The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates uptake of amyloid beta peptides in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier cells.
ABSTRACT: The metabolism of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) in the brain is crucial to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. A body of evidence suggests that A beta is actively transported from brain parenchyma to blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although the precise mechanism remains unclear. To unravel the cellular and molecular mechanism of A beta transport across the BBB, we established a new in vitro model of the initial internalization step of A beta transport using TR-BBB cells, a conditionally immortalized endothelial cell line from rat brain. We show that TR-BBB cells rapidly internalize A beta through a receptor-mediated mechanism. We also provide evidence that A beta internalization is mediated by LRP1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), since administration of LRP1 antagonist, receptor-associated protein, neutralizing antibody, or small interference RNAs all reduced A beta uptake. Despite the requirement of LRP1-dependent internalization, A beta does not directly bind to LRP1 in an in vitro binding assay. Unlike TR-BBB cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts endogenously expressing functional LRP1 and exhibiting the authentic LRP1-mediated endocytosis (e.g. of tissue plasminogen activator) did not show rapid A beta uptake. Based on these data, we propose that the rapid LRP1-dependent internalization of A beta occurs under the BBB-specific cellular context and that TR-BBB is a useful tool for analyzing the molecular mechanism of the rapid transport of A beta across BBB.
Project description:According to the neurovascular hypothesis, impairment of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) in brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to neurotoxic amyloid-? (A?) brain accumulation and drives Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, due to conflicting reports on the involvement of LRP1 in A? transport and the expression of LRP1 in brain endothelium, the role of LRP1 at the BBB is uncertain. As global Lrp1 deletion in mice is lethal, appropriate models to study the function of LRP1 are lacking. Moreover, the relevance of systemic A? clearance to AD pathology remains unclear, as no BBB-specific knockout models have been available. Here, we developed transgenic mouse strains that allow for tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Lrp1 specifically within brain endothelial cells (Slco1c1-CreER(T2) Lrp1(fl/fl) mice) and used these mice to accurately evaluate LRP1-mediated A? BBB clearance in vivo. Selective deletion of Lrp1 in the brain endothelium of C57BL/6 mice strongly reduced brain efflux of injected [125I] A?(1-42). Additionally, in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD, brain endothelial-specific Lrp1 deletion reduced plasma A? levels and elevated soluble brain A?, leading to aggravated spatial learning and memory deficits, thus emphasizing the importance of systemic A? elimination via the BBB. Together, our results suggest that receptor-mediated A? BBB clearance may be a potential target for treatment and prevention of A? brain accumulation in AD.
Project description:The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) has a dual role in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In cellular models, LRP1 enhances amyloid-β (Aβ) generation via APP internalization and thus its amyloidogenic processing. However, conditional knock-out studies in mice define LRP1 as an important mediator for the clearance of extracellular Aβ from brain via cellular degradation or transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In order to analyze the net effect of LRP1 on production and clearance of Aβ in vivo, we crossed mice with impaired LRP1 function with a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of Aβ metabolism showed that, despite reduced Aβ clearance due to LRP1 inactivation in vivo, less Aβ was found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Further analysis of APP metabolism revealed that impairment of LRP1 in vivo shifted APP processing from the Aβ-generating amyloidogenic cleavage by beta-secretase to the non-amyloidogenic processing by alpha-secretase as shown by a decrease in extracellular Aβ and an increase of soluble APP-α (sAPP-α). This shift in APP processing resulted in overall lower Aβ levels and a reduction in plaque burden. Here, we present for the first time clear in vivo evidence that global impairment of LRP1's endocytosis function favors non-amyloidogenic processing of APP due to its reduced internalization and subsequently, reduced amyloidogenic processing. By inactivation of LRP1, the inhibitory effect on Aβ generation overrules the simultaneous impaired Aβ clearance, resulting in less extracellular Aβ and reduced plaque deposition in a mouse model of AD.
Project description:Amyloid beta (A?) homeostasis in the brain is governed by its production and clearance mechanisms. An imbalance in this homeostasis results in pathological accumulations of cerebral A?, a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While A? may be cleared by several physiological mechanisms, a major route of A? clearance is the vascular-mediated removal of A? from the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we discuss the role of the predominant A? clearance protein-low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-in the efflux of A? from the brain. We also outline the multiple factors that influence the function of LRP1-mediated A? clearance, such as its expression, shedding, structural modification and transcriptional regulation by other genes. Finally, we summarize approaches aimed at restoring LRP1-mediated A? clearance from the brain.
