ABSTRACT: According to an executive summary of the GINA dissemination committee report, it is now estimated that approximately 300 million people (5% of the global population or 1 in 20 persons) have asthma. Despite the scientific progress made over the past several decades toward improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, there is still a great need for improved therapies, particularly oral therapies that enhance patient compliance and that target new mechanisms of action. Adenosine is an important signalling molecule in human asthma. By acting on extracellular G-protein-coupled ARs on a number of different cell types important in the pathophysiology of human asthma, adenosine affects bronchial reactivity, inflammation and airway remodelling. Four AR subtypes (A(1), A(2a), A(2b) and A(3)) have been cloned in humans, are expressed in the lung, and are all targets for drug development for human asthma. This review summarizes what is known about these AR subtypes and their function in human asthma as well as the pros and cons of therapeutic approaches to these AR targets. A number of molecules with high affinity and high selectivity for the human AR subtypes have entered clinical trials or are poised to enter clinical trials as anti-asthma treatments. With the availability of these molecules for testing in humans, the function of ARs in human asthma, as well as the safety and efficacy of approaches to the different AR targets, can now be determined.
Project description:Adenosine receptors (ARs) comprise the P1 class of purinergic receptors and belong to the largest family of integral membrane proteins in the human genome, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). ARs are classified into four subtypes, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, which are all activated by extracellular adenosine, and play central roles in a broad range of physiological processes, including sleep regulation, angiogenesis and modulation of the immune system. ARs are potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, including sleep disorders, cancer, and dementia, which has made them important targets for structural biology. Over a decade of research and innovation has culminated with the publication of more than 30 crystal structures of the human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), making it one of the best structurally characterized GPCRs at the atomic level. In this review we analyze the structural data reported for A2AR that described for the first time the binding of mode of antagonists, including newly developed drug candidates, synthetic and endogenous agonists, sodium ions and an engineered G protein. These structures have revealed the key conformational changes induced upon agonist and G protein binding that are central to signal transduction by A2AR, and have highlighted both similarities and differences in the activation mechanism of this receptor compared to other class A GPCRs. Finally, comparison of A2AR with the recently solved structures of A1R has provided the first structural insight into the molecular determinants of ligand binding specificity in different AR subtypes.
Project description:Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes.
Project description:Adenosine receptors (ARs) have emerged as new drug targets. The majority of data on affinity/potency and selectivity of AR ligands described in the literature has been obtained for the human species. However, preclinical studies are mostly performed in mouse or rat, and standard AR agonists and antagonists are frequently used for studies in rodents without knowing their selectivity in the investigated species. In the present study, we selected a set of frequently used standard AR ligands, 8 agonists and 16 antagonists, and investigated them in radioligand binding studies at all four AR subtypes, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, of three species, human, rat, and mouse. Recommended, selective agonists include CCPA (for A1AR of rat and mouse), CGS-21680 (for A2A AR of rat), and Cl-IB-MECA (for A3AR of all three species). The functionally selective partial A2B agonist BAY60-6583 was found to additionally bind to A1 and A3AR and act as an antagonist at both receptor subtypes. The antagonists PSB-36 (A1), preladenant (A2A), and PSB-603 (A2B) displayed high selectivity in all three investigated species. MRS-1523 acts as a selective A3AR antagonist in human and rat, but is only moderately selective in mouse. The comprehensive data presented herein provide a solid basis for selecting suitable AR ligands for biological studies.
Project description:Small molecule screening libraries cover only a small fraction of the astronomical number of possible drug-like compounds, limiting the success of ligand discovery efforts. Computational screening of virtual libraries representing unexplored chemical space could potentially bridge this gap. Drug development for adenosine receptors (ARs) as targets for inflammation and cardiovascular diseases has been hampered by the paucity of agonist scaffolds. To identify novel AR agonists, a virtual library of synthetically tractable nucleosides with alternative bases was generated and structure-based virtual screening guided selection of compounds for synthesis. Pharmacological assays were carried out at three AR subtypes for 13 ribosides. Nine compounds displayed significant activity at the ARs, and several of these represented atypical agonist scaffolds. The discovered ligands also provided insights into receptor activation and revealed unknown interactions of endogenous and clinical compounds with the ARs. The results demonstrate that virtual compound databases provide access to bioactive matter from regions of chemical space that are sparsely populated in commercial libraries, an approach transferrable to numerous drug targets.
Project description:Tetrahydropyrazino-annelated theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) derivatives have previously been shown to display increased water-solubility as compared to the parent xanthines due to their basic character. In the present study, we modified this promising scaffold by replacing the 1,3-dimethyl residues by a variety of alkyl groups including combinations of different substituents in both positions. Substituted benzyl or phenethyl residues were attached to the N8 of the resulting 1,3-dialkyl-tetrahydropyrazino[2,1-f ]purinediones with the aim to obtain multi-target drugs that block human A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) and monoaminoxidase B (MAO-B). 1,3-Diethyl-substituted derivatives showed high affinity for A1 ARs, e.g., 15d (PSB-18339, 8-m-bromobenzyl-substituted) displayed a Ki value of 13.6 nM combined with high selectivity. 1-Ethyl-3-propargyl-substituted derivatives exhibited increased A2A AR affinity. The 8-phenethyl derivative 20h was selective for the A2A AR (Ki 149 nM), while the corresponding 8-benzyl-substituted compound 20e (PSB-1869) blocked A1 and A2A ARs with equal potency (Ki A1, 180 nM; A2A, 282 nM). The 1-ethyl-3-methyl-substituted derivative 16a (PSB-18405) bearing a m,p-dichlorobenzyl residue at N8 blocked all three targets, A1 ARs (Ki 396 nM), A2A ARs (Ki 1,620 nM), and MAO-B (IC50 106 nM) with high selectivity vs. the other subtypes (A2B and A3 ARs, MAO-A), and can thus be considered as a multi-target drug. Our findings were rationalized by molecular docking studies based on previously published X-ray structures of the protein targets. The new drugs have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease.
