Association between the Igk and Igh immunoglobulin loci mediated by the 3' Igk enhancer induces 'decontraction' of the Igh locus in pre-B cells.
ABSTRACT: Variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) recombination at loci encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and immunoglobulin light chain (Igk) takes place sequentially during successive stages in B cell development. Using three-dimensional DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, here we identify a lineage-specific and stage-specific interchromosomal association between these two loci that marks the transition between Igh and Igk recombination. Colocalization occurred between pericentromerically located alleles in pre-B cells and was mediated by the 3' Igk enhancer. Deletion of this regulatory element prevented association of the Igh and Igk loci, inhibited pericentromeric recruitment and locus 'decontraction' of an Igh allele, and resulted in greater distal rearrangement of the gene encoding the variable heavy-chain region. Our data indicate involvement of the Igk locus and its 3' enhancer in directing the Igh locus to a repressive nuclear subcompartment and inducing the Igh locus to decontract.
Project description:V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (IgH) and light chain genes occurs sequentially in the pro- and pre-B cells. To identify cis-elements that dictate this order of rearrangement, we replaced the endogenous matrix attachment region/Igk intronic enhancer (MiE(kappa)) with its heavy chain counterpart (Emu) in mice. This replacement, denoted EmuR, substantially increases the accessibility of both V(kappa) and J(kappa) loci to V(D)J recombinase in pro-B cells and induces Igk rearrangement in these cells. However, EmuR does not support Igk rearrangement in pre-B cells. Similar to that in MiE(kappa)(-/-) pre-B cells, the accessibility of V(kappa) segments to V(D)J recombinase is considerably reduced in EmuR pre-B cells when compared with wild-type pre-B cells. Therefore, Emu and MiE(kappa) play developmental stage-specific roles in maintaining the sequential rearrangement of IgH and Igk loci by promoting the accessibility of V, D, and J loci to the V(D)J recombinase.
Project description:Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes ensures the expression of a single antibody molecule in B cells through mostly unknown mechanisms. Large-scale contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus facilitates rearrangements between Igh variable (V(H)) and diversity gene segments in pro-B cells. Here we show that these long-range interactions are mediated by 'looping' of individual Igh subdomains. The Igk locus also underwent contraction by looping in small pre-B and immature B cells, demonstrating that immunoglobulin loci are in a contracted state in rearranging cells. Successful Igh recombination induced the rapid reversal of locus contraction in response to pre-B cell receptor signaling, which physically separated the distal V(H) genes from the proximal Igh domain, thus preventing further rearrangements. In the absence of locus contraction, only the four most proximal V(H) genes escaped allelic exclusion in immature mu-transgenic B lymphocytes. Pre-B cell receptor signaling also led to rapid repositioning of one Igh allele to repressive centromeric domains in response to downregulation of interleukin 7 signaling. These data link both locus 'decontraction' and centromeric recruitment to the establishment of allelic exclusion at the Igh locus.
Project description:During B lymphopoiesis, recombination of the locus encoding the immunoglobulin ?-chain complex (Igk) requires expression of the precursor to the B cell antigen receptor (pre-BCR) and escape from signaling via the interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R). By activating the transcription factor STAT5, IL-7R signaling maintains proliferation and represses Igk germline transcription by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that a STAT5 tetramer bound the Igk intronic enhancer (E(?i)), which led to recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2. Ezh2 marked trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27 (H3K27me3) throughout the ?-chain joining region (J(?)) to the ?-chain constant region (C(?)). In the absence of Ezh2, IL-7 failed to repress Igk germline transcription. H3K27me3 modifications were lost after termination of IL-7R-STAT5 signaling, and the transcription factor E2A bound E(?i), which resulted in acquisition of H3K4me1 and acetylated histone H4 (H4Ac). Genome-wide analyses showed a STAT5 tetrameric binding motif associated with transcriptional repression. Our data demonstrate how IL-7R signaling represses Igk germline transcription and provide a general model for STAT5-mediated epigenetic transcriptional repression.
Project description:Germline variation at immunoglobulin (IG) loci is critical for pathogen-mediated immunity, but establishing complete haplotype sequences in these regions has been problematic because of complex sequence architecture and diploid source DNA. We sequenced BAC clones from the effectively haploid human hydatidiform mole cell line, CHM1htert, across the light chain IG loci, kappa (IGK) and lambda (IGL), creating single haplotype representations of these regions. The IGL haplotype generated here is 1.25 Mb of contiguous sequence, including four novel IGLV alleles, one novel IGLC allele, and an 11.9-kb insertion. The CH17 IGK haplotype consists of two 644 kb proximal and 466 kb distal contigs separated by a large gap of unknown size; these assemblies added 49 kb of unique sequence extending into this gap. Our analysis also resulted in the characterization of seven novel IGKV alleles and a 16.7-kb region exhibiting signatures of interlocus sequence exchange between distal and proximal IGKV gene clusters. Genetic diversity in IGK/IGL was compared with that of the IG heavy chain (IGH) locus within the same haploid genome, revealing threefold (IGK) and sixfold (IGL) higher diversity in the IGH locus, potentially associated with increased levels of segmental duplication and the telomeric location of IGH.
