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Proteinase-activated receptor-2: two potential inflammatory mediators of the gastrointestinal tract in Atlantic salmon.

ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM) show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC2584024 | BioStudies | 2008-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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