Screening of common CYP1B1 mutations in Iranian POAG patients using a microarray-based PrASE protocol.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The gene coding cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) has been shown to be a major cause of primary congenital glaucoma in the Iranian population. More recently it was shown to also be important in juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG). We aimed to further investigate the role of CYP1B1 in a larger cohort of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients which included late-onset patients. We also aimed to set up a microarray based protocol for mutation screening with an intent of using the protocol in a future population level screening program. METHODS: Sixty three POAG patients, nine affected family members, and thirty three previously genotyped primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients were included in the study. Clinical examination included slit lamp biomicroscopy, IOP measurement, gonioscopic evaluation, fundus examination, and measurement of perimetry. G61E, R368H, R390H, and R469W were screened by a protocol that included multiplexed allele specific amplification in the presence of a protease (PrASE), use of sequence tagged primers, and hybridization to generic arrays on microarray slides. The entire coding sequences of CYP1B1 and myocilin (MYOC) genes were sequenced in all individuals assessed by the microarray assay to carry a mutation. Intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotpes were determined for mutated alleles. RESULTS: Genotypes assessed by the array-based PrASE methodology were in 100% concordance with sequencing results. Seven mutation carrying POAG patients (11.1%) were identified, and their distribution was quite skewed between the juvenile-onset individuals (5/21) as compared to late-onset cases (2/42). Four of the seven mutation carrying Iranian patients harbored two mutated alleles. CYP1B1 mutated alleles in Iranian PCG and POAG patients shared common haplotypes. MYOC mutations were not observed in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The PrASE approach allowed reliable simultaneous genotyping of many individuals. It can be an appropriate tool for screening common mutations in large sample sizes. The results suggest that CYP1B1 is implicated in POAG among Iranians, notably in the juvenile-onset form. Contrary to POAG patients studied in other populations, many mutation harboring Iranian patients carry two mutated alleles. We propose an explanation for this observation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide and a complex genetic disorder that affects mostly adults. Mutations in the MYOCILIN (MYOC) and OPTINEURIN genes account for rare forms with a Mendelian inheritance and for <5% of all POAG cases. The CYP1B1 gene, a member of the cytochrome P450 gene family, is a major cause of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a rare and severely blinding disease with recessive inheritance. However, CYP1B1 mutations have also been associated with cases of juvenile-onset glaucoma in some PCG families or shown to modify the age of onset of glaucoma linked to a MYOC mutation in a large family. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CYP1B1 mutations in POAG predisposition, irrespective of the presence of a MYOC mutation. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: CYP1B1 coding region variation was characterised by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and sequencing in 236 unrelated French Caucasian POAG patients and 47 population-matched controls. RESULTS: Eleven (4.6%) patients carried one or two mutated CYP1B1 gene(s) and no MYOC mutation. They showed juvenile or middle-age onset of disease (median age at diagnosis, 40 years, range 13-52), significantly earlier than in non-carrier patients. Apart from one, all mutations detected in POAG patients were previously associated with PCG. CONCLUSION: CYP1B1 mutations might pose a significant risk for early-onset POAG and might also modify glaucoma phenotype in patients who do not carry a MYOC mutation.
Project description:Epidemiologic and genetic/molecular research on glaucoma in Iran started within the past decade. A population-based study on the epidemiology of glaucoma in Yazd, a city in central Iran, revealed that 4.4% of studied individuals were affected with glaucoma: 1.6% with high tension primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 1.6% with normal tension POAG, and 0.4% each with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and other types of secondary glaucoma. Two notable observations were the relatively high frequency of normal tension glaucoma cases (1.6%) and the large fraction of glaucoma affected individuals (nearly 90%) who were unaware of their condition. The first and most subsequent genetic studies on glaucoma in Iran were focused on primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) showing that cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is the cause of PCG in the majority of Iranian patients, many different CYP1B1 mutations are present among Iranian patients but only four mutations constitute the vast majority, and the origins of most mutations in the Iranians are identical by descent (IBD) with the same mutations in other populations. Furthermore, most of the PCG patients are from the northern and northwestern provinces of Iran. A statistically significant male predominance of PCG was observed only among patients without CYP1B1 mutations. Clinical investigations on family members of PCG patients revealed that CYP1B1 mutations exhibit variable expressivity, but almost complete penetrance. A great number of individuals harboring CYP1B1 mutations become affected with juvenile onset POAG. Screening of JOAG patients showed that an approximately equal fraction of the patients harbor CYP1B1 and (myocilin) MYOC mutations; MYOC is a well-known adult onset glaucoma causing gene. Presence of CYP1B1 mutations in JOAG patients suggests that in some cases, the two conditions may share a common etiology. Further genetic analysis of Iranian PCG patients led to identification of Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) as a causative gene for both PCG and several diseases which are often accompanied by glaucomatous presentations, such as Weill-Marchesani syndrome 3 (WMS3). The findings on LTBP2 have contributed to recognize the importance of the extracellular matrix in pathways leading to glaucoma.