Project description:DNA lesions inflicted by activation-induced deaminase (AID) instrumentally initiate the processes reshaping immunoglobulin genes in mature B-cells, from local somatic hypermutation (SHM) to junctions of distant breaks during class switch recombination (CSR). It remains incompletely understood how these divergent outcomes of AID attacks are differentially and temporally focused, with CSR strictly occurring in the Ig heavy chain (IgH) locus while SHM concentrates on rearranged V(D)J regions in the IgH and Ig light chain loci. In the IgH locus, disruption of either the 3'Regulatory Region (3'RR) super-enhancer or of switch (S) regions preceding constant genes, profoundly affects CSR. Reciprocally, we now examined if these elements are sufficient to induce CSR in a synthetic locus based on the Ig? locus backbone. Addition of a surrogate "core 3'RR" (c3'RR) and of a pair of transcribed and spliced Switch regions, together with a reporter system for "?-CSR" yielded a switchable Ig? locus. While the c3'RR stimulated SHM at S regions, it also lowered the local SHM threshold necessary for switch recombination to occur. The 3'RR thus both helps recruit AID to initiate DNA lesions, but then also promotes their resolution through long-distance synapses and recombination following double-strand breaks.
Project description:Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) alleles have ambivalent relationships: they feature both allelic exclusion, ensuring monoallelic expression of a single immunoglobulin (Ig) allele, and frequent inter-allelic class-switch recombination (CSR) reassembling genes from both alleles. The IgH locus 3' regulatory region (3'RR) includes several transcriptional cis-enhancers promoting activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM) and CSR, and altogether behaves as a strong super-enhancer. It can also promote deregulated expression of translocated oncogenes during lymphomagenesis. Besides these rare, illegitimate and pathogenic interactions, we now show that under physiological conditions, the 3'RR super-enhancer supports not only legitimate cis- , but also trans-recruitment of AID, contributing to IgH inter-allelic proximity and enabling the super-enhancer on one allele to stimulate biallelic SHM and CSR. Such inter-allelic activating interactions define transvection, a phenomenon well-known in drosophila but rarely observed in mammalian cells, now appearing as a unique feature of the IgH 3'RR super-enhancer.
Project description:During B cell development the precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) checkpoint is thought to increase immunoglobulin k light chain (Igk) locus accessibility to the V(D)J recombinase. Accordingly, pre-B cells lacking the pre-BCR signaling molecules Btk or Slp65 showed reduced germline Vk transcription. To investigate whether pre-BCR signaling modulates Vk accessibility through enhancer-mediated Igk locus topology, we performed chromosome conformation capture and sequencing analyses. These revealed that already in pro-B cells the k enhancers robustly interact with the ~3.2 Mb Vk region and its flanking sequences. Analyses in wild-type, Btk and Slp65 single and double-deficient pre-B cells demonstrated that pre-BCR signaling reduces interactions of both enhancers with Igk locus flanking sequences and increases interactions of the 3â??k enhancer with Vk genes. Remarkably, pre-BCR signaling does not significantly affect interactions between the intronic enhancer and Vk genes, which are already robust in pro-B cells. Both enhancers interact most frequently with highly used Vk genes, which are often marked by transcription factor E2a. We conclude that the k enhancers interact with the Vk region already in pro-B cells and that pre-BCR signaling induces accessibility through a functional redistribution of long-range chromatin interactions within the Vk region, whereby the two enhancers play distinct roles. We performed genome-wide expression profiling of FACS-purified B220+CD19+ pre-B cell fractions from wild-type (WT), Btk and Slp65 single and double deficient VH81x transgenic Rag1-/- mice (n=4 of each genotype). In these experiments non-VH81x transgenic Rag1-/- pro-B cells served as controls (n=3).
Project description:Multiple myeloma can be classified into hyperdiploid (HRD) (with 48-74 chromosomes) and non-hyperdiploid tumors (usually with immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations). The OH-2 human myeloma cell line (HMCL) retains the same HRD genotype as the primary tumor, with extra copies of chromosomes 3, 7, 15, 19, and 21. Both OH-2 and primary cells have a complex secondary translocation in which the IGK 3' enhancer is inserted between MYC and MAFB, resulting in dysregulation of both oncogenes. OH-2 provides a unique example of an HMCL and the corresponding primary tumor that are shown to share the same HRD genotype.
Project description:Functional antigen receptor genes are assembled by somatic rearrangements that are largely lymphocyte lineage specific. The immunoglobulin heavy chain (<i>IgH</i>) gene locus is unique amongst the seven antigen receptor loci in undergoing partial gene rearrangements in the wrong lineage. Here we demonstrate that breakdown of lineage-specificity is associated with inappropriate activation of the E? enhancer during T cell development by a different constellation of transcription factors than those used in developing B cells. This is reflected in reduced enhancer-induced epigenetic changes, eRNAs, formation of the RAG1/2-rich recombination center, attenuated chromatin looping and markedly different utilization of D<sub>H</sub> gene segments in CD4<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> (DP) thymocytes. Additionally, CTCF-dependent V<sub>H</sub> locus compaction is disrupted in DP cells despite comparable transcription factor binding in both lineages. These observations identify multiple mechanisms that contribute to lineage-specific antigen receptor gene assembly.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus possesses two parallel IgH isoloci (IGH-A and IGH-B), that are related to the genomic duplication event in the family Salmonidae. These duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms of genome diversity and genome evolution of the IgH loci in vertebrates. In this study, we defined the structure of these loci in Atlantic salmon, and sequenced 24 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that were assembled into the IGH-A (1.1 Mb) and IGH-B (0.9 Mb) loci. In addition, over 7,000 cDNA clones from the IgH variable (VH) region have been sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS: The present study shows that the genomic organization of the duplicated IgH loci in Atlantic salmon differs from that in other teleosts and other vertebrates. The loci possess multiple C? genes upstream of the C? region, with three of the C? genes being functional. Moreover, the duplicated loci possess over 300 VH segments which could be classified into 18 families. This is the largest number of VH families currently defined in any vertebrate. There were significant structural differences between the two loci, indicating that both IGH-A and -B loci have evolved independently in the short time after the recent genome duplication approximately 60 mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the duplication of the IgH loci in Atlantic salmon significantly contributes to the increased diversity of the antibody repertoire, as compared with the single IgH locus in other vertebrates.