Rapid multiplex PCR and real-time TaqMan PCR assays for detection of Salmonella enterica and the highly virulent serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is a human pathogen with over 2,500 serovars characterized. S. enterica serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C are two globally distributed serovars. We have developed a rapid molecular-typing method to detect serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C in food samples by using a comparative-genomics approach to identify regions unique to each serovar from the sequenced genomes. A Salmonella-specific primer pair based on oriC was designed as an internal control to establish accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Serovar-specific primer sets based on regions of difference between serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C were designed for real-time PCR assays. Three primer sets were used to screen a collection of over 100 Salmonella strains, and both serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C gave unique amplification patterns. To develop the technique for practical use, its sensitivity for detection of Salmonella spp. in a food matrix was determined by spiking experiments. The technique was also adapted for a real-time PCR rapid-detection assay for both serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C that complements the current procedures for Salmonella sp. isolation and serotyping.
Project description:Different Salmonella serovars generally display different antigenic formulae, but there are some exceptions. For instance, the same antigenic formula, 6,7:c:1,5, is shared by Salmonella enterica serovar, Paratyphi C, Typhisuis, and Choleraesuis. Moreover, three biotypes have been described within the S. Choleraesuis serovar. A distinction among such biotypes can only be based on biochemical behaviors (biotyping) posing serious concerns when rapid characterization is required. The study of an outbreak of severe epizootic salmonellosis in wild boars occurred in Italy between 2012 and 2014 and the typing of the isolates recovered from the outbreak were used to test different approaches for serovar identification. A number of 30 S. Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf isolates from the outbreak were typed by means of four different methods to derive serovar and biotype: (i) slide agglutination method followed by biochemical tests, (ii) suspension array xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA), (iii) whole genome sequencing (WGS) and data analysis using SeqSero tool, and (iv) WGS and data analysis using Salmonella TypeFinder tool. Slide agglutination, xMAP® SSA and WGS, followed by SeqSero analysis, are methods that infer the serovars according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor (WKL) scheme, based exclusively on antigens. Using these methods, isolates with incomplete antigenic formulae could be misleadingly excluded from an outbreak. On the contrary, WGS followed by Salmonella TypeFinder data analysis, which predicts the serotype on the basis of Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), might be able to cluster together isolates belonging to the same outbreak irrespective of the antigenic formula. Results suggest the benefit of routine use of a combination of in silico MLST and antigenic formula analysis to solve specific ambiguous case studies for outbreak investigation purposes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes) or acquired similar pathogenic traits independently (by convergent processes). Comparison of different typhoid agents with non-typhoidal Salmonella lineages will provide excellent models for studies on how similar pathogens might have evolved. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced a strain of S. paratyphi C, RKS4594, and compared it with previously sequenced Salmonella strains. RKS4594 contains a chromosome of 4,833,080 bp and a plasmid of 55,414 bp. We predicted 4,640 intact coding sequences (4,578 in the chromosome and 62 in the plasmid) and 152 pseudogenes (149 in the chromosome and 3 in the plasmid). RKS4594 shares as many as 4346 of the 4,640 genes with a strain of S. choleraesuis, which is primarily a swine pathogen, but only 4008 genes with another human-adapted typhoid agent, S. typhi. Comparison of 3691 genes shared by all six sequenced Salmonella strains placed S. paratyphi C and S. choleraesuis together at one end, and S. typhi at the opposite end, of the phylogenetic tree, demonstrating separate ancestries of the human-adapted typhoid agents. S. paratyphi C seemed to have suffered enormous selection pressures during its adaptation to man as suggested by the differential nucleotide substitutions and different sets of pseudogenes, between S. paratyphi C and S. choleraesuis. CONCLUSIONS: S. paratyphi C does not share a common ancestor with other human-adapted typhoid agents, supporting the convergent evolution model of the typhoid agents. S. paratyphi C has diverged from a common ancestor with S. choleraesuis by accumulating genomic novelty during adaptation to man.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called eBurstGroups (eBGs). Many eBGs correspond to a serovar, for example most Typhimurium are in eBG1 and most Enteritidis are in eBG4, but many eBGs contained more than one serovar. Furthermore, most serovars were polyphyletic and are distributed across multiple unrelated eBGs. Thus, serovar designations confounded genetically unrelated isolates and failed to recognize natural evolutionary groupings. An inability of serotyping to correctly group isolates was most apparent for Paratyphi B and its variant Java. Most Paratyphi B were included within a sub-cluster of STs belonging to eBG5, which also encompasses a separate sub-cluster of Java STs. However, diphasic Java variants were also found in two other eBGs and monophasic Java variants were in four other eBGs or STs, one of which is in subspecies salamae and a second of which includes isolates assigned to Enteritidis, Dublin and monophasic Paratyphi B. Similarly, Choleraesuis was found in eBG6 and is closely related to Paratyphi C, which is in eBG20. However, Choleraesuis var. Decatur consists of isolates from seven other, unrelated eBGs or STs. The serological assignment of these Decatur isolates to Choleraesuis likely reflects lateral gene transfer of flagellar genes between unrelated bacteria plus purifying selection. By confounding multiple evolutionary groups, serotyping can be misleading about the disease potential of S. enterica. Unlike serotyping, MLST recognizes evolutionary groupings and we recommend that Salmonella classification by serotyping should be replaced by MLST or its equivalents.
