ABSTRACT: Extracts from the roots and rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are widely used as dietary supplements to alleviate menopausal symptoms. State-of-the-art quality control measures involve phytochemical fingerprinting of the triterpene glycosides for species identification and chemical standardization by HPLC. In the course of developing materials and methods for standardization procedures, the major C. racemosa triterpene glycoside (1) was isolated and initially thought to be cimicifugoside (2). Detailed HR-LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR analysis of 1 and 2 unambiguously revealed that 1 is the chlorine-containing derivative of 2, namely, 25-chlorodeoxycimigenol-3-O-beta-d-xyloside. Accordingly, HPLC profiles of black cohosh preparations require revision of the assignments of the chlorinated (1) and nonchlorinated (2) pair. Besides explaining the substantial shift in polarity (DeltatR[RP-18] ca. 20 min), 25-deoxychlorination opens a new pathway of structural diversification in triterpene glycoside chemistry. As chemical conversion of 2 into 1 could be demonstrated, deoxychlorination may be interpreted as artifact formation. Simultaneously, however, it is a potentially significant pathway for the gastric in vivo conversion ("nature's prodrug") of the relatively polar triterpene glycosides into significantly less polar chlorinated derivatives with altered pharmacological properties.
Project description:Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause, but the botanical authenticity of most products containing black cohosh has not been evaluated, nor is manufacturing highly regulated in the United States. In this study, 11 black cohosh products were analyzed for triterpene glycosides, phenolic constituents, and formononetin by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and a new selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Three of the 11 products were found to contain the marker compound cimifugin and not cimiracemoside C, thereby indicating that these plants contain Asian Actaea instead of black cohosh. One product contained both black cohosh and an Asian Actaea species. For the products containing only black cohosh, there was significant product-to-product variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides and phenolic constituents, and as expected, no formononetin was detected.
Project description:Investigating the phytochemical equivalence of the aerial parts of Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) relative to the widely used roots/rhizomes, this study provides a perspective for the potential use of renewable ("green") plant parts as a source of black cohosh botanical preparations. In addition to the characterization of N?-methylserotonin as one representative marker of the Actaea alkaloids, nine cycloartane triterpenes were isolated and characterized, including the two new triterpene glycosides (1S,15R)-1,15,25-trihydroxy-3-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-acta-(16S,23R,24R)-16,23;16,24-binoxoside (1) and 3-O-?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1S,24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxy-15-oxo-acta-(16R,23R)-16,23-monoxoside (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The relative configuration of 1 was deduced by (1)H iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA), making it the first example of the complete analysis of the complex (1)H NMR spectrum of a triterpene glycoside. In addition to the new compounds 1 and 2, the aerial plant parts were shown to contain the previously known binoxosides 3, 4, 6, and 7, the monoxoside 8, and the binoxols 5 and 9. Overall, the metabolome of the aerial plant parts consists of a variety of Actaea triterpenes, similar to those found in roots/rhizomes, a tendency toward C-1 and C-7 hydroxylation of the cycloartanol skeleton, a greater abundance of aglycones, and the presence of comparable amounts of N?-methylserotonin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) are increasingly popular as herbal alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the alleviation of postmenopausal disorders. However, the molecular mode of action and the active principles are presently not clear. Previously published data have been largely contradictory. We, therefore, investigated the effects of a lipophilic black cohosh rhizome extract and cycloartane-type triterpenoids on the estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. RESULTS: Both extract and purified compounds clearly inhibited cellular proliferation. Gene expression profiling with the extract allowed us to identify 431 regulated genes with high significance. The extract induced expression pattern differed from those of 17beta-estradiol or the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. We observed a significant enrichment of genes in an anti-proliferative and apoptosis-sensitizing manner, as well as an increase of mRNAs coding for gene products involved in several stress response pathways. These functional groups were highly overrepresented among all regulated genes. Also several transcripts coding for oxidoreductases were induced, as for example the cytochrome P450 family members 1A1 and 1B1. In addition, some transcripts associated with antitumor but also tumor-promoting activity were regulated. Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of 13 selected genes was conducted after treatment with purified compounds - the cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside actein and triterpene aglycons - showing similar expression levels compared to the extract. CONCLUSION: No estrogenic but antiproliferative and proapoptotic gene expression was shown for black cohosh in MCF-7 cells at the transcriptional level. The effects may be results of the activation of different pathways. The cycloartane glycosides and - for the first time - their aglycons could be identified as an active principle in black cohosh.
