Ceftriaxone-resistant salmonella enterica serotype Newport, France.
ABSTRACT: The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Newport strain that produces CMY-2 beta-lactamase (Newport MDR-AmpC) was the source of sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans in France during 2000-2005. Because this strain was not detected in food animals, it was most likely introduced into France through imported food products.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates resistant to at least nine antimicrobials (including extended-spectrum cephalosporins), known as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates, have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both animals and humans throughout the United States. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with clinical failures, including death, in patients with systemic infections. In this study, 87 Salmonella serotype Newport strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of class 1 integrons and bla(CMY) genes. Thirty-five PFGE patterns were observed with XbaI, and three of these patterns were indistinguishable among isolates from humans and animals. Fifty-three (60%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were identified as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC, including 16 (53%) of 30 human isolates, 27 (93%) of 29 cattle isolates, 7 (70%) of 10 swine isolates, and 3 (30%) of 10 chicken isolates. However, 28 (32%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. The bla(CMY) gene was present in all serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated bla(CMY) gene was transferable via conjugation to an Escherichia coli strain. The transconjugant showed the MDR-AmpC resistance profile. Thirty-five (40%) of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Sequence analyses of the integrons showed that they contained aadA, which confers resistance to streptomycin, or aadA and dhfr, which confer resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One integron from a swine isolate contained the sat-1 gene, which encodes resistance to streptothricin, an antimicrobial agent that has never been approved for use in the United States. In conclusion, Salmonella serotype Newport MDR-AmpC was commonly identified among Salmonella serotype Newport isolates recovered from humans and food animals. These findings support the possibility of transmission of this organism to humans through the food chain.
Project description:Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport is a major global public health concern, particularly because S. Newport isolates that are resistant to multiple drugs (MDR), including third-generation cephalosporins (MDR-AmpC phenotype), have been commonly isolated from food animals. We analyzed 384 S. Newport isolates from various sources by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to study the evolution and population structure of the serovar. These were compared to the population structure of S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Kentucky, Paratyphi B, and Typhimurium. Our S. Newport collection fell into three lineages, Newport-I, Newport-II, and Newport-III, each of which contained multiple sequence types (STs). Newport-I has only a few STs, unlike Newport-II or Newport-III, and has possibly emerged recently. Newport-I is more prevalent among humans in Europe than in North America, whereas Newport-II is preferentially associated with animals. Two STs of Newport-II encompassed all MDR-AmpC isolates, suggesting recent global spread after the acquisition of the bla(CMY-2) gene. In contrast, most Newport-III isolates were from humans in North America and were pansusceptible to antibiotics. Newport was intermediate in population structure to the other serovars, which varied from a single monophyletic lineage in S. Enteritidis or S. Typhimurium to four discrete lineages within S. Paratyphi B. Both mutation and homologous recombination are responsible for diversification within each of these lineages, but the relative frequencies differed with the lineage. We conclude that serovars of S. enterica provide a variety of different population structures.
Project description:Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Newport strains are increasingly isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and have caused septicemic illness in animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and the epidemiologic, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of S. Newport of animal origin that may infect humans, either via the food chain or directly. During the 1993-2002 period, the Office International des Epizooties Reference Laboratory for Salmonellosis in Guelph, Ontario, received 36 841 Salmonella strains for serotyping that had been isolated from animals, environmental sources, and food of animal origin in Canada. Of these, 119 (0.3%) were S. Newport. Before 2000, none of 49 S. Newport strains was resistant to more than 3 antimicrobials. In contrast, between January 2000 and December 2002, 35 of 70 isolates, primarily of bovine origin, were resistant to at least 11 antimicrobials, including the extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The blaCMY-2', flo(st'), strA, strB, sulII, and tetA resistance genes were located on plasmids of 80 to 90 MDa that were self-transmissible in 25% of the strains. Conserved segments of the integron 1 gene were found on the large MDR-encoding plasmids in 3 of 35 strains additionally resistant to gentamicin and spectinomycin or to spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and trimethoprim. Resistance to kanamycin and neomycin was encoded by the aphA-1 gene, located on small plasmids (2.3 to 6 MDa). The increase in bovine-associated MDR S. Newport infections is cause for concern since it indicates an increased risk of human acquisition of the infection via the food chain.
Project description:Characterization of transmission routes of Salmonella among various food-animal reservoirs and their antibiogram is crucial for appropriate intervention and medical treatment. Here, we analyzed 3728 Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport) isolates collected from various food-animals, retail meats and humans in the United States between 1996 and 2015, based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward 27 antibiotics. Random Forest and Hierarchical Clustering statistic was used to group the isolates according to their MICs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to identify the appropriate antibiotic and its cut-off value between human- and animal-population. Two distinct populations were revealed based on the MICs of individual strain by both methods, with the animal population having significantly higher MICs which correlates to antibiotic-resistance (AR) phenotype. Only ?9.7% (267/2763) human isolates could be attributed to food-animal origins. Furthermore, the isolates of animal origin had less diverse antibiogram than human isolates (P < 0.001), suggesting multiple sources involved in human infections. CART identified trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to be the best classifier for differentiating the animal and human isolates. Additionally, two typical AR patterns, MDR-Amp and Tet-SDR dominant in bovine- or turkey-population, were identified, indicating that distinct food-animal sources could be involved in human infections. The AR analysis suggested fluoroquinolones (i.e., ciprofloxacin), but not extended-spectrum cephalosporins (i.e., ceftriaxone, cefoxitin), is the adaptive choice for empirical therapy. Antibiotic-resistant S. Newport from humans has multiple origins, with distinct food-animal-borne route contributing to a significant proportion of heterogeneous isolates.
