Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.
ABSTRACT: Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells.These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Mammalian signaling networks contain an abundance of negative feedback regulators that may have overlapping ("fail-safe") or specific functions. Within the NF-kappaB signaling module, IkappaB alpha is known as a negative feedback regulator, but the newly characterized inhibitor IkappaB delta is also inducibly expressed in response to inflammatory stimuli. To examine IkappaB delta's roles in inflammatory signaling, we mathematically modeled the 4-IkappaB-containing NF-kappaB signaling module and developed a computational phenotyping methodology of general applicability. We found that IkappaB delta, like IkappaB alpha, can provide negative feedback, but each functions stimulus-specifically. Whereas IkappaB delta attenuates persistent, pathogen-triggered signals mediated by TLRs, the more prominent IkappaB alpha does not. Instead, IkappaB alpha, which functions more rapidly, is primarily involved in determining the temporal profile of NF-kappaB signaling in response to cytokines that serve intercellular communication. Indeed, when removing the inducing cytokine stimulus by compound deficiency of the tnf gene, we found that the lethality of ikappab alpha(-/-) mouse was rescued. Finally, we found that IkappaB delta provides signaling memory owing to its long half-life; it integrates the inflammatory history of the cell to dampen NF-kappaB responsiveness during sequential stimulation events.
Project description:Fractalkine (also known as CX3CL1), a CX3C chemokine, activates and attracts monocytes/macrophages to the site of injury/inflammation. It binds to CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1), a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor. In smooth muscle cells (SMCs), fractalkine is induced by proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)], which may mediate monocyte adhesion to SMCs. However, the mechanisms underlying its induction are unknown. In addition, it is unlear whether SMCs express CX3CR1. TNF-alpha activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and induced fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression in a time-dependent manner in rat aortic SMCs. Transient transfections with dominant-negative (dn) inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB)-alpha, dnIkappaB-beta, dnIkappaB kinase (IKK)-gamma, kinase-dead (kd) NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and kdIKK-beta, or pretreatment with wortmannin, Akt inhibitor, pyrrolidinecarbodithioc acid ammonium salt ('PDTC') or MG-132, significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-induced fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression. Furthermore, expression of dn TNF-alpha-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), but not dnTRAF6, inhibited TNF-alpha signal transduction. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin or neutralizing anti-CX3CR1 antibodies attenuated TNF-alpha-induced fractalkine expression, indicating that fractalkine autoregulation plays a role in TNF-alpha-induced sustained fractalkine expression. Fractalkine induced its own expression, via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), Akt, NIK, IKK and NF-kappaB activation, and induced SMC cell-cell adhesion and cellular proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TNF-alpha induces the expression of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in rat aortic SMCs and that this induction is mediated by NF-kappaB activation. We also show that fractalkine induces its own expression, which is mediated by the PI 3-kinase/PDK1/Akt/NIK/IKK/NF-kappaB signalling pathway. More importantly, fractalkine increased cell-cell adhesion and aortic SMC proliferation, indicating a role in initiation and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Project description:Ing4 is a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) family of chromatin-modifying proteins. Biochemical experiments indicate that Ing4 is a subunit of the HB01-JADE-hEAF6 histone acetyltransferase complex responsible for most nucleosomal histone H4 acetylation in eukaryotes, and transfection studies suggest that Ing4 may regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor suppression. However, in vivo evidence for a physiological role for Ing4 in cell-growth regulation is lacking. We have generated Ing4-deficient mice to explore the role of Ing4 in development, tumorigenesis, and in NF-kappaB signaling. Ing4-null mice develop normally and are viable. Although mice deficient for Ing4 fail to form spontaneous tumors, they are hypersensitive to LPS treatment and display elevated cytokine responses. Macrophages isolated from Ing4-null mice have increased levels of nuclear p65/RelA protein, resulting in increased RelA binding to NF-kappaB target promoters and up-regulation of cytokine gene expression. However, increased promoter occupancy by RelA in LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells does not always correlate with increased NF-kappaB target-gene expression, as RelA activation of a subset of cytokine promoters also requires Ing4 for proper histone H4 acetylation. Furthermore, activation of the IkappaB alpha promoter by RelA is also Ing4-dependent, and LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells have reduced levels of IkappaB alpha promoter H4 acetylation and IkappaB gene expression. Thus, Ing4 negatively regulates the cytokine-mediated inflammatory response in mice by facilitating NF-kappaB activation of IkappaB promoters, thereby suppressing nuclear RelA levels and the activation of select NF-kappaB target cytokines.
