of eukaryotic translation, but almost nothing is known about stabilization of eukaryotic termination ribosomal complexes. Here, we present one of the mechanisms of fine-tuning of the translation termination process in eukaryotes. We show that certain deacylated tRNAs, remaining in the E site of the ribosome at the end of the elongation cycle, increase the stability of the termination and posttermination complexes. Moreover, only the part of eRF1 recognizing the stop codon is stabilized in the A site of the ribosome, and the stabilization is not dependent on the hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA. The determinants, defining this property of the tRNA, reside in the acceptor stem. It was demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis of tRNA(Val) and construction of a mini-helix structure identical to the acceptor stem of tRNA. The mechanism of this stabilization is different from the fixation of the unrotated state of the ribosome by CCA end of tRNA or by cycloheximide in the E site. Our data allow to reveal the possible functions of the isodecoder tRNAs in eukaryotes.
Project description:Atomic resolution crystal structures of the large subunit published since the middle of August 2000 prove that the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome, which is the site of peptide-bond formation, is composed entirely of RNA; the ribosome is a ribozyme. They also demonstrate that alignment of the CCA ends of ribosome-bound peptidyl tRNA and aminoacyl tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center contributes significantly to its catalytic power. Several issues remain unresolved. For example, do any components of the site enhance the rate of peptide-bond formation chemically? Do intact ribosomes make peptide bonds the same way as the isolated large subunits that have been the source of all this atomic resolution structural information?
Project description:Peptide bond formation and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis are the two elementary chemical reactions of protein synthesis catalyzed by the ribosomal peptidyl transferase ribozyme. Due to the combined effort of structural and biochemical studies, details of the peptidyl transfer reaction have become increasingly clearer. However, significantly less is known about the molecular events that lead to peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis at the termination phase of translation. Here we have applied a recently introduced experimental system, which allows the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC) to be chemically engineered by the introduction of non-natural nucleoside analogs. By this approach single functional group modifications are incorporated, thus allowing their functional contributions in the PTC to be unravelled with improved precision. We show that an intact ribose sugar at the 23S rRNA residue A2602 is crucial for efficient peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, while having no apparent functional relevance for transpeptidation. Despite the fact that all investigated active site residues are universally conserved, the removal of the complete nucleobase or the ribose 2'-hydroxyl at A2602, U2585, U2506, A2451 or C2063 has no or only marginal inhibitory effects on the overall rate of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis. These findings underscore the exceptional functional importance of the ribose moiety at A2602 for triggering peptide release.