Molecular analysis of a sphingomyelinase C gene from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo.
ABSTRACT: A thermolabile hemolysin from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, strain Sponselee, was shown to specifically degrade sphingomyelin. Nucleotide sequence determination revealed that sphingomyelinase activity was encoded by an open reading frame of 1,668 nucleotides. Although a putative signal sequence could be identified, no evidence for protein export in either L. interrogans or Escherichia coli was obtained. The apparent molecular mass of the expression product in E. coli minicells was 41.2 kilodaltons, whereas open reading frame 1 encoded a protein of 63,268 daltons. The observed difference may be explained by processing at the carboxy-terminal part of the hemolysin in E. coli. A high degree of similarity on the DNA and protein levels with Staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysin and sphingomyelinase C from three Bacillus cereus strains was observed. The presence of various sphingomyelinase genes within the L. interrogans species is demonstrated.
Project description:The genome of a laboratory-adapted strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo was sequenced and analyzed. Comparison of the sequenced genome with that recently published for a field isolate of the same serovar revealed relatively high sequence conservation at the nucleotide level, despite the different biological background of both samples. Conversely, comparison of both serovar Hardjo genomes with those of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo showed extensive differences between the corresponding chromosomes, except for the region occupied by their rfb loci. Additionally, comparison of the serovar Hardjo genomes with those of different L. interrogans serovars allowed us to detect several genomic features that may confer an adaptive advantage to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo, including a possible integrated plasmid and an additional copy of a cluster encoding a membrane transport system known to be involved in drug resistance. A phylogenomic strategy was used to better understand the evolutionary position of the Hardjo serovar among L. interrogans serovars and other Leptospira species. The proposed phylogeny supports the hypothesis that the presence of similar rfb loci in two different species may be the result of a lateral gene transfer event.
Project description:Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production. Here, we described the isolation of three clinical strains (Norma, Lagoa and Bolivia) obtained from leptospirosis outbreaks that occurred in Minas Gerais state in 1994 and 2008.Serological and molecular typing using housekeeping (secY and 16SrRNA) and rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) genes were applied for the identification and comparative analysis of Leptospira spp. Our results identified the three isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and confirmed the occurrence of this bacterial strain in Brazilian livestock. Genetic analysis using ORF22 and ORF36 grouped the Leptospira into serogroup Sejroe and subtype Hardjoprajitno. Genetic approaches were also applied to compare distinct serovars of L. interrogans strains by verifying the copy numbers of the IS1500 and IS1533 insertion sequences (ISs). The IS1500 copy number varied among the analyzed L. interrogans strains.This study provides evidence that L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno causes bovine leptospirosis in Brazilian production. The molecular results suggested that rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) could improve epidemiological studies by allowing the identification of Leptospira spp. at the serogroup level. Additionally, the IS1500 and IS1533 IS copy number analysis suggested distinct genomic features among closely related leptospiral strains.
Project description:Smallholder large ruminant production in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is characterised by low reproductive efficiency. To determine if common abortifacient bovid infectious diseases are involved, a serological investigation was conducted. Sera was collected from stored and fresh cattle (n = 390) and buffalo (n = 130) samples from 2016-18 from, and then examined for associations in a retrospective risk factor study of 71 herds. The sera were assayed for antibodies to Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo and Brucella abortus using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. These pathogens were detected in buffalo samples at 78.5% (95% CI 71.4-85.6), 0%, 2.3% (95% CI 0-4.9) and 0%, respectively, and in cattle at 4.4% (95% CI 2.4-6.4), 7.7% (95% CI 3.1-12.3), 12.8% (95% CI 9.5-16.1) and 0.26% (95% CI 0-0.8), respectively. Exposure of buffalo to N. caninum was positively associated with buffalo age, with a predicted seropositivity at birth of 52.8%, increasing to 97.2% by 12 years of age (p = 0.037). Exposure of cattle to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo was more prevalent in females compared to males, was associated with higher titres of BVDV, and was more prevalent in the wet season compared to the dry season. Exposure of cattle to BVDV was more prevalent in males compared to females, the wet and dry seasons were comparable, and was associated with rising antibody titres against N. caninum and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo. The risk factor survey identified that the probability of herds being N. caninum positive increased with farmer age, if farmers believed there were rodents on farm, and if farmers weren't aware that canids or rodents could contaminate bovid feed on their farm. The probability of a herd being positive to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo increased on farms where multiple cows shared the same bull, where farmers had lower husbandry knowledge, and on farms that used water troughs. The probability of a herd being BVDV seropositive increased with increasing herd size and increasing titres to N. caninum. The benchmarking of bovid exposure to emerging abortifacient pathogens and identification of their risk factors potentially informs disease prevention strategies, supporting efforts to establish a biosecure beef supply for enhanced smallholder livestock productivity, public health and food security in Laos and surrounding countries.
Project description:Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira spp. This neglected re-emergent disease has global distribution and relevance in veterinary production. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno strain Norma, isolated from cattle in a livestock leptospirosis outbreak in Brazil.
Project description:A gene (vllY) encoding a novel hemolysin of Vibrio vulnificus CKM-1 has been cloned and sequenced. When the vllY gene was expressed in minicells, a unique peptide of approximately 40 kDa was identified. Subcellular fractionation of Escherichia coli cells carrying the vllY gene indicated that the VllY protein was distributed in both the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic fractions, with the notable ability to appear in the latter compartment. Nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a single open reading frame of 1,071 bp encoding a 357-amino acid polypeptide with an estimated pI of 5.02. The deduced amino acid sequence of VllY showed high similarity to the sequence of legiolysin, responsible for hemolysis, pigment production, and fluorescence in Legionella pneumophila. The enzyme also exhibited sequence homology to the MelA protein sequence of Shewanella colwelliana and the sequences of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase family proteins from various organisms. PCR screening and Southern blotting of V. vulnificus strains revealed that all of the 41 V. vulnificus clinical isolates contained vllY-like genes.