Project description:IkappaB-zeta [inhibitor of NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) zeta] is a nuclear protein that is induced upon stimulation of TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and IL (interleukin)-1 receptor. IkappaB-zeta harbours C-terminal ankyrin repeats that interact with NF-kappaB. Our recent studies have shown that, upon stimulation, IkappaB-zeta is essential for the induction of a subset of inflammatory genes, represented by IL-6, whereas it inhibits the expression of TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-alpha. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms that determine the different functions of IkappaB-zeta. We found that co-expression of IkappaB-zeta and the NF-kappaB subunits synergistically activates transcription of the hBD-2 (human beta-defensin 2) and NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) genes, whereas it inhibits transcription of E-selectin. Reporter analyses indicated that, in addition to an NF-kappaB-binding site, a flanking C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-binding site in the promoters is essential for the IkappaB-zeta-mediated transcriptional activation. Using an artificial promoter consisting of the NF-kappaB- and C/EBP-binding sites, transcriptional activation was observed upon co-transfection with IkappaB-zeta and NF-kappaB, indicating that these sequences are minimal elements that confer the IkappaB-zeta-mediated transcriptional activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and knockdown experiments showed that both IkappaB-zeta and the NF-kappaB subunits were recruited to the NGAL promoter and were essential for the transcriptional activation of the hBD-2 and NGAL promoters on stimulation with IL-1beta. The activation of the NGAL promoter by transfection of IkappaB-zeta and NF-kappaB was suppressed in C/EBPbeta-depleted cells. Thus IkappaB-zeta acts as an essential transcriptional activator by forming a complex with NF-kappaB on promoters harbouring the NF-kappaB- and C/EBP-binding sites, upon stimulation of TLRs or IL-1 receptor.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a constitutively aggregated pseudo-tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) that activates transcription factor NF-kappaB through two sites in its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. One site is similar to activated TNFRII in associating with TNFR-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, and the second site is similar to TNFRI in associating with the TNFRI death domain interacting protein TRADD. TNFRI has been recently shown to activate NF-kappaB through association with TRADD, RIP, and TRAF2; activation of the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK); activation of the IkappaB alpha kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta); and phosphorylation of IkappaB alpha. IkappaB alpha phosphorylation on Ser-32 and Ser-36 is followed by its degradation and NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we show that NF-kappaB activation by LMP1 or by each of its effector sites is mediated by a pathway that includes NIK, IKKalpha, and IKKbeta. Dominant negative mutants of NIK, IKKalpha, or IKKbeta substantially inhibited NF-kappaB activation by LMP1 or by each of its effector sites.
Project description:We investigated the mechanism of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ergolide, sesquiterpene lactone from Inula britannica. iNOS activity in cell-free extract of LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was markedly attenuated by the treatment with ergolide. Its inhibitory effect on iNOS was paralleled by decrease in nitrite accumulation in culture medium of LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. However, its inhibitory effect does not result from direct inhibition of the catalytic activity of NOS. Ergolide markedly decreased the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in cell-free extract of LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, without alteration of the catalytic activity of COX-2 itself. Ergolide decreased the level of iNOS and COX-2 protein, and iNOS mRNA caused by stimulation of LPS/IFN-gamma in a concentration-dependent manner, as measured by Western blot and Northern blot analysis, respectively. Ergolide inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, a transcription factor necessary for iNOS and COX-2 expression in response to LPS/IFN-gamma. This effect was accompanied by the parallel reduction of nuclear translocation of subunit p65 of NF-kappaB as well as IkappaB-alpha degradation. In addition, these effects were completely blocked by treatment of cysteine, indicating that this inhibitory effect of ergolide could be mediated by alkylation of NF-kappaB itself or an upstream molecule of NF-kappaB. Ergolide also directly inhibited the DNA-binding activity of active NF-kappaB in LPS/IFN-gamma-pretreated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results demonstrate that the suppression of NF-kappaB activation by ergolide might be attributed to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB resulted from blockade of the degradation of IkappaB and the direct modification of active NF-kappaB, leading to the suppression of the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which play important roles in inflammatory signalling pathway.
