Treatment response to transcatheter arterial embolization and chemoembolization in primary and metastatic tumors of the liver.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and chemoembolization (TACE) are increasingly used to treat unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the objective response to TAE and TACE in unresectable hepatic malignancies and to identify clinicopathologic predictors of response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-nine consecutive patients who underwent 119 TAE/TACE procedures between 1998 and 2006 were reviewed. The change in maximal diameter of 121 evaluable lesions in 56 patients was calculated from pre and post-procedure imaging. Response rates were determined using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival in responders vs. non-responders and in primary vs. metastatic histologies. RESULTS: TAE and TACE resulted in a mean decrease in lesion size of 10.3%+/-1.9% (p<0.001). TACE (vs. TAE) and carcinoid tumors were associated with a greater response (p<0.05). Lesion response was not predicted by pre-treatment size, vascularity, or histology. The RECIST partial response (PR) rate was 12.3% and all partial responders were in the TACE group. Neuroendocrine tumors, and specifically carcinoid lesions, had a significantly greater PR rate (p<0.05). Overall survival, however, was not associated with histology or radiologic response. DISCUSSION: TAE and TACE produce a significant objective treatment response by RECIST criteria. Response is greatest in neuroendocrine tumors and is independent of vascularity and lesion size. TACE appears to be superior to TAE. Although an association of response with improved survival was not demonstrated, large cohort studies are necessary to further define this relationship.
Project description:Purpose To test and compare the association between radiologic measurements of lesion diameter, volume, and enhancement on baseline magnetic resonance (MR) images with overall survival and tumor response in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective, single-institution analysis was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. It included 79 patients with unresectable HCC who were treated with TACE. Baseline arterial phase contrast material-enhanced (CE) MR imaging was used to measure the overall and enhancing tumor diameters. A segmentation-based three-dimensional quantification of the overall and enhancing tumor volumes was performed in each patient. Numeric cutoff values (5 cm for diameters and 65 cm(3) for volumes) were used to stratify the patient cohort in two groups. Tumor response rates according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), modified RECIST (mRECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines were recorded for all groups. Survival was evaluated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis and was compared by using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) after univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Stratification according to overall and enhancing tumor diameters did not result in a significant separation of survival curves (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7, 2.5; P = .234; and HR, 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; P = .08, respectively). The stratification according to overall and enhancing tumor volume achieved significance (HR, 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.4; P = .022; and HR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1; P = .017, respectively). As for tumor response, higher response rates were observed in smaller lesions compared with larger lesions, when the 5-cm threshold (27% vs 15% for mRECIST and 45% vs 24% for EASL) was used. Conclusion As opposed to anatomic tumor diameter as the most commonly used staging marker, volumetric assessment of lesion size and enhancement on baseline CE MR images is strongly associated with survival of patients with HCC who were treated with TACE.
Project description:Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) has not been shown to be superior to bland embolisation (TAE) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).We conducted a randomised phase II/III trial in patients with untreated HCC. Patients were randomised to TAE with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles alone or sequential TACE (sTACE) in which cisplatin 50?mg was administered intrarterially 4-6?h before PVA embolisation. Treatment was repeated 3-weekly for up to three treatments. The primary endpoint was overall survival and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, toxicity and response. Target sample sizes for phase II and III were 80 and 322.The trial was terminated at phase II after 86 patients had been randomised. Patients were well matched for prognostic criteria. All three planned treatments were given to 57.1% (TAE) and 56.8% (TACE) patients. Grade 3/4 toxicity occurred in 63.5% and 83.7%, respectively (P=0.019). End-of-treatment RECIST response (CR+PR) was 13.2 and 32.6% (P=0.04) (mRECIST 47.3% and 67.4) and median overall survival and progression-free survival was 17.3 vs 16.3 (P=0.74) months and 7.2 vs 7.5 (P=0.59), respectively.Transarterial chemoembolisation according this novel schedule is feasible and associated with a higher response rate than TAE alone. The survival benefit of TACE over TAE remains unproven.