Project description:In India, mutations in Cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) are a predominant cause of not only primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) but also involved in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and juvenile onset glaucoma (JOAG). After ethical clearance, 100 POAG patients, 30 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients and 130 ethnically matched controls were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood and screened for p.Arg368His mutation in CYP1B1 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). On PCR-RFLP, 10/100 cases (10%) were found positive for Arg368His mutation. In North Indian POAG cases studied, p.Arg368His mutation was found only in heterozygous state. The frequency of p.Arg368His CYP1B1 mutation in heterozygote state (10.0%) observed in our study in North Indian POAG patients is the highest in comparison to frequency observed in other ethnic groups from Southern and Eastern India.
Project description:PURPOSE:The CYP1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Mutations in CYP1B1 have been mainly reported in recessive pediatric ocular phenotypes, such as primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and congenital glaucoma with anterior segment dysgenesis (CG with ASD), with some likely pathogenic variants also identified in families affected with adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS:We examined CYP1B1 in 158 pediatric patients affected with PCG (eight), CG with ASD (22), CG with other developmental ocular disorders (11), juvenile glaucoma with or without additional ocular anomalies (26), and ASD or other developmental ocular conditions without glaucoma (91); in addition, a large cohort of adult patients with POAG (193) and POAG-negative controls (288) was examined. RESULTS:Recessive pathogenic variants in CYP1B1 were identified in two PCG pedigrees, three cases with CG and ASD, and two families with CG and other ocular defects, such as sclerocornea in one patient and microphthalmia in another individual; neither sclerocornea nor microphthalmia has been previously associated with CYP1B1. Most of the identified causative mutations are new occurrences of previously reported pathogenic alleles with two novel variants identified: a c.1325delC, p.(Pro442Glnfs*15) frameshift allele in a family with PCG and a c.157G>A, p.(Gly53Ser) variant identified in a proband with CG, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia. Analysis of the family history in the CYP1B1-positive families revealed POAG in confirmed or presumed heterozygous relatives in one family with PCG and two families with ASD/CG; POAG was associated with the c.1064_1076del, p.(Arg355Hisfs*69) allele in two of these pedigrees. Screening of an unrelated POAG cohort identified the same c.1064_1076del heterozygous allele in one individual with sporadic POAG but not in age- and ethnicity-matched POAG-negative individuals. Overall, there was no significant enrichment for mutant alleles in CYP1B1 within the POAG cases compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, these data expand the mutational and phenotypic spectra of CYP1B1 to include two novel alleles and additional developmental ocular phenotypes. The contribution of CYP1B1 to POAG is less clear, but loss-of-function variants in CYP1B1, especially c.1064_1076del, p.(Arg355Hisfs*69), may be associated with an increased risk for POAG.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a Spanish population with different clinical forms of familial glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: Index patients from 226 families participated in this study. Patients were diagnosed with familial glaucoma or OHT by complete ophthalmologic examination. Screening for MYOC mutations was performed in 207 index patients: 96 with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 21 with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), 18 with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), five with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), and 67 with other types of glaucoma. One hundred two of the families (including all those in whom a MYOC mutation was detected) were also screened for CYP1B1 mutations: 45 POAG, 25 PCG, 21 JOAG, four ARS, and seven others. RESULTS: We examined 292 individuals (patients and relatives) with a positive family history of glaucoma or OHT. We identified two novel MYOC variants, p.Lys39Arg and p.Glu218Lys, in two families with POAG, and six previously reported MYOC mutations in seven families with POAG (four), JOAG (one), PCG (one), and normotensive glaucoma (one). CYP1B1 mutations were found in 16 index patients with PCG (nine), POAG (three), JOAG (two), and ARS (two). CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage (9/25=36%) of mutations in CYP1B1 found in non-consanguineous patients with congenital glaucoma mandates genetic testing. However, the percentage of mutations (9/207=4.4%) in MYOC associated with glaucoma is relatively low in our population. The variable phenotype expression of glaucoma, even in families, cannot be explained with a digenic mechanism between MYOC and CYP1B1.
