The role of GM-CSF in adipose tissue inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has a central action to reduce food intake and body weight. Consistent with this, GM-CSF knockout mice are more obese and hyperphagic than wild-type mice. However, in lung, GM-CSF is an important determinant of macrophage infiltration. Consequently, we sought to determine if GM-CSF might contribute to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation that occurs when animals gain weight on a high-fat diet (HFD). We therefore determined how targeted genetic disruption of GM-CSF can affect adipose tissue macrophage and cytokine gene expression as well as glucose homeostasis by performing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. The number of macrophages and CCR2 gene expression in adipose tissue of GM-CSF knockout mice was decreased relative to those in wild-type mice, and the adipocyte size of mesenteric fat was increased in GM-CSF knockout mice on a HFD compared with wild-type mice. The level of mRNA of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha was significantly lower in mesenteric fat of GM-CSF knockout mice on the HFD than in wild-type mice. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, GM-CSF knockout mice had greater overall insulin sensitivity. This increase was due to enhanced peripheral uptake and utilization of glucose rather than to increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Collectively, the data suggest that the GM-CSF knockout mutation ameliorates peripheral insulin resistance in spite of increased adiposity by reducing inflammation in adipose tissue in response to a HFD.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop insulin resistance with proinflammatory macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue. Concomitantly, adipocytes undergo programmed cell death with the loss of the adipocyte-specific lipid droplet protein perilipin, and the dead/dying adipocytes are surrounded by macrophages that are organized into crown-like structures. This study investigated whether adipocyte cell death provides the driving signal for macrophage inflammation or if inflammation induces adipocyte cell death.Two knockout mouse models were used: granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-null mice that are protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation and cyclophilin D (CyP-D)-null mice that are protected against adipocyte cell death. Mice were fed for 4-14 weeks with a 60% HFD, and different markers of cell death and inflammation were analyzed.HFD induced a normal extent of adipocyte cell death in GM-CSF-null mice, despite a marked reduction in adipose tissue inflammation. Similarly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate treatment prevented HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation without any affect on adipocyte cell death. However, CyP-D deficiency strongly protected adipocytes from HFD-induced cell death, without affecting adipose tissue inflammation.These data demonstrate that HFD-induced adipocyte cell death is an intrinsic cellular response that is CyP-D dependent but is independent of macrophage infiltration/activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue that stimulates insulin secretion and improves ?-cell function. However, it is not clear whether liraglutide achieves its glucose lowering effect only by its known effects or whether other as yet unknown mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of liraglutide on Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) activity in High-fat diet (HFD) fed ApoE(-/-) mice with adiponectin (Acrp30) knockdown. METHOD: HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with adenovirus vectors expressing shAcrp30 to produce insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity of the mouse model. QRT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of the target genes. RESULTS: The combination of HFD, ApoE deficiency, and hypoadiponectinemia resulted in an additive effect on insulin resistance. FGF-21 mRNA expressions in both liver and adipose tissues were significantly increased while FGF-21 receptor 1 (FGFR-1) and ?-Klotho mRNA levels in adipose tissue, as well as FGFR-1-3 and ?-Klotho mRNA levels in liver were significantly decreased in this model. Liraglutide treatment markedly improved insulin resistance and increased FGF-21 expression in liver and FGFR-3 in adipose tissue, restored ?-Klotho mRNA expression in adipose tissue as well as FGFR-1-3, ?-Klotho levels and phosphorylation of FGFR1 up to the levels observed in control mice in liver. Liraglutide treatment also further increased FGF-21 proteins in liver and plasma. In addition, as shown by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, liraglutide treatment also markedly improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in these animals. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate an additive effect of HFD, ApoE deficiency, and adiponectin knockdown on insulin resistance and unveil that the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by liraglutide may be partly mediated via increased FGF-21 and its receptors action.