Project description:Despite persistent questions about the safety of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.), its products continue to be one of the most popular botanical supplements in the United States market. Black cohosh products have been associated with cases of liver toxicity, but subsequent evaluation found some products to be adulterated with other related plants from the same genus. US FDA regulations require that black cohosh products be unadulterated, and correct identification of different species of Actaea is a key first step for their good manufacturing practice. We have developed a phytochemical method to distinguish four different groups of Actaea, including: species other than A. racemosa, Asian species, A. racemosa, and North American species other than A. racemosa. Using HPLC-TOF-ESI-MS technique and principal component analysis, we identified 15 chemical markers (1-3, 5-6, 8-10, 12, 16-21). Three marker compounds were unambiguously identified using authentic standards, and 12 marker compounds were tentatively identified by comparison of fragmentation patterns with previously reported data. The presence of these marker compounds is critical for discrimination among the four groups of closely related plants. The use of metabolic profiling to distinguish black cohosh from related species of Actaea has broader implications in the identification of markers to help authenticate other important medicinal plants.
Project description:As an extension of work on the recently discovered nitrogenous metabolites from Cimicifuga/Actaea species, three new guanidine alkaloids have been isolated and characterized from C. racemosa (syn. A. racemosa) roots. Of these, cyclo-cimipronidine (1) and cimipronidine methyl ester (2) are congeners of cimipronidine (3), whereas dopargine (5) is a derivative of dopamine. By employing NMR- and MS-guided chemodiversity profiling of a polar serotonergic (5-HT(7)) fraction, the guanidine alkaloids were initially detected in a clinical extract of black cohosh and were isolated along with a congener of salsolinol 4, 5, and 3-hydroxytyrosol 3-O-glucoside (7). The structures of 1, 2, and 5 were confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as LC-MS and HRMS spectroscopy. A plausible biosynthetic relationship may be inferred between the homoproline-analogue cimipronidines and the dopamine-derived Cimicifuga alkaloids. These strongly basic and frequently zwitterionic nitrogenous metabolites contribute considerable chemical diversity to the polar serotonergic fraction of black cohosh.
Project description:Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species (A. foetida, A. dahurica) and two American species (A. pachypoda, A. podocarpa). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine-O-hexoside isomers ([M + H]+ 492) and one feruloyl dopamine-O-dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl]+ at m/z 492). Graphical abstract Hydroxycinnamic acid amide glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for authentication of black cohosh.
Project description:Dietary supplements containing black cohosh are alternatives to conventional hormone replacement therapy in menopause. This study investigates the maximum tolerated dose of a 75% ethanol extract of black cohosh and determines the pharmacokinetics of one of its most abundant triterpene glycosides, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein. Single doses of black cohosh extract containing 1.4, 2.8, or 5.6 mg of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein were administered to 15 healthy, menopausal women. Serial blood samples and 24-h urine samples were obtained; blood chemistry, hormonal levels, and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein levels were determined. No acute toxicity or estrogenic hormone effects were observed. Pharmacokinetic analyses of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein in sera indicated that the maximum concentration and area under the curve increased proportionately with dosage, and that the half-life was ~2 h for all dosages. Less than 0.01% of the 23-epi-26-deoxyactein was recovered in urine 24 h after administration. No phase I or phase II metabolites were observed either in clinical specimens or in vitro.