Project description:Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection has emerged as an important public health problem. Recognizing that in randomized controlled field trials oral immunization with attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhi live vaccine Ty21a conferred significant cross-protection against S. Paratyphi B but not S. Paratyphi A disease, we undertook a clinical study to ascertain whether humoral immune responses could explain the field trial results. Ty21a immunization of adult residents of Maryland elicited predominantly IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) that recognize S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cross-reactivity to S. Paratyphi A LPS was significantly lower than that to S. Paratyphi B LPS. ASC producing IgG and IgA that bind LPS from each of these Salmonella serovars expressed CD27 and integrin ?4?7 (gut homing), with a significant proportion coexpressing CD62L (secondary lymphoid tissue homing). No significant differences were observed in serum antibody against LPS of the different serovars. Levels of IgA B memory (B(M)) cells to S. Typhi LPS were significantly higher than those against S. Paratyphi A or B LPS, with no differences observed between S. Paratyphi A and B. The response of IgA B(M) to outer membrane proteins (OMP) from S. Typhi was significantly stronger than that to OMP of S. Paratyphi A but similar to that to OMP of S. Paratyphi B. The percentages of IgG or IgA B(M) responders to LPS or OMP from these Salmonella strains were similar. Whereas cross-reactive humoral immune responses to S. Paratyphi A or B antigens are demonstrable following Ty21a immunization, they cannot explain the efficacy data gleaned from controlled field trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A and Typhi has been attributed to convergent evolution via relatively recent recombination of a quarter of their genomes. The accumulation of pseudogenes is a key feature of these and other host-adapted pathogens, and overlapping pseudogene complements are evident in Paratyphi A and Typhi. RESULTS:We report the 4.5 Mbp genome of a clinical isolate of Paratyphi A, strain AKU_12601, completely sequenced using capillary techniques and subsequently checked using Illumina/Solexa resequencing. Comparison with the published genome of Paratyphi A ATCC9150 revealed the two are collinear and highly similar, with 188 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 39 insertions/deletions. A comparative analysis of pseudogene complements of these and two finished Typhi genomes (CT18, Ty2) identified several pseudogenes that had been overlooked in prior genome annotations of one or both serovars, and identified 66 pseudogenes shared between serovars. By determining whether each shared and serovar-specific pseudogene had been recombined between Paratyphi A and Typhi, we found evidence that most pseudogenes have accumulated after the recombination between serovars. We also divided pseudogenes into relative-time groups: ancestral pseudogenes inherited from a common ancestor, pseudogenes recombined between serovars which likely arose between initial divergence and later recombination, serovar-specific pseudogenes arising after recombination but prior to the last evolutionary bottlenecks in each population, and more recent strain-specific pseudogenes. CONCLUSION:Recombination and pseudogene-formation have been important mechanisms of genetic convergence between Paratyphi A and Typhi, with most pseudogenes arising independently after extensive recombination between the serovars. The recombination events, along with divergence of and within each serovar, provide a relative time scale for pseudogene-forming mutations, affording rare insights into the progression of functional gene loss associated with host adaptation in Salmonella.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contains more than 2,600 serovars of which four are of major medical relevance for humans. While the typhoidal serovars (Typhi and Paratyphi A) are human-restricted and cause enteric fever, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) have a broad host range and predominantly cause gastroenteritis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS:We compared the core proteomes of Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis using contemporary proteomics. For each serovar, five clinical isolates (covering different geographical origins) and one reference strain were grown in vitro to the exponential phase. Levels of orthologous proteins quantified in all four serovars and within the typhoidal and non-typhoidal groups were compared and subjected to gene ontology term enrichment and inferred regulatory interactions. Differential expression