Project description:The adenosine receptors (ARs) provide an example of how to accurately predict ligand recognition, even prior to the availability of a crystallographic structure. Homology modeling has been used to gain structural insight, in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis, and structure-activity relationships of small molecular ligands. Recent X-ray structures greatly improved the accuracy of knowledge of AR ligand recognition and furthermore characterized conformational changes induced by receptor activation. Now, homology modeling extends these structural insights to related GPCRs and suggests new ligand structures. This strategy is also being applied to the eight subtypes of P2Y receptors for extracellular nucleotides, which lack X-ray structures and are best modeled by homology to the CXCR4 (peptide) receptor. Neoceptors, as studied for three of the four AR subtypes, create a molecular complementarity between a mutant receptor and a chemically tailored agonist ligand to selectively enhance affinity, implying direct physical contact and thus validating docking hypotheses.
Project description:Activation of ?-adrenergic receptors (?ARs) enhances both the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. Interestingly, previous studies reveal that coincident activation of group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors with ?ARs in the hippocampal astrocytes induces a large increase in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) accumulation and release of adenosine. Adenosine then acts on A1 adenosine receptors at neighboring excitatory Schaffer collateral terminals, which could counteract effects of activation of neuronal ?ARs on excitatory transmission. On the basis of this, we postulated that activation of the specific mGlu receptor subtype that mediates this response could inhibit ?AR-mediated effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Using novel mGlu receptor subtype-selective allosteric modulators along with knockout mice we now report that the effects of mGlu2/3 agonists on ?AR-mediated increases in cAMP accumulation are exclusively mediated by mGlu3. Furthermore, mGlu3 activation inhibits the ability of the ?AR agonist isoproterenol to enhance hippocampal LTP, and this effect is absent in slices treated with either a glial toxin or an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Finally, systemic administration of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 disrupted contextual fear memory in a manner similar to the effect of the ?AR antagonist propranolol, and this effect was reversed by the mGlu3-negative allosteric modulator VU0650786. Taken together, these data suggest that mGlu3 can influence astrocytic signaling and modulate ?AR-mediated effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function.
Project description:A new series of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (PTP) derivatives has been developed in order to explore their affinity and selectivity profile at the four adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the PTP scaffold was conjugated at the C2 position with the 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-1H-pyrazole, a group believed to confer potency and selectivity toward the human (h) A2B adenosine receptor (AR) to the xanthine ligand 8-(1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione (CVT 6975). Interestingly, the synthesized compounds turned out to be inactive at the hA2B AR but they displayed affinity at the hA3 AR in the nanomolar range. The best compound of the series (6) shows both high affinity (hA3 AR Ki = 11 nM) and selectivity (A1/A3 and A2A/A3 > 9090; A2B/A3 > 909) at the hA3 AR. To better rationalize these results, a molecular docking study on the four AR subtypes was performed for all the synthesized compounds. In addition, CTV 6975 and two close analogues have been subjected to the same molecular docking protocol to investigate the role of the 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-1H-pyrazole on the binding at the four ARs.
Project description:Adenosine receptors (ARs) play an important role in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and schizophrenia. The different subtypes of ARs and the knowledge on their densities and status are important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diseases and for developing new therapeutics. Looking for new scaffolds for selective AR ligands, coumarin-chalcone hybrids were synthesized (compounds 1-8) and screened in radioligand binding (hA1, hA2A and hA3) and adenylyl cyclase (hA2B) assays in order to evaluate their affinity for the four human AR subtypes (hARs). Coumarin-chalcone hybrid has been established as a new scaffold suitable for the development of potent and selective ligands for hA1 or hA3 subtypes. In general, hydroxy-substituted hybrids showed some affinity for the hA1, while the methoxy counterparts were selective for the hA3. The most potent hA1 ligand was compound 7 (Ki = 17.7 µM), whereas compound 4 was the most potent ligand for hA3 (Ki = 2.49 µM). In addition, docking studies with hA1 and hA3 homology models were established to analyze the structure-function relationships. Results showed that the different residues located on the protein binding pocket could play an important role in ligand selectivity.
Project description:The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was established in 1993 by the World Health Organization and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute to develop a global strategy for managing and preventing asthma. GINA reports, now funded independently through the sale of GINA products, have provided the foundation for many national guidelines. They are prepared by international experts from primary, secondary and tertiary care, and are annually updated following a review of evidence. In 2014, a major revision of the GINA report was published, that took into account advances in evidence not only about asthma and its treatment, but also about how to improve implementation of evidence-based recommendations in clinical practice. This paper summarises key changes relevant to primary care in the new GINA report. A noticeable difference is the report's radically different approach, now clinically-focussed, with multiple practical tools and flow charts to improve its utility for busy frontline clinicians. Key changes in recommendations include a new, diagnosis-centred definition of asthma; more detail about how to assess current symptom control and future risk; a comprehensive approach to tailoring treatment for individual patients; expanded indications for commencing inhaled corticosteroids; new recommendations for written asthma action plans; a new chapter on diagnosis and initial treatment of patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome; and a revised approach to diagnosing asthma in preschool children. The 2014 GINA report (further updated in 2015) moved away from a 'textbook' approach to provide clinicians with up-to-date evidence about strategies to control symptoms and minimise asthma risk, in a practical, practice-centred format.