Immunogenicity of fractional doses of tetravalent a/c/y/w135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: results from a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial in Uganda.
ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A is the main causative pathogen of meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, serogroup W135 has also been the cause of epidemics. Mass vaccination campaigns with polysaccharide vaccines are key elements in controlling these epidemics. Facing global vaccine shortage, we explored the use of fractional doses of a licensed A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine.We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority trial in 750 healthy volunteers 2-19 years old in Mbarara, Uganda, to compare the immune response of the full dose of the vaccine versus fractional doses (1/5 or 1/10). Safety and tolerability data were collected for all subjects during the 4 weeks following the injection. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were analyzed by measuring serum bactericidal activity (SBA) with baby rabbit complement. A responder was defined as a subject with a > or =4-fold increase in SBA against a target strain from each serogroup and SBA titer > or =128. For serogroup W135, 94% and 97% of the vaccinees in the 1/5- and 1/10-dose arms, respectively, were responders, versus 94% in the full-dose arm; for serogroup A, 92% and 88% were responders, respectively, versus 95%. Non-inferiority was demonstrated between the full dose and both fractional doses in SBA seroresponse against serogroups W135 and Y, in total population analysis. Non-inferiority was shown between the full and 1/5 doses for serogroup A in the population non-immune prior to vaccination. Non-inferiority was not shown for any of the fractionate doses for serogroup C. Safety and tolerability data were favourable, as observed in other studies.While the advent of conjugate A vaccine is anticipated to largely contribute to control serogroup A outbreaks in Africa, the scale-up of its production will not cover the entire "Meningitis Belt" target population for at least the next 3 to 5 years. In view of the current shortage of meningococcal vaccines for Africa, the use of 1/5 fractional doses should be considered as an alternative in mass vaccination campaigns.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00271479.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Occupational exposure to live meningococci can potentially cause invasive meningococcal disease in laboratory staff. While, until recently, immunization with quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine represented one cornerstone of protection, data on long-term persistence of antibodies in adults remain scarce.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed the relationship of antibody levels and time following quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccination (Mencevax® ACWY, GlaxoSmithKline) in a cross-sectional sample of 20 laboratory workers vaccinated at ages between 16.4 to 40.7 years from Germany. Sera were obtained 0.4 to 158.5 (median 35.3) months after vaccination. At the time of sampling, laboratory workers had been regularly exposed to meningococci for periods between 3.2 to 163.8 (median 41.2) months. Serum bactericidal assay (SBA) with rabbit complement and a microsphere-based flow analysis method were used to determine bactericidal titers and concentrations of IgG, respectively, against serogroups A, C, W135, and Y. Decay of antibodies was modeled using linear regression. Protective levels were defined as SBA titers???8.<h4>Results</h4>Half-lives of SBA titers against serogroups A, C, W135, and Y were estimated at 27.4, 21.9, 18.8, and 28.0 months, respectively. Average durations of protection were estimated at 183.9, 182.0, 114.6, and 216.4 months, respectively. Inter-individual variation was high; using lower margins of 95% prediction intervals, minimal durations of protection against serogroups A, C, W135 and Y were estimated at 33.5, 24.6, 0.0, and 55.1 months, respectively. The proportion of staff with protective SBA titers against W135 (65.0%) was significantly lower than proportions protected against A (95.0%), C (94.7%), and Y (95.0%). Consistently, geometric mean titer (97.0) and geometric mean concentration of IgG (2.1 ?g/ml) was lowest against serogroup W135. SBA titers in a subset of individuals with incomplete protection rose to???128 (? 8 fold) after reimmunization with a quadrivalent glycoconjugate vaccine.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The average duration of protection following immunization with a quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine in adults was???115 months regardless of serogroup. A substantial proportion (approximately 23% according to our decay model) of adult vaccinees may not retain protection against serogroup W135 for five years, the time suggested for reimmunization.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA) and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC) antibody titres > or = 1:8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres > or = 1:8 or SBA-MenC titres > or = 1:8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively). The administration of 10 microg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 microg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3) after primary vaccination which was more frequent in children in the vaccine than in the control group (23.7%; 95%CI [19.6-28.1] of doses vs 14.1%; 95% CI [10.9-17.8] of doses). Fifty-nine SAEs (including 8 deaths), none of them related to vaccination, were reported during the entire study. CONCLUSIONS: Three dose primary vaccination with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC was non-inferior to DTPw-HBV/Hib for the 5 common antigens used in the routine EPI schedule and induced bactericidal antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis of serogroups A and C in the majority of infants. Serogroup A and C bactericidal antibody levels had fallen below titres associated with protection in nearly half of the infants by the age of 12 months confirming that a booster dose is required at about that age. An enhanced memory response was shown after polysaccharide challenge. This vaccine could provide protection against 7 important childhood diseases (including meningococcal A and C) and be of particular value in countries of the African meningitis belt. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35754083.