of the core proteomes of the typhoidal serovars appears mainly related to cell surface components and, for the non-typhoidal serovars, to pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequence of pKDSC50, a large virulence plasmid from Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strain RF-1, has been determined. We identified 48 of the open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the 49,503-bp molecule. pKDSC50 encodes a known virulence-associated operon, the spv operon, which is composed of genes essential for systemic infection by nontyphoidal Salmonella. Analysis of the genetic organization of pKDSC50 suggests that the plasmid is composed of several virulence-associated genes, which include the spvRABCD genes, plasmid replication and maintenance genes, and one insertion sequence element. A second virulence-associated region including the pef (plasmid-encoded fimbria) operon and rck (resistance to complement killing) gene, which has been identified on the virulence plasmid of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, was absent. Two different replicon regions, similar to the RepFIIA and RepFIB replicons, were found. Both showed high similarity to those of the pO157 plasmid of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) adherence factor plasmid harbored by EPEC strain B171 (O111:NM), as well as the virulence plasmids of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the 50-kb virulence plasmid of serovar Choleraesuis and the 94-kb virulence plasmid of serovar Typhimurium revealed that 47 out of 48 ORFs of the virulence plasmid of serovar Choleraesuis are highly homologous to the corresponding ORFs of the virulence plasmid of serovar Typhimurium, suggesting a common ancestry.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), a highly invasive serovar among non-typhoidal Salmonella, usually causes sepsis or extra-intestinal focal infections in humans. S. Choleraesuis infections have now become particularly difficult to treat because of the emergence of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. The 4.7 Mb genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67 was determined. Genome wide comparison of three sequenced Salmonella genomes revealed that more deletion events occurred in S. Choleraesuis SC-B67 and S.Typhi CT18 relative to S. Typhimurium LT2. S. Choleraesuis has 151 pseudogenes, which, among the three Salmonella genomes, include the highest percentage of pseudogenes arising from the genes involved in bacterial chemotaxis signal-transduction pathways. Mutations in these genes may increase smooth swimming of the bacteria, potentially allowing more effective interactions with and invasion of host cells to occur. A key regulatory gene of TetR/AcrR family, acrR, was inactivated through the introduction of an internal stop codon resulting in overexpression of AcrAB that appears to be associated with ciprofloxacin resistance. While lateral gene transfer providing basic functions to allow niche expansion in the host and environment is maintained during the evolution of different serovars of Salmonella, genes providing little overall selective benefit may be lost rapidly. Our findings suggest that the formation of pseudogenes may provide a simple evolutionary pathway that complements gene acquisition to enhance virulence and antimicrobial resistance in S. Choleraesuis.
Project description:Salmonella enterica with the identical antigenic formula 6,7:c:1,5 can be differentiated biochemically and by disease syndrome. One grouping, Salmonella Paratyphi C, is currently considered a typhoidal serovar, responsible for enteric fever in humans. The human-restricted typhoidal serovars (S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, B and C) typically display high levels of genome degradation and are cited as an example of convergent evolution for host adaptation in humans. However, S. Paratyphi C presents a different clinical picture to S. Typhi/Paratyphi A, in a patient group with predisposition, raising the possibility that its natural history is different, and that infection is invasive salmonellosis rather than enteric fever. Using whole genome sequencing and metabolic pathway analysis, we compared the genomes of 17 S. Paratyphi C strains to other members of the 6,7:c:1,5 group and to two typhoidal serovars: S. Typhi and Paratyphi A. The genome degradation observed in S. Paratyphi C was much lower than S. Typhi/Paratyphi A, but similar to the other 6,7:c:1,5 strains. Genomic and metabolic comparisons revealed little to no overlap between S. Paratyphi C and the other typhoidal serovars, arguing against convergent evolution and instead providing evidence of a primary adaptation to pigs in accordance with the 6,7:c:1.5 strains.