Coprinus cinereus rad50 mutants reveal an essential structural role for Rad50 in axial element and synaptonemal complex formation, homolog pairing and meiotic recombination.
ABSTRACT: The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is required for eukaryotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic recombination. We cloned the Coprinus cinereus rad50 gene and showed that it corresponds to the complementation group previously named rad12, identified mutations in 15 rad50 alleles, and mapped two of the mutations onto molecular models of Rad50 structure. We found that C. cinereus rad50 and mre11 mutants arrest in meiosis and that this arrest is Spo11 dependent. In addition, some rad50 alleles form inducible, Spo11-dependent Rad51 foci and therefore must be forming meiotic DSBs. Thus, we think it likely that arrest in both mre11-1 and the collection of rad50 mutants is the result of unrepaired or improperly processed DSBs in the genome and that Rad50 and Mre11 are dispensable in C. cinereus for DSB formation, but required for appropriate DSB processing. We found that the ability of rad50 mutant strains to form Rad51 foci correlates with their ability to promote synaptonemal complex formation and with levels of stable meiotic pairing and that partial pairing, recombination initiation, and synapsis occur in the absence of wild-type Rad50 catalytic domains. Examination of single- and double-mutant strains showed that a spo11 mutation that prevents DSB formation enhances axial element (AE) formation for rad50-4, an allele predicted to encode a protein with intact hook region and hook-proximal coiled coils, but not for rad50-1, an allele predicted to encode a severely truncated protein, or for rad50-5, which encodes a protein whose hook-proximal coiled-coil region is disrupted. Therefore, Rad50 has an essential structural role in the formation of AEs, separate from the DSB-processing activity of the MRN complex.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) pose a serious threat to genomic stability. Paradoxically, hundreds of programed DSBs are generated by SPO11 in meiotic prophase, which are exclusively repaired by homologous recombination (HR) to promote obligate crossover between homologous chromosomes. In somatic cells, MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex-dependent DNA end resection is a prerequisite for HR repair, especially for DSBs that are covalently linked with proteins or chemicals. Interestingly, all meiotic DSBs are linked with SPO11 after being generated. Although MRN complex's function in meiotic DSB repair has been established in lower organisms, the role of MRN complex in mammalian meiotic DSB repair is not clear. Here, we show that MRN complex is essential for repairing meiotic SPO11-linked DSBs in male mice. In male germ cells, conditional inactivation of NBS1, a key component of MRN complex, causes dramatic reduction of DNA end resection and defective HR repair in meiotic prophase. NBS1 loss severely disrupts chromosome synapsis, generates abnormal chromosome structures, and eventually leads to meiotic arrest and male infertility in mice. Unlike in somatic cells, the recruitment of NBS1 to SPO11-linked DSB sites is MDC1-independent but requires other phosphorylated proteins. Collectively, our study not only reveals the significance of MRN complex in repairing meiotic DSBs but also discovers a unique mechanism that recruits MRN complex to SPO11-linked DSB sites.
Project description:The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) influences diverse functions in the DNA damage response. The complex comprises the globular DNA-binding domain and the Rad50 hook domain, which are linked by a long and extended Rad50 coiled-coil domain. In this study, we constructed rad50 alleles encoding truncations of the coiled-coil domain to determine which Mre11 complex functions required the full length of the coils. These mutations abolished telomere maintenance and meiotic double-strand break (DSB) formation, and severely impaired homologous recombination, indicating a requirement for long-range action. Nonhomologous end joining, which is probably mediated by the globular domain of the Mre11 complex, was also severely impaired by alteration of the coiled-coil and hook domains, providing the first evidence of their influence on this process. These data show that functions of Mre11 complex are integrated by the coiled coils of Rad50.
Project description:DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining our genomes. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and Ku70-Ku80 (Ku) direct distinct DSB repair pathways, but the interplay between these complexes at a DSB remains unclear. Here, we use high-throughput single-molecule microscopy to show that MRN searches for free DNA ends by one-dimensional facilitated diffusion, even on nucleosome-coated DNA. Rad50 binds homoduplex DNA and promotes facilitated diffusion, whereas Mre11 is required for DNA end recognition and nuclease activities. MRN gains access to occluded DNA ends by removing Ku or other DNA adducts via an Mre11-dependent nucleolytic reaction. Next, MRN loads exonuclease 1 (Exo1) onto the free DNA ends to initiate DNA resection. In the presence of replication protein A (RPA), MRN acts as a processivity factor for Exo1, retaining the exonuclease on DNA for long-range resection. Our results provide a mechanism for how MRN promotes homologous recombination on nucleosome-coated DNA.
Project description:DNA palindromes are rare in humans but are associated with meiosis-specific translocations. The conserved Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is likely directly involved in processing palindromes through the homologous recombination pathway of DNA repair. Using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system, we show that a 160-bp palindrome (M-pal) is a meiotic recombination hotspot and is preferentially eliminated by gene conversion. Importantly, this hotspot depends on the MRN complex for full activity and reveals a new pathway for generating meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), separately from the Rec12 (ortholog of Spo11) pathway. We show that MRN-dependent DSBs are formed at or near the M-pal in vivo, and in contrast to the Rec12-dependent breaks, they appear early, during premeiotic replication. Analysis of mrn mutants indicates that the early DSBs are generated by the MRN nuclease activity, demonstrating the previously hypothesized MRN-dependent breakage of hairpins during replication. Our studies provide a genetic and physical basis for frequent translocations between palindromes in human meiosis and identify a conserved meiotic process that constantly selects against palindromes in eukaryotic genomes.