Project description:Women who experience hot flashes as a side effect of tamoxifen (TAM) therapy often try botanical remedies such as black cohosh to alleviate these symptoms. Since pharmacological activity of TAM is dependent on the metabolic conversion into active metabolites by the action of cytochromes P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether black cohosh extracts can inhibit formation of active TAM metabolites and possibly reduce its clinical efficacy. At 50 ?g/mL, a 75% ethanolic extract of black cohosh inhibited formation of 4-hydroxy- TAM by 66.3%, N-desmethyl TAM by 74.6% and ?-hydroxy TAM by 80.3%. In addition, using midazolam and dextromethorphan as probe substrates, this extract inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with IC(50) values of 16.5 and 50.1 ?g/mL, respectively. Eight triterpene glycosides were identified as competitive CYP3A4 inhibitors with IC(50) values ranging from 2.3-5.1 µM, while the alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine were identified as competitive CYP2D6 inhibitors with K(i) values of 78 and 122?nM, respectively. The results of this study suggests that co-administration of black cohosh with TAM might interfere with the clinical efficacy of this drug. However, additional clinical studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these in vitro results.
Project description:Three new triterpene glycosides, pacificusosides A-C (<b>1</b>-<b>3</b>), and three previously known triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides C<sub>1</sub> (<b>4</b>), C<sub>2</sub> (<b>5</b>), and A<sub>10</sub> (<b>6</b>), were isolated from the alcoholic extract of the Far Eastern starfish <i>Solaster pacificus</i>. The structures of <b>1</b>-<b>3</b> were elucidated by extensive NMR and ESIMS techniques and chemical transformations. Compound <b>1</b> has a novel, unique structure, containing an aldehyde group of side chains in its triterpene aglycon. This structural fragment has not previously been found in the sea cucumber triterpene glycosides or starfish steroidal glycosides. Probably, pacificusoside A (<b>1</b>) is a product of the metabolism of the glycoside obtained through dietary means from a sea cucumber in the starfish. Another two new triterpene glycosides (<b>2</b>, <b>3</b>) have closely related characteristics to sea cucumber glycosides. The cytotoxicity of compounds <b>1</b>-<b>6</b> was tested against human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells, colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells, melanoma RPMI-7951 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells using MTS assay. Compounds <b>4</b>-<b>6</b> revealed the highest cytotoxic activity against the tested cell lines, while the other investigated compounds had moderate or slight cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effects of <b>2</b>-<b>6</b> were reduced by cholesterol like the similar effects of the previously investigated individual triterpene glycosides. Compounds <b>3</b>, <b>4</b>, and <b>5</b> almost completely suppressed the colony formation of the HT-29, RPMI-7951, and MDA-MB-231 cells at a nontoxic concentration of 0.5 µM.
Project description:Ten new di-, tri- and tetrasulfated triterpene glycosides, psolusosides B1 (1), B2 (2), J (3), K (4), L (5), M (6), N (7), O (8), P (9), and Q (10), were isolated from the sea cucumber Psolus fabricii collected in the Sea of Okhotsk near the Kurile Islands. Structures of these glycosides were established by two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI mass-spectrometry. It is particularly interesting that highly polar compounds 9 and 10 contain four sulfate groups in their carbohydrate moieties, including two sulfates in the same terminal glucose residue. Glycoside 2 has an unusual non-holostane aglycone with 18(16)-lactone and a unique 7,8-epoxy fragment. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-10 against several mouse cell lines such as Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, neuroblastoma Neuro 2A, normal epithelial JB-6 cells, and erythrocytes were quite different depending both on structural peculiarities of these glycosides and the type of cells subjected to their actions. Psolusoside L (5), pentaoside, with three sulfate groups at C-6 of two glucose and one 3-O-methylglucose residue and holostane aglycone, is the most active compound in the series. The presence of a sulfate group at C-2 of the terminal glucose residue attached to C-4 of the first (xylose) residue significantly decreases activities of the corresponding glycosides. Psolusosides of group B (1, 2, and known psolusoside B) are inactive in all tests due to the presence of non-holostane aglycones and tetrasaccharide-branched sugar chains sulfated by C-2 of Glc4.