Project description:In adipose tissue, muscle, liver and macrophages, signaling by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is a determinant of insulin sensitivity and this receptor mediates the insulin-sensitizing effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs). As PPAR-? is also expressed in neurons, we generated mice with neuron-specific Pparg knockout (Pparg brain knockout (BKO)) to determine whether neuronal PPAR-? signaling contributes to either weight gain or insulin sensitivity. During high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, food intake was reduced and energy expenditure increased in Pparg-BKO mice compared to Pparg(f/f) mice, resulting in reduced weight gain. Pparg-BKO mice also responded better to leptin administration than Pparg(f/f) mice. When treated with the TZD rosiglitazone, Pparg-BKO mice were resistant to rosiglitazone-induced hyperphagia and weight gain and, relative to rosiglitazone-treated Pparg(f/f) mice, experienced only a marginal improvement in glucose metabolism. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed that the increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity induced by rosiglitazone treatment during HFD feeding was completely abolished in Pparg-BKO mice, an effect associated with the failure of rosiglitazone to improve liver insulin receptor signal transduction. We conclude that excess weight gain induced by HFD feeding depends in part on the effect of neuronal PPAR-? signaling to limit thermogenesis and increase food intake. Neuronal PPAR-? signaling is also required for the hepatic insulin sensitizing effects of TZDs.
Project description:To investigate the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/BiP in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.Male Grp78(+/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) regimen. Pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes was examined by multiple approaches of metabolic phenotyping. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was analyzed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Molecular mechanism was explored via immunoblotting and tissue culture manipulation.Grp78 heterozygosity increases energy expenditure and attenuates HFD-induced obesity. Grp78(+/-) mice are resistant to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, liver steatosis, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Grp78 heterozygosity improves glucose metabolism independent of adiposity and following an HFD increases insulin sensitivity predominantly in WAT. As mechanistic explanations, Grp78 heterozygosity in WAT under HFD stress promotes adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), attenuates translational block, and upregulates ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein (EDEM) and ER chaperones, thus improving ER quality control and folding capacity. Further, overexpression of the active form of ATF6 induces protective UPR and improves insulin signaling upon ER stress.HFD-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes are improved in Grp78(+/-) mice. Adaptive UPR in WAT could contribute to this improvement, linking ER homeostasis to energy balance and glucose metabolism.
Project description:Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent studies have shown a metabolic role of capsaicin that may be mediated via the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel. In this study, TRPV1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice (as controls) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and metabolic studies were performed to measure insulin and leptin action. The TRPV1 KO mice became more obese than the WT mice after HFD, partly attributed to altered energy balance and leptin resistance in the KO mice. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiment showed that the TRPV1 KO mice were more insulin resistant after HFD because of the ?40% reduction in glucose metabolism in the white and brown adipose tissue, compared with that in the WT mice. Leptin treatment failed to suppress food intake, and leptin-mediated hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activity was blunted in the TRPV1 KO mice. We also found that the TRPV1 KO mice were more obese and insulin resistant than the WT mice at 9 mo of age. Taken together, these results indicate that lacking TRPV1 exacerbates the obesity and insulin resistance associated with an HFD and aging, and our findings further suggest that TRPV1 has a major role in regulating glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin's effects in obesity.
Project description:Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1 or TSP-1) is a circulating glycoprotein highly expressed in hypertrophic visceral adipose tissues of humans and mice. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces the robust increase of circulating THBS1 in the early stages of HFD challenge. The loss of Thbs1 protects male mice from diet-induced weight gain and adipocyte hypertrophy. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study has demonstrated that Thbs1-null mice are protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Tissue-specific glucose uptake study has revealed that the insulin-sensitive phenotype of Thbs1-null mice is mostly mediated by skeletal muscles. Further assessments of the muscle phenotype using RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, and histological studies have demonstrated that Thbs1-null skeletal muscles are protected from the HFD-dependent induction of Col3a1 and Col6a1, coupled with a new collagen deposition. At the same time, the Thbs1-null mice display a better circadian rhythm and higher amplitude of energy expenditure with a browning phenotype in sc adipose tissues. These results suggest that THBS1, which circulates in response to a HFD, may induce insulin resistance and fibrotic tissue damage in skeletal muscles as well as the de-browning of sc adipose tissues in the early stages of a HFD challenge. Our study may shed new light on the pathogenic role played by a circulating extracellular matrix protein in the cross talk between adipose tissues and skeletal muscles during obesity progression.