Project description:The optimal transcatheter embolization strategy for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of different embolization options for unresectable HCC.Medical databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating bland transarterial embolization (TAE), conventional TACE, drug-eluting bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE), or transarterial radioembolization (TARE), either alone or combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, or local liver ablation, or external radiotherapy for unresectable HCC up to June 2017. Random effects Bayesian models with a binomial and normal likelihood were fitted (WinBUGS). Primary endpoint was patient survival expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% credible intervals. An exponential model was used to fit patient survival curves. Safety and objective response were calculated as odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% credible intervals. Competing treatments were ranked with the SUCRA statistic. Heterogeneity-adjusted effective sample sizes were calculated to evaluate information size for each comparison. Quality of evidence (QoE) was assessed with the GRADE system adapted for NMA reports. All analyses complied with the ISPOR-AMCP-NCP Task Force Report for good practice in NMA.The network of evidence included 55 RCTs (12 direct comparisons) with 5,763 patients with preserved liver function and unresectable HCC (intermediate to advanced stage). All embolization strategies achieved a significant survival gain over control treatment (HR range, 0.42-0.76; very low-to-moderate QoE). However, TACE, DEB-TACE, TARE and adjuvant systemic agents did not confer any survival benefit over bland TAE alone (moderate QoE, except low in case of TARE). There was moderate QoE that TACE combined with external radiation or liver ablation achieved the best patient survival (SUCRA 86% and 96%, respectively). Estimated median survival was 13.9 months in control, 18.1 months in TACE, 20.6 months with DEB-TACE, 20.8 months with bland TAE, 30.1 months in TACE plus external radiotherapy, and 33.3 months in TACE plus liver ablation. TARE was the safest treatment (SUCRA 77%), however, all examined therapies were associated with a significantly higher risk of toxicity over control (OR range, 6.35 to 68.5). TACE, DEB-TACE, TARE and adjuvant systemic agents did not improve objective response over bland embolization alone (OR range, 0.85 to 1.65). There was clinical diversity among included randomized controlled trials, but statistical heterogeneity was low.Chemo- and radio-embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma may improve tumour objective response and patient survival, but are not more effective than bland particle embolization. Chemoembolization combined with external radiotherapy or local liver ablation may significantly improve tumour response and patient survival rates over embolization monotherapies. Quality of evidence remains mostly low to moderate because of clinical diversity.CRD42016035796 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
Project description:Locoregional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) include endovascular treatments such as chemoembolization (TACE) and bland embolization (TAE). TACE is the most adopted technique, despite a lack of definitive evidence of superiority over TAE, which is less costly and better tolerated due to the absence of chemotherapy. However, few studies have reported data on TAE monotherapy for unresectable HCC. We report our results in a cohort of 230 patients with unresectable HCC treated with TAE (TAE with 40-100micron microparticles, TAE with microparticles plus n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, TAE with Lipiodol) over the course of seven years. Thirty-seven patients (14%) were down-staged during observation and also received a percutaneous ablation. We observed 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year rates of 84,8%, 58,7%, 38,3%, 28,3%, and 18,7%. Patients who also received percutaneous treatment performed best. Our results broaden the body of evidence for the use of TAE in advanced HCC.
Project description:To determine whether volumetric changes of enhancement as seen on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help assess early tumor response and predict survival in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma after one session of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).Fifteen patients with 59 lesions who underwent MR imaging before and 3 to 4 weeks after the first TACE were retrospectively included. MR analysis evaluated signal intensities, World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), modified RECIST (mRECIST), tumor volume [volumetric RECIST (vRECIST)], and volumetric tumor enhancement [quantitative EASL (qEASL)]. qEASL was expressed in cubic centimeters [qEASL (cm(3))] and as a percentage of the tumor volume [qEASL (%)]. Paired t test with its exact permutation distribution was used to compare measurements before and after TACE. The Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test was used to calculate overall survival for responders and non-responders.In target lesions, mean qEASL (%) decreased from 63.9% to 42.6% (P = .016). No significant changes were observed using the other response criteria. In non-target lesions, mean WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST, vRECIST, and qEASL (cm(3)) were significantly increased compared to baseline. qEASL (%) remained stable (P = .214). Median overall survival was 5.6 months. qEASL (cm(3)) was the only parameter that could predict survival based on target lesions (3.6 vs 40.5 months, P < .001) or overall (target and non-target lesions) response (4.4 vs 40.9 months, P = .001).Volumetric tumor enhancement may be used as a surrogate biomarker for survival prediction in patients with uveal melanoma after the first TACE.
Project description:Background/Aims:The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria have been used to assess treatment responses for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We investigated which criteria provides better survival predictions in HCC patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Methods:In total, 102 patients with unresectable intrahepatic HCC, who were treated with TARE between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment response after TARE was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months by the mRECIST and RECIST 1.1. Responders were defined as patients with complete or partial responses by each criterion. Results:The median age of 83 men and 19 women was 64.3 years. The median alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin levels were 37.1 ng/mL and 1,780.0 mAU/mL, respectively. The median maximal tumor size was 8.3 cm, and multiple tumors were observed in 36 patients (35.3%). During the follow-up period (median, 20.7 months), 21 patients (20.6%) died, with a mean survival time of 55.5 months. The cumulative survival rate was 96.1% at 6 months and 89.3% at 12 months. Responders, defined by the mRECIST at 1, 3, and 6 months after TARE, showed better survival outcomes than nonresponders (hazard ratio [HR]=5.736, p=0.008 at 1 month; HR=3.145, p=0.022 at 3 months, and HR=2.887, p=0.061 at 6 months). The survival rates of responders and nonresponders defined by the RECIST 1.1 were similar (all p>0.05). Conclusions:Response evaluations that use the mRECIST provide more accurate prognoses than those that use the RECIST 1.1 in HCC patients treated with TARE.