Project description:Meiotic recombination requires the formation of programmed Spo11-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Sae2 protein and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex are necessary to remove the covalently attached Spo11 protein from the DNA ends, which are then resected by so far unknown nucleases. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Sae2 Ser-267 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required to initiate meiotic DSB resection by allowing Spo11 removal from DSB ends. This finding suggests that Cdk1 activity is required for the processing of Spo11-induced DSBs, thus providing a mechanism for coordinating DSB resection with progression through meiotic prophase. Furthermore, the helicase Sgs1 and the nucleases Exo1 and Dna2 participate in lengthening the 5'-3' resection tracts during meiosis by controlling a step subsequent to Spo11 removal.
Project description:Mre11, together with Rad50 and Xrs2/NBS, plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination, repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), activation of damage-induced checkpoint, and telomere maintenance. Using DNA microarray assays to analyze yeast mutants (mre11delta, rad50delta, and spo11Y135F) defective for meiotic DSB formation, we demonstrate that the absence of Mre11 in yeast causes specific effects on regulation of a class of meiotic genes for spore development. The transcriptional deficiency was not observed in other DSB mutants such as rad50delta and spo11Y135F, suggesting the transcriptional defect in mre11delta is due to neither lack of meiotic DSB formation, nor disintegrity of Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex.These defects were confirmed by northern and lacZ reporter gene assays. Experiment Overall Design: Gene expression data from wild type, mre11delta, rad50delta, and spo11Y135F cells in premeiosis (meiosis 0 hr) and prophase (meiosis 4 hr). Affymetrix GeneChip YG-S98 was used. All strains used were SK1 background diploid cells.
Project description:Nbs1, a core component of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex, plays an essential role in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and poorly understood roles in meiosis. We used the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus to examine the meiotic roles of Nbs1. We identified the C. cinereus nbs1 gene and demonstrated that it corresponds to a complementation group previously known as rad3. One allele, nbs1-2, harbors a point mutation in the Nbs1 FHA domain and has a mild spore viability defect, increased frequency of meiosis I nondisjunction, and an altered crossover distribution. The nbs1-2 strain enters meiosis with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX, which we hypothesize represent unrepaired DSBs formed during premeiotic replication. In nbs1-2, there is no apparent induction of Spo11-dependent DSBs during prophase. We propose that replication-dependent DSBs, resulting from defective replication fork protection and processing by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex, are competent to form meiotic crossovers in C. cinereus, and that these crossovers lead to high levels of faithful chromosome segregation. In addition, although crossover distribution is altered in nbs1-2, the majority of crossovers were found in subtelomeric regions, as in wild-type. Therefore, the location of crossovers in C. cinereus is maintained when DSBs are induced via a Spo11-independent mechanism.
Project description:Collapsed replication forks, which are a major source of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are repaired by sister chromatid recombination (SCR). The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex, assisted by CtIP/Sae2/Ctp1, initiates SCR by nucleolytically resecting the single-ended DSB (seDSB) at the collapsed fork. The molecular architecture of the MRN intercomplex, in which zinc hooks at the apices of long Rad50 coiled-coils connect two Mre11<sub>2</sub>-Rad50<sub>2</sub> complexes, suggests that MRN also structurally assists SCR. Here, Rad50 ChIP assays in <i>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</i> show that MRN sequentially localizes with the seDSB and sister chromatid at a collapsed replication fork. Ctp1, which has multivalent DNA-binding and DNA-bridging activities, has the same DNA interaction pattern. Provision of an intrachromosomal repair template alleviates the nonnucleolytic requirement for MRN to repair the broken fork. Mutations of zinc-coordinating cysteines in the Rad50 hook severely impair SCR. These data suggest that the MRN complex facilitates SCR by linking the seDSB and sister chromatid.
Project description:The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex and ATM/Tel1 kinase protect genome integrity through their functions in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Nbs1 has a conserved C-terminal motif that binds ATM/Tel1, but the full extent and significance of ATM/Tel1 interactions with MRN are unknown. Here, we show that Tel1 overexpression bypasses the requirement for Nbs1 in DNA damage signaling and telomere maintenance. These activities require Mre11-Rad50, which localizes to DSBs and bind Tel1 in the absence of Nbs1. Fusion of the Tel1-binding motif of Nbs1 to Mre11 is sufficient to restore Tel1 signaling in nbs1? cells. Tel1 overexpression does not restore Tel1 signaling in cells carrying the rad50-I1192W mutation, which impairs the ability of Mre11-Rad50 to form the ATP-bound closed conformation. From these findings, we propose that Tel1 has a high-affinity interaction with the C-terminus of Nbs1 and a low-affinity association with Mre11-Rad50, which together accomplish efficient localization and activation of Tel1 at DSBs and telomeres.
Project description:The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rec12 protein, the homolog of Spo11 in other organisms, initiates meiotic recombination by creating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and becoming covalently linked to the DNA ends of the break. This protein-DNA linkage has previously been detected only in mutants such as rad50S in which break repair is impeded and DSBs accumulate. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DSB distribution in a rad50S mutant is markedly different from that in wild-type (RAD50) meiosis, and it was suggested that this might also be true for other organisms. Here, we show that we can detect Rec12-DNA linkages in Sc. pombe rad50(+) cells, which are proficient for DSB repair. In contrast to the results from Sa. cerevisiae, genome-wide microarray analysis of Rec12-DNA reveals indistinguishable meiotic DSB distributions in rad50(+) and rad50S strains of Sc. pombe. These results confirm our earlier findings describing the occurrence of widely spaced DSBs primarily in large intergenic regions of DNA and demonstrate the relevance and usefulness of fission yeast studies employing rad50S. We propose that the differential behavior of rad50S strains reflects a major difference in DSB regulation between the two species--specifically, the requirement for the Rad50-containing complex for DSB formation in budding yeast but not in fission yeast. Use of rad50S and related mutations may be a useful method for DSB analysis in other species.