Deciphering deazapurine biosynthesis: pathway for pyrrolopyrimidine nucleosides toyocamycin and sangivamycin.
ABSTRACT: Pyrrolopyrimidine nucleosides analogs, collectively referred to as deazapurines, are an important class of structurally diverse compounds found in a wide variety of biological niches. In this report, a cluster of genes from Streptomyces rimosus (ATCC 14673) involved in production of the deazapurine antibiotics sangivamycin and toyocamycin was identified. The cluster includes toyocamycin nitrile hydratase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of toyocamycin to sangivamycin. In addition to this rare nitrile hydratase, the cluster encodes a GTP cyclohydrolase I, linking the biosynthesis of deazapurines to folate biosynthesis, and a set of purine salvage/biosynthesis genes, which presumably convert the guanine moiety from GTP to the adenine-like deazapurine base found in toyocamycin and sangivamycin. The gene cluster presented here could potentially serve as a model to allow identification of deazapurine biosynthetic pathways in other bacterial species.
Project description:Deazapurine-containing secondary metabolites comprise a broad range of structurally diverse nucleoside analogues found throughout biology, including various antibiotics produced by species of Streptomyces bacteria and the hypermodified tRNA bases queuosine and archaeosine. Despite early interest in deazapurines as antibiotic, antiviral, and antineoplastic agents, the biosynthetic route toward deazapurine production has remained largely elusive for more than 40 years. Here we present the first in vitro preparation of the deazapurine base preQ(0), by the successive action of four enzymes. The pathway includes the conversion of the recently identified biosynthetic intermediate, 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, to a novel intermediate, 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG), by an unusual transformation catalyzed by Bacillus subtilis QueE, a member of the radical SAM enzyme superfamily. The carboxylate moiety on CDG is converted subsequently to a nitrile to yield preQ(0) by either B. subtilis QueC or Streptomyces rimosus ToyM in an ATP-dependent reaction, in which ammonia serves as the nitrogen source. The results presented here are consistent with early radiotracer studies on deazapurine biosynthesis and provide a unified pathway for the production of deazapurines in nature.
Project description:Treatment of toyocamycin or sangivamycin with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in MeOH (r.t./30 min) gave 8-bromotoyocamycin and 8-bromosangivamycin in good yields. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 8-bromotoyocamycin with sodium azide provided novel 8-azidotoyocamycin. Strain promoted click reactions of the latter with cyclooctynes resulted in the formation of the 1,2,3-triazole products. Iodine-mediated direct C8-H bond functionalization of tubercidin with benzotriazoles in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide gave the corresponding 8-benzotriazolyltubercidin derivatives. The 8-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-7-deazapurine derivatives showed moderate quantum yields and a large Stokes shifts of ~ 100 nm.
Project description:Nitrile hydratases (NHases) possess a mononuclear iron or cobalt cofactor whose coordination environment includes rare post-translationally oxidized cysteine sulfenic and sulfinic acid ligands. This cofactor is located in the ?-subunit at the interfacial active site of the heterodimeric enzyme. Unlike canonical NHases, toyocamycin nitrile hydratase (TNHase) from Streptomyces rimosus is a unique three-subunit member of this family involved in the biosynthesis of pyrrolopyrimidine antibiotics. The subunits of TNHase are homologous to the ?- and ?-subunits of prototypical NHases. Herein we report the expression, purification, and characterization of the ?-subunit of TNHase. The UV-visible, EPR, and mass spectra of the ?-subunit TNHase provide evidence that this subunit alone is capable of synthesizing the active site complex with full post-translational modifications. Remarkably, the isolated post-translationally modified ?-subunit is also catalytically active with the natural substrate, toyocamycin, as well as the niacin precursor 3-cyanopyridine. Comparisons of the steady state kinetic parameters of the single subunit variant to the heterotrimeric protein clearly show that the additional subunits impart substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. We conclude that the ?-subunit is the minimal sequence needed for nitrile hydration providing a simplified scaffold to study the mechanism and post-translational modification of this important class of catalysts.
Project description:Toyocamycin is a member of the nucleoside antibiotic family and has been recognized as a promising fungicide for the control of plant diseases. However, low productivity of toyocamycin remains an important bottleneck in its industrial production. Therefore, dramatic improvements of strains for overproduction of toyocamycin are of great interest in applied microbiology research. In this study, we sequentially selected for mutations for multiple drug resistance to promote the overproduction of toyocamycin by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. The triple mutant strain, SD3145 (str str par), was obtained through sequential screenings. This strain showed an enhanced capacity to produce toyocamycin (1500 mg/L), 24-fold higher than the wild type in GYM liquid medium. This dramatic overproduction was attributed at least partially to the acquisition of an rsmG mutation and increased gene expression of toyA, which encodes a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator for toyocamycin biosynthesis. The expression of toyF and toyG, probably directly involved in toyocamycin biosynthesis, was also enhanced, contributing to toyocamycin overproduction. By addition of a small amount of scandium (ScCl3·6H2O), the mutant strain, SD3145, produced more toyocamycin (2664 mg/L) in TPM medium, which was the highest toyocamycin level produced in shake-flask fermentation by a streptomycete so far. We demonstrated that introduction of combined drug resistance mutations into S. diastatochromogenes 1628 resulted in an obvious increase in the toyocamycin production. The triple mutant strain, SD3145, generated in our study could be useful for improvement of industrial production of toyocamycin.
Project description:We developed and presented here a ferrocene-catalyzed C-H imidation of 7-deazapurines (pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines) with N-imidyl peroxyesters. The reactions occur regioselectively at position 8 in 7-deazapurines, leading to a series of 8-succinimido-, phtalimido-, or naphthalimido-7-deazapurine derivatives. Attempted hydrazinolysis of resulting 8-imidyl-7-deazapurines led to corresponding 8-amino-7-deazapurine, which was very unstable and quickly decomposed.