Project description:Introduction: Yellow fever is endemic in specific regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas, with recent epidemics occurring on both continents. The yellow fever vaccine is effective, affordable and safe, providing life-long immunity following a single dose vaccination. However, the vaccine production process is slow and cannot be readily scaled up during epidemics. This has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to recommend the use of fractional doses as a dose-sparing strategy during epidemics, but there are no randomized controlled trials of fractional yellow fever vaccine doses in Africa. Methods and analysis: We will recruit healthy adult volunteers, adults living with HIV, and children to a series of randomized controlled trials aiming to determine the immunogenicity and safety of fractional vaccine doses in comparison to the standard vaccine dose. The trials will be conducted across two sites; Kilifi, Kenya and Mbarara, Uganda. Recruited participants will be randomized to receive fractional or standard doses of yellow fever vaccine. Scheduled visits will include blood collection for serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before vaccination and on various days – up to 2 years – post-vaccination. The primary outcome is the rate of seroconversion as measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 50) at 28 days post-vaccination. Secondary outcomes include antibody titre changes, longevity of the immune response, safety assessment using clinical data, the nature and magnitude of the cellular immune response and post-vaccination control of viremia by vaccine dose. Ethics and dissemination: The clinical trial protocols have received approval from the relevant institutional ethics and regulatory review committees in Kenya and Uganda, and the WHO Ethics Review Committee. The research findings will be disseminated through open-access publications and presented at relevant conferences and workshops. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02991495 (registered on 13 December 2016) and NCT04059471 (registered on 15 August 2019).
Project description:Identification of gene signatures that are associated with protection in RTS,S malaria vaccination study Overall design: Forty-six volunteers were randomly selected to receive either three full doses of RTS,S/AS01 vaccines or two full doses following by a delayed fractional third dose. All the volunteers underwent CHMI 3 weeks after the last dose and the protection against CHMI was evaluated accordingly. PBMC samples were collected on day of the 1st vaccination, day of the 3rd vaccination, day 1, 3, 14 post-the 3rd vaccination and day of challenge, and used for RNAseq analysis. Here we are trying to identify protection-associated gene signature induced by RTS,S/AS01 vaccination.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Stocks of yellow fever vaccine are insufficient to cover exceptional demands for outbreak response. Fractional dosing has shown efficacy, but evidence is limited to the 17DD substrain vaccine. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of one-fifth fractional dose compared with standard dose of four WHO-prequalified yellow fever vaccines produced from three substrains.<h4>Methods</h4>We did this randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial at research centres in Mbarara, Uganda, and Kilifi, Kenya. Eligible participants were aged 18-59 years, had no contraindications for vaccination, were not pregnant or lactating, had no history of yellow fever vaccination or infection, and did not require yellow fever vaccination for travel. Eligible participants were recruited from communities and randomly assigned to one of eight groups, corresponding to the four vaccines at standard or fractional dose. The vaccine was administered subcutaneously by nurses who were not masked to treatment, but participants and other study personnel were masked to vaccine allocation. The primary outcome was proportion of participants with seroconversion 28 days after vaccination. Seroconversion was defined as post-vaccination neutralising antibody titres at least 4 times pre-vaccination measurement measured by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT<sub>50</sub>). We defined non-inferiority as less than 10% decrease in seroconversion in fractional compared with standard dose groups 28 days after vaccination. The primary outcome was measured in the per-protocol population, and safety analyses included all vaccinated participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02991495.<h4>Findings</h4>Between Nov 6, 2017, and Feb 21, 2018, 1029 participants were assessed for inclusion. 69 people were ineligible, and 960 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to vaccine manufacturer and dose (120 to Bio-Manguinhos-Fiocruz standard dose, 120 to Bio-Manguinhos-Fiocruz fractional dose, 120 to Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides standard dose, 120 to Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides fractional dose, 120 to Institut Pasteur Dakar standard dose, 120 to Institut Pasteur Dakar fractional dose, 120 to Sanofi Pasteur standard dose, and 120 to Sanofi Pasteur fractional dose). 49 participants had detectable PRNT<sub>50</sub> at baseline and 11 had missing PRNT<sub>50</sub> results at baseline or 28 days. 900 were included in the per-protocol analysis. 959 participants were included in the safety analysis. The absolute difference in seroconversion between fractional and standard doses by vaccine was 1·71% (95% CI -2·60 to 5·28) for Bio-Manguinhos-Fiocruz, -0·90% (-4·24 to 3·13) for Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, 1·82% (-2·75 to 5·39) for Institut Pasteur Dakar, and 0·0% (-3·32 to 3·29) for Sanofi Pasteur. Fractional doses from all four vaccines met the non-inferiority criterion. The most common treatment-related adverse events were headache (22·2%), fatigue (13·7%), myalgia (13·3%) and self-reported fever (9·0%). There were no study-vaccine related serious adverse events.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Fractional doses of all WHO-prequalified yellow fever vaccines were non-inferior to the standard dose in inducing seroconversion 28 days after vaccination, with no major safety concerns. These results support the use of fractional dosage in the general adult population for outbreak response in situations of vaccine shortage.<h4>Funding</h4>The study was funded by Médecins Sans Frontières Foundation, Wellcome Trust (grant no. 092654), and the UK Department for International Development. Vaccines were donated in kind.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. METHODS: A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. RESULTS: Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive bacterial infections worldwide. For this reason, efforts to control the disease have been directed at optimizing meningococcal vaccines and implementing appropriate vaccination policies. In the past, plain polysaccharide vaccines containing purified capsular polysaccharides A, C, Y and W135 were developed, but failed to protect infants, who are at greatest risk. Experience with the conjugate Haemophilus vaccine suggested that this approach might well empower meningococcal vaccines. Thus, a very efficacious vaccine against serogroup C Neisseria meningitis was optimized and has been widely used in developed nations since 1999. On the basis of epidemiological changes in the circulation of pathogenic serogroups in the United States, a quadrivalent conjugate vaccine against A, C, Y and W135 serogroups (Menactra™) has been developed and was approved by the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 2005. Recently, another tetravalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine (Menveo™) has been licensed and made available in the United States of America and in the European Union. Finally, in response to large epidemics caused by serogroup A meningococcus in Africa, a new, safe, immunogenic and affordable vaccine has been developed. This review highlights the evolution of conjugate meningococcal vaccines in general and discusses how this kind of vaccine can contribute to preventing meningococcal disease.