Project description:Neurotoxic amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). The APOE4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD and has been associated with increased brain parenchymal and vascular amyloid burden. How apoE isoforms influence Abeta accumulation in the brain has, however, remained unclear. Here, we have shown that apoE disrupts Abeta clearance across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB) in an isoform-specific manner (specifically, apoE4 had a greater disruptive effect than either apoE3 or apoE2). Abeta binding to apoE4 redirected the rapid clearance of free Abeta40/42 from the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to the VLDL receptor (VLDLR), which internalized apoE4 and Abeta-apoE4 complexes at the BBB more slowly than LRP1. In contrast, apoE2 and apoE3 as well as Abeta-apoE2 and Abeta-apoE3 complexes were cleared at the BBB via both VLDLR and LRP1 at a substantially faster rate than Abeta-apoE4 complexes. Astrocyte-secreted lipo-apoE2, lipo-apoE3, and lipo-apoE4 as well as their complexes with Abeta were cleared at the BBB by mechanisms similar to those of their respective lipid-poor isoforms but at 2- to 3-fold slower rates. Thus, apoE isoforms differentially regulate Abeta clearance from the brain, and this might contribute to the effects of APOE genotype on the disease process in both individuals with AD and animal models of AD.
Project description:The main receptors for amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from brain to blood and blood to brain are low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), respectively. In normal human plasma a soluble form of LRP1 (sLRP1) is a major endogenous brain Abeta 'sinker' that sequesters some 70 to 90 % of plasma Abeta peptides. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the levels of sLRP1 and its capacity to bind Abeta are reduced which increases free Abeta fraction in plasma. This in turn may increase brain Abeta burden through decreased Abeta efflux and/or increased Abeta influx across the BBB. In Abeta immunotherapy, anti-Abeta antibody sequestration of plasma Abeta enhances the peripheral Abeta 'sink action'. However, in contrast to endogenous sLRP1 which does not penetrate the BBB, some anti-Abeta antibodies may slowly enter the brain which reduces the effectiveness of their sink action and may contribute to neuroinflammation and intracerebral hemorrhage. Anti-Abeta antibody/Abeta immune complexes are rapidly cleared from brain to blood via FcRn (neonatal Fc receptor) across the BBB. In a mouse model of AD, restoring plasma sLRP1 with recombinant LRP-IV cluster reduces brain Abeta burden and improves functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and behavioral responses, without causing neuroinflammation and/or hemorrhage. The C-terminal sequence of Abeta is required for its direct interaction with sLRP and LRP-IV cluster which is completely blocked by the receptor-associated protein (RAP) that does not directly bind Abeta. Therapies to increase LRP1 expression or reduce RAGE activity at the BBB and/or restore the peripheral Abeta 'sink' action, hold potential to reduce brain Abeta and inflammation, and improve CBF and functional recovery in AD models, and by extension in AD patients.
Project description:Oleocanthal, a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil, has been recently linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins in the brain. However, the mechanism by which oleocanthal exerts its neuroprotective effect is still incompletely understood. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for the potential of oleocanthal to enhance Aβ clearance from the brain via up-regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and LDL lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1), major Aβ transport proteins, at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Results from in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated similar and consistent pattern of oleocanthal in controlling Aβ levels. In cultured mice brain endothelial cells, oleocanthal treatment increased P-gp and LRP1 expression and activity. Brain efflux index (BEI%) studies of (125)I-Aβ40 showed that administration of oleocanthal extracted from extra-virgin olive oil to C57BL/6 wild-type mice enhanced (125)I-Aβ40 clearance from the brain and increased the BEI% from 62.0 ± 3.0% for control mice to 79.9 ± 1.6% for oleocanthal treated mice. Increased P-gp and LRP1 expression in the brain microvessels and inhibition studies confirmed the role of up-regulation of these proteins in enhancing (125)I-Aβ40 clearance after oleocanthal treatment. Furthermore, our results demonstrated significant increase in (125)I-Aβ40 degradation as a result of the up-regulation of Aβ degrading enzymes following oleocanthal treatment. In conclusion, these findings provide experimental support that potential reduced risk of AD associated with extra-virgin olive oil could be mediated by enhancement of Aβ clearance from the brain.