Project description:Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
Project description:Salmonella enterica Newport (S. Newport), with phylogenetic diversity feature, contributes to significant public health concerns. Our previous study suggested that S. Newport from multiple animal-borne routes, with distinct antibiotic resistant pattern, might transmit to human. However, their genetic information was lacking. As a complement to the earlier finding, we investigate the relationship between each other among the hosts, sources, genotype and antibiotic resistance in S. Newport. We used the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in conjunction with minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 antibiotics of globally sampled 1842 S. Newport strains, including 282 newly contributed Chinese strains, to evaluate this association. Our analysis reveals that sequence types (STs) are significantly associated with different host sources, including livestock (ST45), birds (ST5), contaminated water and soil (ST118), reptiles (ST46) and seafood (ST31). Importantly, ST45 contained most of (344/553) the multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains, which were believed to be responsible for human MDR bacterial infections. Chinese isolates were detected to form two unique lineages of avian (ST808 group) and freshwater animal (ST2364 group) origin. Taken together, genotyping information of S. Newport could serve to improve Salmonella source-originated diagnostics and guide better selection of antibiotic therapy against Salmonella infections.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and other antimicrobials causes septicemic salmonellosis in humans and animals and is increasingly isolated from humans, animals, foods, and environmental sources. Mechanisms whereby serovar Newport bacteria become resistant to ESCs and other classes of antimicrobials while inhabiting the intestinal tract are not well understood. The present study shows that 25.3% of serovar Newport strains isolated from the turkey poult intestinal tract after the animals were dosed with Escherichia coli harboring a large conjugative plasmid encoding the CMY-2 beta-lactamase and other drug resistance determinants acquired the plasmid and its associated drug resistance genes. The conjugative plasmid containing the cmy-2 gene was transferred not only from the donor E. coli to Salmonella serovar Newport but also to another E. coli serotype present in the intestinal tract. Laboratory studies showed that the plasmid could be readily transferred between serovar Newport and E. coli intestinal isolates. Administration of a single dose of ceftiofur, used to prevent septicemic colibacillosis, to 1-day-old turkeys did not result in the isolation of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli or Salmonella serovar Newport. There was a remarkable association between serotype, drug resistance, and plasmid profile among the E. coli strains isolated from the poults. This study shows that Salmonella serovar Newport can become resistant to ESCs and other antibiotics by acquiring a conjugative drug resistance plasmid from E. coli in the intestines.
Project description:Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans and 28 from pigs) of clinically important Salmonella serovar Muenchen were characterized. Among the porcine isolates, 75% showed resistance to seven antimicrobials: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and kanamycin (R type ACSSuTAxK). One isolate from humans showed resistance to 10 of the 12 antimicrobials: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, kanamycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone (R type ACSSuTAxKGCfCro). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no clonality between the porcine and the human strains. The porcine and the human MDR strains carried class 1 integrons of 2.0 and 1.0 kb, respectively. Genes specific to the porcine strain included aadA2, aphA1-Iab, and tetA(B). DNA sequencing revealed that the porcine isolates carried bla(OXA-30) on a class 1 integron. Genes specific to the human strain included bla(TEM), strA, strB, cmlA, tetA(A), and aadA2. No bla(CMY-2) gene was detected. Serovar Muenchen strains of porcine and human origin were able to transfer resistance genes to laboratory strain Escherichia coli MG1655 by conjugation. Plasmid restriction with four restriction enzymes, EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, and PstI, showed that the conjugative plasmids from porcine Salmonella serovar Muenchen and Typhimurium R-type MDR strains isolated from the same farms at the same time were similar on the basis of the sizes and the numbers of bands and Southern hybridization. The plasmid profiles among the Salmonella serovar Muenchen isolates from the two host species were different. This is the first report to show a high frequency of MDR Salmonella serovar Muenchen strains from pigs and a human strain that is similar to the MDR isolates with the AmpC enzyme previously reported among Salmonella serovars Newport and Typhimurium strains. The MDR strains from the two host species independently represent public health concerns, as Salmonella serovar Muenchen is among the top 10 causes of salmonellosis in humans.
Project description:Outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of vegetables have been disproportionately associated with strains of serovar Newport. We tested the hypothesis that strains of sv. Newport have evolved unique adaptations to persistence in plants that are not shared by strains of other Salmonella serovars. We used a genome-wide mutant screen to compare growth in tomato fruit of a sv. Newport strain from an outbreak traced to tomatoes, and a sv. Typhimurium strain from animals. Most genes in the sv. Newport strain that were selected during persistence in tomatoes were shared with, and similarly selected in, the sv. Typhimurium strain. Many of their functions are linked to central metabolism, including amino acid biosynthetic pathways, iron acquisition, and maintenance of cell structure. One exception was a greater need for the core genes involved in purine metabolism in sv. Typhimurium than in sv. Newport. We discovered a gene, papA, that was unique to sv. Newport and contributed to the strain's fitness in tomatoes. The papA gene was present in about 25% of sv. Newport Group III genomes and generally absent from other Salmonella genomes. Homologs of papA were detected in the genomes of Pantoea, Dickeya, and Pectobacterium, members of the Enterobacteriacea family that can colonize both plants and animals.