Project description:Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis throughout the world and human mortality from severe disease forms is high even when optimal treatment is provided. Leptospirosis is also one of the most common causes of reproductive losses in cattle worldwide and is associated with significant economic costs to the dairy farming industry. Herds are tested for exposure to the causal organism either through serum testing of individual animals or through testing bulk milk samples. Using serum results from a commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on samples from 979 animals across 12 Scottish dairy herds and the corresponding bulk milk results, we develop a model that predicts the mean proportion of exposed animals in a herd conditional on the bulk milk test result. The data are analyzed through use of a Bayesian latent variable generalized linear mixed model to provide estimates of the true (but unobserved) level of exposure to the causal organism in each herd in addition to estimates of the accuracy of the serum ELISA. We estimate 95% confidence intervals for the accuracy of the serum ELISA of (0.688, 0.987) and (0.975, 0.998) for test sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Using a percentage positivity cutoff in bulk milk of at most 41% ensures that there is at least a 97.5% probability of less than 5% of the herd being exposed to L. hardjo. Our analyses provide strong statistical evidence in support of the validity of interpreting bulk milk samples as a proxy for individual animal serum testing. The combination of validity and cost-effectiveness of bulk milk testing has the potential to reduce the risk of human exposure to leptospirosis in addition to offering significant economic benefits to the dairy industry.
Project description:In these studies, the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin homology to the Escherichia coli hemolysin is extended with the finding of cyaC, a homolog to the E. coli hlyC gene, which is required for the production of a functional hemolysin molecule in E. coli. Mutations produced in the chromosome of B. pertussis upstream from the structural gene for the adenylate cyclase toxin revealed a region which was necessary for toxin and hemolytic activities of the molecule. These mutants produced the 216-kDa adenylate cyclase toxin as determined by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The adenylate cyclase enzymatic activities of these mutants were equivalent to that of wild type, but toxin activities were less than 1% of that of wild type, and the mutants were nonhemolytic on blood agar plates and in in vitro assays. The upstream region restored hemolytic activity when returned in trans to the mutant strains. This genetic complementation defined a gene which acts in trans to activate the adenylate cyclase toxin posttranslationally. Sequence analysis of the upstream region defined an open reading frame with homology to the E. coli hlyC gene. In contrast to E. coli, this open reading frame is oriented oppositely from the adenylate cyclase toxin structural gene.
Project description:Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae, the etiologic agent of swine dysentery, produces a hemolysin which is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. We report the cloning, sequencing, and expression of a hemolysin gene (tly) from S. hyodysenteriae B204. A pUC19 gene bank of strain B204 was constructed in the Escherichia coli K-12 strain DH5 alpha, and hemolytic recombinants were identified by plating the library on blood agar plates. From the hemolytic recombinants, a 1.5-kb DNA fragment could be isolated that contained information necessary for the production of a hemolysin/cytotoxin in E. coli. Nucleotide sequence determination of this 1.5-kb fragment showed that it contained an open reading frame capable of encoding a 26.9-kDa protein. The recombinant hemolysin was easily released from E. coli by osmotic shock. As with the native hemolysin, the recombinant hemolysin is EDTA insensitive, thermolabile, and cytotoxic for several eukaryotic cell lines. Southern blot hybridization showed that the cloned S. hyodysenteriae hemolysin gene tly is present in all pathogenic strains of S. hyodysenteriae tested and absent in the nonpathogenic, weakly hemolytic spirochete S. innocens.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of a 3,422-bp internal restriction fragment from the Enterococcus faecalis pAD1 hemolysin/bacteriocin-encoding region was determined. This fragment was associated with expression of hemolysin/bacteriocin component L and contained a 2,142-bp open reading frame. The inferred amino acid sequence revealed a protein which shared extensive similarity with HlyB of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin operon. The inferred protein, CylB, was observed to be independently expressed in E. coli and capable of complementing an insertion mutation in the cloned hemolysin/bacteriocin operon in trans. Despite the extensive similarity to HlyB, CylB was incapable of complementing an insertion mutation in hlyB. Cytolysin determinants possessing an HlyB-type transport function are widely dispersed throughout gram-negative genera. We believe this to be the first example of an HlyB-type protein encoded within a cytolysin determinant from a gram-positive bacterium.
Project description:Primers for PCR were selected from a sequenced fragment of clone pL590, which contains a repetitive element present in the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno (M. L. Pacciarini, M. L. Savio, S. Tagliabue, and C. Rossi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1243-1249, 1992). A specific DNA fragment was amplified from the genomic DNAs of serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno and nine serovars also belonging to L. interrogans as a consequence of the spread of the same or a closely related repetitive element within this species (Pacciarini et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1243-1249, 1992). In addition, specific amplification was obtained from two Leptospira borgpetersenii serovars (tarassovi and hardjo type hardjobovis). Negative PCR results were observed with all of the other Leptospira serovars tested, including nonpathogenic ones (serovars patoc and andamana), another spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), bacteria commonly found in biological samples, and swine and bovine cell lines. Direct PCR on biological samples such as kidney samples demonstrated that preliminary isolation and culture of Leptospira cells are not required for efficient detection. Furthermore, digestion of the amplified DNA with the enzymes HinfI and DdeI yielded specific polymorphic patterns, allowing discrimination among the majority of the serovars. These methods were applied to 25 field isolates of serovar pomona, leading to the conclusion that they were suitable for the simple and rapid detection of L. interrogans and for serovar identification.