Project description:Ubiquitination and deubiquitination of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) play an important role in the positive and negative regulation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Using a combination of functional genomic and proteomic approaches, we have identified ubiquitin-specific peptidase 21 (USP21) as a deubiquitinase for RIP1. USP21 is constitutively associated with RIP1 and deubiquitinates RIP1 in vitro and in vivo. Notably, knockdown of USP21 in HeLa cells enhances TNFalpha-induced RIP1 ubiquitination, IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), and NF-kappaB phosphorylation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB alpha (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and ubiquitination, as well as NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. Therefore, our results demonstrate that USP21 plays an important role in the down-regulation of TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation through deubiquitinating RIP1.
Project description:Initial Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of intestinal smooth muscle is inhibited upon IL-1beta treatment. The decrease in contraction reflects the upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling-4 (RGS4) via the canonical inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-2 (IKK2)/IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we show that the activation of various protein kinases, including ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), differentially modulates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 in rabbit colonic muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment caused a transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. It also caused the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), sequential downstream effectors of PI3K. Pretreatment with PD-98059 (an ERK inhibitor) and SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. In contrast, LY-294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) augmented, whereas GSK3beta inhibitors inhibited, IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. PD-98059 blocked IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65, whereas SB-203580 had a marginal effect, implying that the effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 pathway of NF-kappaB activation but that the effect of p38 MAPK may not predominantly involve NF-kappaB signaling. The increase in RGS4 expression enhanced by LY-294002 was accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 and blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of IKK2 (IKK2-IV) and IkappaB-alpha (MG-132). Inhibition of GSK3beta abolished IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2/p65. These findings suggest that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4; the effect of ERK1/2 reflects its ability to promote IKK2 phosphorylation and increase NF-kappaB activity. GSK3beta acts normally to augment the activation of the canonical NF-kappaB signaling. The PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta pathway attenuates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 expression by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subtle changes in the intracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) state can modulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is a small, ubiquitous, redox-active thiol (-SH) protein that, with thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR), modifies the redox status of NF-kappaB pathway components. PMX464 is a novel thiol-reactive quinol thought to inhibit the Trx/TrxR system. The aim of this work was to investigate whether PMX464 inhibited NF-kappaB-mediated proinflammatory activation of human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and CXCL8, NF-kappaB DNA binding, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit, IkappaBalpha degradation, IkappaB phosphorylation and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity were assessed in A549 cells stimulated with IL-1beta with or without PMX464 pretreatment. Effects of PMX464 on ICAM-1 expression in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) were also investigated. For comparison, selected measurements (ICAM-1 and IkappaB-alpha phospho-IkappaB-alpha) were made on A549 cells after RNA interference-mediated silencing (siRNA) of Trx. KEY RESULTS: PMX464 reduced ICAM-1, GM-CSF and CXCL8 expression in IL-1beta-stimulated A549 cells and ICAM-1 in HLMVEC. PMX464 inhibited IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit and factors involved in NF-kappaB activation; specifically, IkappaBalpha degradation, IkappaB phosphorylation and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in A549. By contrast, Trx siRNA did not alter ICAM-1 expression or IkappaBalpha degradation/phosphorylation in IL-1beta-stimulated A549 cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: PMX464 inhibits a proinflammatory response in A549 cells targeting the NFkappaB pathway above IKK. The lack of effect with Trx siRNA suggests that PMX464 acts on thiol proteins, in addition to Trx, to elicit anti-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells.
Project description:Imatinib exerts potent antileukemic effects in vitro and in vivo. Despite its well known antitumor activity, the potential of imatinib for the treatment of inflammatory diseases remains elusive so far. Our current report provides strong evidence that imatinib has potent antiinflammatory effects. It potently inhibits LPS- and Con A-induced TNF-alpha production by human myeloid cells in vitro (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CD14-selected monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages). Of note, the production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was not significantly regulated by imatinib. In line with this observation, phosphorylation of IkappaB and subsequent DNA binding of NF-kappaB, which is critically involved in TNF-alpha, but not IL-10 expression, was reduced by imatinib. Using several murine models of acute hepatitis, we could corroborate our in vitro findings, as imatinib prevented macrophage- and TNF-alpha-dependent inflammatory damage of the liver induced by injection of either Con A or d-galactosamine/LPS by inhibition of hepatic TNF-alpha production. Of note, d-galactosamine/TNF-induced hepatitis was not affected, showing that imatinib does not directly inhibit TNF-alpha-induced hepatocellular cell death. These findings suggest a potent antiinflammatory role of imatinib by modulation of TNF-alpha production in monocytes/macrophages. This observation might be of therapeutic value for the treatment of TNF-mediated diseases.