Project description:Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O (UBE2O) is expressed preferentially in metabolic tissues, but its role in regulating energy homeostasis has yet to be defined. Here we find that UBE2O is markedly upregulated in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and show that whole-body disruption of Ube2o in mouse models in vivo results in improved metabolic profiles and resistance to high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) obesity and metabolic syndrome. With no difference in nutrient intake, Ube2o-/- mice were leaner and expended more energy than WT mice. In addition, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Ube2o-/- mice were profoundly insulin sensitive. Through phenotype analysis of HFD mice with muscle-, fat-, or liver-specific knockout of Ube2o, we further identified UBE2O as an essential regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism programs in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose or liver tissue. Mechanistically, UBE2O acted as a ubiquitin ligase and targeted AMPKα2 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation in skeletal muscle; further, muscle-specific heterozygous knockout of Prkaa2 ablated UBE2O-controlled metabolic processes. These results identify the UBE2O/AMPKα2 axis as both a potent regulator of metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle and a therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.
Project description:Chronic low-grade inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, is an important modulator of obesity-induced insulin resistance. The Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in macrophages. We performed bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of Tlr4lps-del or control C57Bl/10J donor cells into irradiated wild-type C57Bl6 recipient mice to generate hematopoietic cell-specific Tlr4 deletion mutant (BMT-Tlr4(-/-)) and control (BMT-WT) mice. After 16 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD), BMT-WT mice developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. In contrast, BMT-Tlr4(-/-) mice became obese but did not develop fasting hyperinsulinemia and had improved hepatic and adipose insulin sensitivity during euglycemic clamp studies, compared to HFD BMT-WT controls. HFD BMT-Tlr4(-/-) mice also showed markedly reduced adipose tissue inflammatory markers and macrophage content. In summary, our results indicate that Tlr4 signaling in hematopoietic-derived cells is important for the development of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance in obese mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:p8 was initially described as being overexpressed in acute pancreatitis and encoding a ubiquitous stress protein. Analysis of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in p8-knockout and haplodeficient mice revealed counterintuitive results. Thus, we determined glycemic control of p8 in mice fed with standard (SD) and high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS:p8-/- and wild type (p8+/+) mice were used for analysis of glucagon (immunohistochemistry), insulin levels (ELISA) and beta cell mass. Hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic glucose clamp technique, i.p. glucose tolerance test (ipGTT), i.p. insulin tolerance test (ipITT) and metabolic chamber analysis were performed in SD (4% fat) and HFD (55% fat) groups. RESULTS:p8-/- mice showed no differences in glucagon or insulin content but higher insulin secretion from pancreatic islets upon glucose stimulation. p8 deficiency resulted in elevated beta cell mass but was not associated with increased insulin resistance in ipGTT or ipITT. Glucose clamp tests also revealed no evidence of association of p8 deficiency with insulin resistance. Metabolic chamber analysis showed equal energy expenditure in p8-/- mice and wild type animals. CONCLUSION:p8 depletion may contribute to glucose metabolism via stress-induced insulin production and elevated beta cell mass. Nevertheless, p8 knockout showed no impact on insulin resistance in SD and HFD-fed mice.
Project description:The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide (FEN) increases insulin sensitivity in obese rodents and is in early clinical trials for treatment of insulin resistance in obese humans with hepatic steatosis (46). We aimed to determine the physiological mechanisms for the insulin-sensitizing effects of FEN. Wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without FEN from 4-5 wk to 36-37 wk of age (preventive study) or following 22 wk of HF diet-induced obesity (12 wk intervention study). Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) knockout mice were also fed the HFD with or without FEN in a preventive study. FEN had minimal effects on HFD-induced body weight gain but markedly reduced HFD-induced adiposity and hyperleptinemia in both studies. FEN-HFD mice gained epididymal fat but not subcutaneous or visceral fat mass in contrast to HFD mice without FEN. FEN did not have a measurable effect on energy expenditure, food intake, physical activity, or stool lipid content. Glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was reduced 86% in HFD mice compared with controls and was improved 3.6-fold in FEN-HFD compared with HFD mice. FEN improved insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen levels in muscle, insulin-stimulated suppression of hepatic glucose production, and suppression of serum FFA levels in HFD mice. Remarkably, FEN also reduced hepatic steatosis. In RBP4 knockout mice, FEN reduced the HFD-induced increase in adiposity and hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, long-term therapy with FEN partially prevents or reverses obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in mice on HFD. The anti-adiposity effects are independent of the RBP4 lowering effect.