Project description:Pyrrolopyrimidine containing natural products are widely distributed in Nature. The biosynthesis of the 7-deazapurine moiety that is common to all pyrrolopyrimidines entails multiple steps, one of which is a complex radical-mediated ring contraction reaction catalyzed by CDG synthase. Herein we review the biosynthetic pathways of deazapurines, focusing on the biochemical and structural insights into CDG synthase.
Project description:Toyocamycin nitrile hydratase (TNH) is a protein hexamer that catalyzes the hydration of toyocamycin to produce sangivamycin. The structure of hexameric TNH and the arrangement of subunits within the complex, however, have not been solved by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Native mass spectrometry (MS) clearly shows that TNH is composed of two copies each of the ?, ?, and ? subunits. Previous surface induced dissociation (SID) tandem mass spectrometry on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) platform suggests that the TNH hexamer is a dimer composed of two ??? trimers; furthermore, the results suggest that ?-? interact most strongly (Blackwell et al. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 2862-2865). Here, multiple complementary MS based approaches and homology modeling have been applied to refine the structure of TNH. Solution-phase organic solvent disruption coupled with native MS agrees with the previous SID results. By coupling surface induced dissociation with ion mobility mass spectrometry (SID/IM), further information on the intersubunit contacts and relative interfacial strengths are obtained. The results show that TNH is a dimer of ??? trimers, that within the trimer the ?, ? subunits bind most strongly, and that the primary contact between the two trimers is through a ?-? interface. Collisional cross sections (CCSs) measured from IM experiments are used as constraints for postulating the arrangement of the subunits represented by coarse-grained spheres. Covalent labeling (surface mapping) together with protein complex homology modeling and docking of trimers to form hexamer are utilized with all the above information to propose the likely quaternary structure of TNH, with chemical cross-linking providing cross-links consistent with the proposed structure. The novel feature of this approach is the use of SID-MS with ion mobility to define complete connectivity and relative interfacial areas of a heterohexameric protein complex, providing much more information than is available from solution disruption. That information, when combined with CCS-guided coarse-grained modeling and covalent labeling restraints for homology modeling and trimer-trimer docking, provides atomic models of a previously uncharacterized heterohexameric protein complex.
Project description:The nucleoside antibiotic toyocamycin (TM) is a potential fungicide that can control plant diseases, and it has become an attractive target for research. Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628, a TM-producing strain, was isolated by our laboratory and was considered to be a potent industrial producer of TM. Recently, the putative TM biosynthetic gene cluster (toy cluster) in S. diastatochromogenes 1628 was found by genome sequencing. In this study, the role of toy cluster for TM biosynthesis in S. diastatochromogenes 1628 was investigated by heterologous expression, deletion, and complementation. The extract of the recombinant strain S. albusJ1074-TC harboring a copy of toy cluster produced TM as shown by HPLC analysis. The ?cluster mutant completely lost its ability to produce TM. TM production in the complemented strain was restored to a level comparable to that of the wild-type strain. These results confirmed that the toy cluster is responsible for TM biosynthesis. Moreover, the introduction of an extra copy of the toy cluster into S. diastatochromogenes 1628 led to onefold increase in TM production (312.9 mg/l vs. 152.1 mg/l) as well as the transcription of all toy genes. The toy gene cluster was engineered in which the native promoter of toyA gene, toyM gene, toyBD operon, and toyEI operon was, respectively, replaced by permE ? or SPL57. To further improve TM production, the engineered toy gene cluster was, respectively, introduced and overexpressed in S. diastatochromogenes 1628 to generate recombinant strains S. diastatochromogenes 1628-EC and 1628-SC. After 84 h, S. diastatochromogenes 1628-EC and 1628-SC produced 456.5 mg/l and 638.9 mg/l TM, respectively, which is an increase of 2- and 3.2-fold compared with the wild-type strain.
Project description:Current treatment options for patients with pancreatic cancer are suboptimal, resulting in a five year survival rate of about 9%. Difficulties with treatment are due to an immunosuppressive, fibrotic tumor microenvironment that prevents drugs from reaching tumor cells, but also to the limited efficacy of existing FDA-approved chemotherapeutic compounds. We here show that the nucleoside analog Sangivamycin and its closely-related compound Toyocamycin target PDA cell lines, and are significantly more efficient than Gemcitabine. Using KINOMEscan screening, we identified the kinase Haspin, which is overexpressed in PDA cell lines and human PDA samples, as a main target for both compounds. Inhibition of Haspin leads to a decrease in Histone H3 phosphorylation and prevents Histone H3 binding to survivin, thus providing mechanistic insight of how Sangivamycin targets cell proliferation, mitosis and induces apoptotic cell death. In orthotopically implanted tumors in mice, Sangivamycin was efficient in decreasing the growth of established tumors. In summary, we show that Sangivamycin and derivatives can be an efficient new option for treatment of PDA.
Project description:As scientists begin to appreciate the extent to which quaternary structure facilitates protein function, determination of the subunit arrangement within noncovalent protein complexes is increasingly important. While native mass spectrometry shows promise for the study of noncovalent complexes, few developments have been made toward the determination of subunit architecture, and no mass spectrometry activation method yields complete topology information. Here, we illustrate the surface-induced dissociation of a heterohexamer, toyocamycin nitrile hydratase, directly into its constituent trimers. We propose that the single-step nature of this activation in combination with high energy deposition allows for dissociation prior to significant unfolding or other large-scale rearrangement. This method can potentially allow for dissociation of a protein complex into subcomplexes, facilitating the mapping of subunit contacts and thus determination of quaternary structure of protein complexes.