Project description:MenB-FHbp is a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with two factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigens from subfamilies A and B. For licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses to four reference strains. Only limited information is available on the breadth or duration of protective SBA responses to genetically diverse disease-causing strains. Seventeen health care or laboratory workers were immunized with two (n = 2) or three (n = 15) doses of MenB-FHbp at 0, 2, and 6 months. SBA levels were measured against 14 serogroup B case isolates, including 6 from U.S. college outbreaks and 2 from Quebec during hyperendemic disease. Compared with preimmunization titers, the proportion of subjects with ≥4-fold increases in SBA titer 1 month after 2 doses of vaccine ranged from 35% to 94% for six isolates with FHbp subfamily A and from 24% to 76% for eight isolates with subfamily B FHbp. The respective proportions with ≥4-fold titer increases at 1 month after dose 3 were 73% to 100% and 67% to 100%. At that time point, the proportion of subjects with titers of ≥1:4 (presumed sufficient for short-term protection) ranged from 93% to 100% for all 14 isolates. By 9 to 11 months after dose 3, 50% or fewer of the subjects with follow-up sera had protective titers of ≥1:4 for 4 of 9 isolates tested. Three doses of MenB-FHbp elicited short-term protective SBA responses to diverse disease-causing serogroup B strains. For some strains, serum titers declined to <1:4 by 9 to 11 months, which raises concerns about the duration of broad, long-term protection. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02569632.).
Project description:Meningococcal disease is mostly endemic in Latin America, with periodic occurrences of outbreaks and epidemics over the last few decades. This literature review summarizes the available epidemiological data for this region between 1945 and 2010. Incidence rates and serogroup distribution differ from country to country and over time. Serogroups A, B, and C have all been major causes of meningococcal disease since the 1970s. In the last decade serogroups W135 and Y may now be emerging in certain countries, with serogroup A virtually disappearing. Although progress has been made in improving and coordinating the surveillance of invasive disease, the uniformity and quality of reported data reflect the fact that the current surveillance systems focus on passive rather than active reporting, hence the reliability of data may vary between countries. Consideration of vaccination policies to control meningococcal disease can only be made with a sufficient understanding of the changing epidemiology in the region.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis (meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis) are a major public health concern in the African "meningitis belt," which includes 21 countries from Senegal to Ethiopia. Of the several species that can cause meningitis, N. meningitidis is the most important cause of epidemics in this region. In choosing the appropriate vaccine, accurate N. meningitidis serogroup determination is key. To this end, we developed and evaluated two duplex rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting N. meningitidis polysaccharide (PS) antigens of several important serogroups.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies against N. meningitidis PS A, W135/Y, Y, and C were used to develop two immunochromatography duplex RDTs, RDT1 (to detect serogroups A and W135/Y) and RDT2 (to detect serogroups C and Y). Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy criteria were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of RDTs on reference strains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples using culture and PCR, respectively, as reference tests. The cutoffs were 10(5) cfu/ml for reference strains and 1 ng/ml for PS. Sensitivities and specificities were 100% for reference strains, and 93.8%-100% for CSF serogroups A, W135, and Y in CSF. For CSF serogroup A, the positive and negative likelihood ratios (+/- 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 31.867 (16.1-63.1) and 0.065 (0.04-0.104), respectively, and the diagnostic odds ratio (+/- 95% CI) was 492.9 (207.2-1,172.5). For CSF serogroups W135 and Y, the positive likelihood ratio was 159.6 (51.7-493.3) Both RDTs were equally reliable at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These RDTs are important new bedside diagnostic tools for surveillance of meningococcus serogroups A and W135, the two serogroups that are responsible for major epidemics in Africa.