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle to drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS), in particular for macromolecules such as peptides and proteins. However, certain macromolecules can reach the CNS via a receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) pathway, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is one of the promising receptors for RMT. An LRP1 ligand peptide, Angiopep-2, was reported to pass through the BBB and deliver covalently conjugated drugs into the CNS. While conjugation of LRP1 ligands with drugs would be an effective approach for drug delivery to the CNS, no other reliable LRP1 ligands have been reported to date. In this study, we aimed to identify novel LRP1 ligands to further investigate LRP1-mediated RMT. Using phage display technology, we obtained a novel peptide, L57 (TWPKHFDKHTFYSILKLGKH-OH), with an EC50 value of 45 nM for binding to cluster 4 (Ser3332-Asp3779) of LRP1. L57 was stable in mouse plasma for up to 20 min. In situ brain perfusion assay in mice revealed the significantly high BBB permeability of L57. In conclusion, we discovered L57, the first artificial LRP1-binding peptide with BBB permeability. Our findings will contribute to the development of RMT-based drugs for the treatment of CNS diseases.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides in the brain. The pathological process has not yet been clarified, although dysfunctional transport of A? across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) appears to be integral to disease development. At present, no effective therapeutic treatment against AD exists, and the adoption of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone body (KB) supplements have been investigated as potential new therapeutic approaches. Despite experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that KBs reduce the A? load in the AD brain, little information is available about the effect of KBs on BBB and their effect on A? transport. Therefore, we used a human in vitro BBB model, brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs), to investigate the effect of KBs on the BBB and on A? transport. Our results show that KBs do not modify BBB integrity and do not cause toxicity to BLECs. Furthermore, the presence of KBs in the culture media was combined with higher MCT1 and GLUT1 protein levels in BLECs. In addition, KBs significantly enhanced the protein levels of LRP1, P-gp, and PICALM, described to be involved in A? clearance. Finally, the combined use of KBs promotes A? efflux across the BBB. Inhibition experiments demonstrated the involvement of LRP1 and P-gp in the efflux. This work provides evidence that KBs promote A? clearance from the brain to blood in addition to exciting perspectives for studying the use of KBs in therapeutic approaches.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits transport of nanoparticles from the circulation to the brain parenchyma. Angiopep-2, a peptide which functions as a brain transport vector, can be coupled to nanoparticles in order to facilitate binding and internalization by brain endothelial cells (ECs), and subsequent BBB penetration. This multi-step process may be affected by blood flow over brain ECs, as flow influences endothelial cell phenotype as well as interactions of nanoparticles with ECs. In the present study a microfluidic BBB model was constructed to evaluate binding and internalization by brain ECs, as well as BBB penetration of Angiopep-2 coupled liposomes (Ang2-Liposomes) in static and flow conditions. Ang2 conjugation to liposomes markedly improved binding relative to unconjugated liposomes. Ang2-Liposomes bound and were internalized efficiently by brain endothelial cells after static incubation or with 1 dyne/cm2 of fluid shear stress (FSS), while binding was reduced at a FSS of 6 dyne/cm2. Penetration of the model microfluidic BBB by Ang2-Liposomes was higher at a FSS of 1 dyne/cm2 and 6 dyne/cm2 than with static incubation. Analysis of barrier function and control experiments for receptor-mediated penetration provided insight into the magnitude of transcellular versus paracellular transport at each tested FSS. Overall, the results demonstrate that flow impacted the binding and BBB penetration of Ang2-functionalized nanoparticles. This highlights the relevance of the local flow environment for in vitro modeling of the performance of nanoparticles functionalized with BBB penetrating ligands.
Project description:Cerebral atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is generated in the brain, has functions in the regulation of brain water and electrolyte balance, blood pressure and local cerebral blood flow, as well as in neuroendocrine functions. However, cerebral ANP clearance is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism of blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transport of ANP in mouse. Western blot analysis showed expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (Npr)-A and Npr-C in mouse brain capillaries. The brain efflux index (BEI) method confirmed elimination of [(125)I]human ANP (hANP) from mouse brain across the BBB. Inhibition studies suggested the involvement of Npr-C in vivo. Furthermore, rapid internalization of [(125)I]hANP by TM-BBB4 cells (an in vitro BBB model) was significantly inhibited by Npr-C inhibitors and by two different Npr-C-targeted short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Finally, treatment with 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) significantly increased Npr-C expression in TM-BBB4 cells, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted absolute proteomics. Our results indicate that Npr-C mediates brain-to-blood efflux transport of ANP at the mouse BBB as a pathway of cerebral ANP clearance. It seems likely that levels of natriuretic peptides in the brain are modulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) through upregulation of Npr-C expression at the BBB.