Proteinase-activated receptor-2: two potential inflammatory mediators of the gastrointestinal tract in Atlantic salmon.
ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM) show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.
Project description:Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM) in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE). In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM), a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU), Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV). Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.
Project description:Single cell proteins, such as Candida utilis, are known to have immunomodulating effects in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, whereas soybean meal (SBM) can cause soybean meal induce enteritis (SBMIE). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma protein profile of Atlantic salmon. These changes can be helpful tools in diagnosis for fish diseases and indicators for fish health. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed C. utilis yeast, SBM, or combined diets. Fish meal (FM) based diet was used as a control diet and the six experimental diets were: FM diet with 200 g/kg C. utilis (FM200CU) and five diets containing 200 g/kg SBM together with 0 (SBM group), 25, 50, 100 or 200 g/kg C. utilis (SBM25CU, SBM50CU, SBM100CU and SBM200CU groups, respectively). Intestine morphology of fish fed FM200CU where not affected whereas SBM group presented changes characteristic of SBMIE. Low inclusion of C. utilis in SBM diet showed a modulation of immune cell populations, but did not alleviate inflammatory symptom.
Project description:Microbial ingredients such as Candida utilis yeast are known to be functional protein sources with immunomodulating effects whereas soybean meal causes soybean meal-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma proteome profile of Atlantic salmon. These deviations can be helpful indicators for fish health and, therefore potential tools in the diagnosis of fish diseases. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed inactive dry Candida utilis yeast biomass, soybean meal, or combination of soybean meal based diet with various inclusion levels of Candida utilis. A fishmeal based diet was used as control diet. Inclusion of Candida utilis yeast to a fishmeal based diet did not alter the morphology, immune cell population or gene expression of the distal intestine. Lower levels of Candida utilis combined with soybean meal modulated immune cell populations in the distal intestine and reduced the severity of soybean meal-induced enteritis, while higher inclusion levels of Candida utilis were less effective. Changes in the plasma proteomic profile revealed differences between the diets but did not indicate any specific proteins that could be a marker for health or disease. The results suggest that Candida utilis does not alter intestinal morphology or induce major changes in plasma proteome, and thus could be a high-quality alternative protein source with potential functional properties in diets for Atlantic salmon.
Project description:Atlantic salmon was fed with diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soyabean saponins. Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed and horsebean produced minor effects while combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes in the distal intestine. Overall design: Microarray analyses were perfromed in distant intestine. Individual samples from fish that received saponing were hybridized to pools from salmon fed with the same feeds without saponins.
Project description:The potential for alternative plant protein sources to replace limited marine ingredients in fish feeds is important for the future of the fish farming industry. However, plant ingredients in fish feeds contain antinutritional factors (ANFs) that can promote gut inflammation (enteritis) and compromise fish health. It is unknown whether enteritis induced by plant materials with notable differences in secondary metabolism is characterised by common or distinct gene expression patterns, and how using feeds with single vs mixed plant proteins may affect the gut transcriptome and fish performance. We used Atlantic salmon parr to investigate the transcriptome responses of distal gut to varying dietary levels (0-45%) of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and faba bean (Vicia faba) protein concentrate (BPC) following an 8-week feeding trial. Soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) were used as positive and negative controls for enteritis, respectively. Gene expression profiling was performed using a microarray platform developed and validated for Atlantic salmon.Different plant protein materials (SPC, BPC and SBM) generated substantially different gut gene expression profiles, with relatively few transcriptomic alterations (genes, pathways and GO terms) common for all plant proteins used. When SPC and BPC were simultaneously included in the diet, they induced less extensive alterations of gut transcriptome than diets with either SPC or BPC singly, probably due to reduced levels of individual ANFs. The mixed plant protein diets were also associated with improved body composition of fish relative to the single plant protein diets, which may provide evidence for a link between the magnitude of changes in gut transcriptome and whole-animal performance.Our results indicate that gut transcriptomic profiling provides a useful tool for testing the applicability of alternative protein sources for aquaculture feeds and designing diets with reduced impact of ANFs on fish health. Ultimately, understanding diet-gut interactions and intestinal homeostasis in farmed fish is important to maximise performance and to ensure that aquaculture continues to be a sustainable source of food for a growing world population.
Project description:Atlantic salmon was fed with diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soyabean saponins. Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed and horsebean produced minor effects while combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes in the distal intestine. Microarray analyses were perfromed in distant intestine. Individual samples from fish that received saponing were hybridized to pools from salmon fed with the same feeds without saponins.
Project description:Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.
Project description:Gene expression was studied in Atlantic cod fed two different diets, fish meal (FM) and dehulled and extracted soybean meal (SBM). RNA was isolated from the distal part of the mid-intestine of Atlantic cod and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to screen for genes that showed changes in expression in response to the two dietary treatments. We made a cDNA subtracted library, isolated and sequenced 192 clones. Identification of 157 clones was predicted by BLAST. Most of the clones were previously unidentified in cod. Expression of 12 selected clones was further studied by quantitative PCR. Expression of four clones showing similarity to aminopeptidase N, transcobalamin I precursor, cytochrome P450 3A40, and ras-related nuclear protein was significantly up regulated in intestine of cod fed SBM compared to cod fed FM. A trend towards up regulation of a clone with similarity to fatty acid binding protein in SBM-fed cod was also observed. No significant differences in expression were observed for: transmembrane 4 superfamily protein member, polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin 4, SEC61, F-BOX, and 14-3-3.
Project description:Identifying genes that show differential expression by comparing Atlantic salmon fed with different diets to the negative control group (FM). Comparing gene expression of the distal intestine from Atlantic salmon receiving different diets, totally 57 arrays.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress (S30 = 300 g Kg-1 Soybean Meal). Our results provided: a) a snapshot of molecular signatures describing a chronic and advanced nutritional stress to which future nutrigenomic studies might refer to; and b) a platform for the identification of candidate genes for the molecular phenotyping of several physiological parameters in liver and distal intestine. Atlantic salmon was used as a model. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusions of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM) up to a level of 300 g kg-1, being this ingredient extensively demonstrated to induce reduced performance and enteropathy in the distal intestine (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl, 1996;Urán et al., 2009;URÁN et al., 2008). A control treatment with no SBM (S0) as well as intermediate levels of inclusion (100 g kg-1 and 200 g kg-1 SBM) were included to span a range of optimal and sub-optimal conditions. Performance parameters were measured and impaired growth was taken as an indicator of pronounced and chronic nutritional stress. Molecular analyses were performed in two tissues, liver and distal intestine. Distal intestine was chosen for being the site most morphologically and physiologically affected during the development of intestinal pathologies associated with plant ingredients such as SBM (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl, 1996;Kortner et al., 2011), while liver for being arguably the most metabolic active tissue. These tissues have been the most investigated targets in nutritional studies on fish so far. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive of its kind to report on the transcriptomic profile of the distal intestine and the liver, hence highlighting the supporting role of this tissue, in fish undergoing SBM-induced nutritional stress. Skugor et al (, 2011) described gene expression profiles of liver and intestine in fish fed 200 g kg-1 SBM inclusion using a 11K trout array. By investigating a larger number of probes (44K) in a more severe nutritional stress (300 g kg-1), our work will add further nutrigenomic information to the current literature.