Project description:This study evaluated the factors impacting overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). HCC patients were grouped based on tumor vascularity and lipidiol deposition after TACE. Tumor vascularity was classified based on contrast enhancement on arterial phase baseline CT scans. Lipiodol deposition was evaluated using CT scans. The progression-free rate was significantly higher in patients with good blood supply + good lipiodol deposition compared to those with good blood supply + poor lipiodol deposition. In patients with poor lipidiol deposition, risk of death was significantly positively correlated with stage, and negatively correlated with number of TACE procedures and degree of lipidiol deposition after the first TACE. Risk of disease progression in these patients was positively correlated with tumor size, and negatively correlated with number of TACE procedures and degree of lipidiol deposition after the first TACE. Our data showed that tumor vascularity and lipiodol deposition can be used as early radiological markers to identify patients who do not respond to TACE, and who can be considered earlier for alternative combination treatment strategies. Our data also indicated that poor lipiodol retention may predict a poor TTP and OS despite the blood supply status.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). METHODS:This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS:Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P?=?0.27 and P?=?0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P?=?0.038; HR 0.4). CONCLUSION:The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. KEY POINTS:• Volumetric assessment of colorectal liver metastases after intra-arterial therapy is feasible. • Early 3D quantitative tumour analysis after intra-arterial therapy may predict patient survival. • Volumetric tumour response assessment shows advantages over 1D and 2D techniques. • Enhancement-based MR response assessment is preferable to size-based measurements.
Project description:Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) (unidimensional), World Health Organization (WHO) (bidimensional), and European Association for Study of the Liver (EASL) (necrosis) guidelines are commonly used to assess response following therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). No universally accepted standard exists.To evaluate intermethod agreement between these 3 imaging guidelines and to introduce the concept of the "primary index lesion" as a biomarker for response.Single-center comprehensive imaging analysis including 245 consecutive patients with HCC who were treated with chemoembolization or radioembolization between January 2000 and December 2008. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans (N = 1065) were reviewed to assess response in the "primary index lesion," defined as the largest tumor targeted during first treatment.Intermethod agreement (kappa statistics) between RECIST, WHO, and EASL guidelines response; correlation of WHO and EASL response in the primary index lesion with time to progression and survival.Kappa coefficients were 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.92) between the WHO and RECIST guidelines, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.16-0.33) between RECIST and EASL, and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.19-0.36) between WHO and EASL. Disease progressed in 96 patients; 113 died. The hazard ratio for time to progression in responders compared with nonresponders was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.23-0.57) for WHO, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.24-0.58) for RECIST, and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.22-0.64) for EASL. Hazard ratios for survival in responders compared with nonresponders in univariate and multivariate analyses were 0.46 (95% CI, 0.32-0.67) and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.35-0.84) for WHO and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.22-0.57) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.85) for EASL. Hazard ratios for survival in responders vs nonresponders in patients with solitary and multifocal HCC were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.19-0.77) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.32-0.82) for WHO and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.10-0.67) and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.28-0.79) for EASL.Among a group of patients with HCC, agreement for classification of therapeutic response was high between the RECIST and WHO guidelines but low between each of these and EASL. Application of these methods to measure response in a primary index lesion resulted in statistically significant correlations with disease progression and survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is an established biomarker in neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome; however, its role in nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors is not defined. We present post hoc data on urinary 5-HIAA and plasma chromogranin A (CgA) from the CLARINET study. METHODS:Patients with well- or moderately differentiated, nonfunctioning, locally advanced or metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were randomized to deep subcutaneous lanreotide depot/autogel 120 mg or placebo once every 28 days for 96 weeks. Tumor response, evaluated centrally (RECIST 1.0), and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed by treatment and biochemical response, defined as (a) baseline >upper limit of normal (ULN, 41.6 ?mol per day 5-HIAA; 98.1 ?g/L CgA) and (b) ?50% decrease from baseline and to ?ULN value on study. RESULTS:Forty-eight percent (82 of 171; lanreotide, n = 45; placebo, n = 37) and 66% (129 of 195; lanreotide, n = 65; placebo, n = 64) of randomized patients had 5-HIAA and CgA > ULN at baseline. Among patients with >ULN baseline values who did not progress after 96 weeks of treatment, significantly greater reductions in 5-HIAA and CgA were observed in lanreotide-treated versus placebo-treated patients throughout the study (all p < .05). PFS was significantly prolonged among 5-HIAA responders versus nonresponders (median not reached vs. 16.2 months, p < .0001; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.48) and CgA responders versus nonresponders (median not reached vs. 16.2 months, p = .0070; HR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.12-0.76), regardless of treatment arm. PFS was also significantly prolonged among lanreotide-treated 5-HIAA responders versus nonresponders (p = .0071) but was not significantly different among placebo-treated 5-HIAA responders versus nonresponders. There were no significant differences in PFS between lanreotide-treated CgA responders versus nonresponders or between placebo-treated CgA responders versus nonresponders. CONCLUSIONS:The 5-HIAA findings are noteworthy because they occurred in patients with nonfunctioning enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Monitoring 5-HIAA and CgA may be useful when treating patients with nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Current guidelines focus only on the monitoring of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the diagnosis and management of functional neuroendocrine tumors with carcinoid syndrome. The current post hoc analysis of patients with nonfunctional enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in the CLARINET study demonstrated that measuring and following both 5-HIAA and chromogranin A as biomarkers of disease progression may be useful in the management of patients with nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors.