Ascorbate peroxidase 1 plays a key role in the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to stress combination.
ABSTRACT: Within their natural habitat plants are subjected to a combination of different abiotic stresses, each with the potential to exacerbate the damage caused by the others. One of the most devastating stress combinations for crop productivity, which frequently occurs in the field, is drought and heat stress. In this study we conducted proteomic and metabolic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants subjected to a combination of drought and heat stress. We identified 45 different proteins that specifically accumulated in Arabidopsis in response to the stress combination. These included enzymes involved in reactive oxygen detoxification, malate metabolism, and the Calvin cycle. The accumulation of malic enzyme during the combined stress corresponded with enhanced malic enzyme activity, a decrease in malic acid, and lower amounts of oxaloacetate, suggesting that malate metabolism plays an important role in the response of Arabidopsis to the stress combination. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) protein and mRNA accumulated during the stress combination. When exposed to heat stress combined with drought, an APX1-deficient mutant (apx1) accumulated more hydrogen peroxide and was significantly more sensitive to the stress combination than wild type. In contrast, mutants deficient in thylakoid or stromal/mitochondrial APXs were not more sensitive to the stress combination than apx1 or wild type. Our findings suggest that cytosolic APX1 plays a key role in the acclimation of plants to a combination of drought and heat stress.
Project description:Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) is a synthetic functional analog of salicylic acid which can induce systemic acquired resistance in plants, but its effects on abiotic stress tolerance is not well known. The objectives of this study were to examine effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl on heat or drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and to determine major ASM-responsive metabolites and proteins associated with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Creeping bentgrass plants (cv. 'Penncross') were foliarly sprayed with ASM and were exposed to non-stress (20/15°C day/night), heat stress (35/30°C), or drought conditions (by withholding irrigation) in controlled-environment growth chambers. Exogenous ASM treatment resulted in improved heat or drought tolerance, as demonstrated by higher overall turf quality, relative water content, and chlorophyll content compared to the untreated control. Western blotting revealed that ASM application resulted in up-regulation of ATP synthase, HSP-20, PR-3, and Rubisco in plants exposed to heat stress, and greater accumulation of dehydrin in plants exposed to drought stress. Metabolite profiling identified a number of amino acids, organic acids, and sugars which were differentially accumulated between ASM treated and untreated plants under heat or drought stress, including aspartic acid, glycine, citric acid, malic acid, and the sugars glucose, and fructose. Our results suggested that ASM was effective in improving heat or drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass, mainly through enhancing protein synthesis and metabolite accumulation involved in osmotic adjustment, energy metabolism, and stress signaling.
Project description:Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses.
Project description:We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H?O?, heat and freezing stresses at the seedling stage. Under greenhouse conditions, the transgenic plants showed a higher level of tolerance to drought than to salinity. Noteworthy, AlTMP1 plants yielded two- and five-fold more seeds than non-transgenic plants (NT) under salt and drought stresses, respectively. The leaves of AlTMP1 plants accumulated lower Na? but higher K? and Ca2+ than those of NT plants. Tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses was associated with higher membrane stability, low electrolyte leakage, and improved water status. Finally, accumulation of AlTMP1 in tobacco altered the regulation of some stress-related genes in either a positive (NHX1, CAT1, APX1, and DREB1A) or negative (HKT1 and KT1) manner that could be related to the observed tolerance. These results suggest that AlTMP1 confers stress tolerance in tobacco through maintenance of ion homeostasis, increased membrane integrity, and water status. The observed tolerance may be due to a direct or indirect effect of AlTMP1 on the expression of stress-related genes which could stimulate an adaptive potential not present in NT plants.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of WT, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 (Apx1) and peroxisomal catalase 2 (Cat2) single mutants and apx1/cat2 double mutant plants, subjected to 0h and 1h of high light irradiation in order to identify molecular mechanisms underlying the observed growth retardation and stress resistance of apx1/cat2 double mutant plants. 4 genotypes x 2 conditions experiment including WT, apx1, cat2, and apx1/cat2 plants treated with 0h and 1h of high light irradiation. Two biological replicates. In total, 16 samples hybridized on 8 Arabidopsis Gene Expression microarrays V3 (Agilent, two-color array) including color swap of replicate samples.
Project description:Wheat is one of the most important cereals, whose growth and development is strongly limited by drought. This study investigated the physiological and metabolic response of six winter wheat cultivars to drought with the emphasis on the induction of dominant metabolites affected by the treatment and genotypes