Project description:The mutation spectrum of CYP1B1 among 104 primary congenital glaucoma patients of the genetically heterogeneous Iranian population was investigated by sequencing. We also determined intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes associated with the mutations and compared these with haplotypes of other populations. Finally, the frequency distribution of the haplotypes was compared among primary congenital glaucoma patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and normal controls. Genotype classification of six high-frequency SNPs was performed using the PHASE 2.0 software. CYP1B1 mutations in the Iranian patients were very heterogeneous. Nineteen nonconservative mutations associated with disease, and 10 variations not associated with disease were identified. Ten mutations and three variations not associated with disease were novel. The 13 novel variations make a notable contribution to the approximately 70 known variations in the gene. CYP1B1 mutations were identified in 70% of the patients. The four most common mutations were G61E, R368H, R390H, and R469W, which together constituted 76.2% of the CYP1B1 mutated alleles found. Six unique core SNP haplotypes were identified, four of which were common to the patients with and without CYP1B1 mutations and controls studied. Three SNP blocks determined the haplotypes. Comparison of haplotypes with those of other populations suggests a common origin for many of the mutations.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily B Member 1 (CYP1B1; OMIM# 601771) gene encodes one of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. CYP1B1 mutations have been associated primarily with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Similar studies were reported in juvenile open-angle glaucoma, Rieger's and Peters anomalies. Reports of likely pathogenic sequence alterations in families affected with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) triggered this investigation. We screened unrelated POAG cases and healthy controls for mutations in CYP1B1 using automated Sanger sequencing to identify five known polymorphisms and one CYP1B1 mutation (p.G61E) in a heterozygous status. The p.G61E mutation is known to cause PCG in a homozygous or compound heterozygous form, and thus, its presence here in a heterozygous form indicates carrier status. These findings suggest that CYP1B1 may have no major role in the pathogenesis of POAG, at least, in the Saudi population. However, further investigations are needed to validate these findings in a larger cohort.
Project description:PURPOSE: Mutations in the CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36 genes result in glaucoma. Given its expression in the optic nerve, it is likely a mutation in the OPTC gene is also involved in initiating glaucoma. This study was designed to evaluate the involvement of the CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, and OPTC genes in the etiology of adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) found in 251 Indian patients. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from individuals for DNA isolation. A combination of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing techniques were used to detect mutations in four genes. Four microsatellite markers from the CYP1B1 candidate region and three intragenic CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine the origin of the most common CYP1B1 mutations. RESULTS: Three previously known mutations (Pro193Leu, Glu229Lys, and Arg368His) and one novel (Met292Lys) mutation were found in the CYP1B1 gene. Frequencies of the most common mutations, Glu229Lys and Arg368His, in patients were 5.12% and 3.98%, respectively. The Glu229Lys and Arg368His mutations were also found in normal controls at frequencies of 5% and 2%, respectively, suggesting that these mutations might be polymorphic variants in our population. The absence of allele sharing for D2S177, D2S1346, D2S2974, and D2S2331 markers and three intragenic CYP1B1 SNPs in patients suggested multiple origins for the Glu229Lys and Arg368His variants. Two of 251 (0.8%) patients had the Gln48His mutation in MYOC. There was no difference in the frequency of a MYOC -83G>A promoter polymorphism between patients and controls. A novel OPTN mutation, Thr202Arg, was detected in one of 251 (0.4%) patients. The OPTN variant Met98Lys was detected in similar frequencies in patients and controls. No mutation was detected in OPTC. Taken together, 3.59% (9/251) of our POAG patients had mutations in the CYP1B1, MYOC, and OPTN genes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to document the involvement of the CYP1B1, MYOC, and OPTN genes in the etiology of POAG in the same set of Indian patients. Our study shows that mutations in these genes are rare in Indian POAG patients.
Project description:AIM:To detect the mutations in two candidate genes, myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), in a Chinese family with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS:The family was composed of three members, the parents and a daughter. All members of the family underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Exons of MYOC and CYP1B1 genes were screened for sequence alterations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS:The mother was the proband, she was diagnosed as POAG in both eyes. Her daughter was diagnosed as juvenile-onset POAG. The father was asymptomatic. One MYOC heterozygous mutation c.1150 G>A (D384N) in exon 3 was identified in the mother, another MYOC heterozygous variation c.1058 C>T (T353I) in exon 3 was identified in the father, and the daughter inherited both of the variations. Meanwhile, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1B1 gene were found in the family. CONCLUSION:The D384N mutation of MYOC has been reported as one of disease-causing mutations in POAG, whereas T353I variation of MYOC was thought as a high risk factor for POAG. The two variations of MYOC were first reported in one juvenile-onset POAG patient who presented with more severe clinical manifestations, suggesting that T353I polymorphism of MYOC may be associated with the severity of POAG.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) and myocillin (MYOC) mutations to primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in Moroccan families. METHODS: This study included 90 unrelated families with PCG and 100 normal control individuals. Two previously reported CYP1B1 mutations (g.4339delG and p.G61E) were first screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The coding exons of CYP1B1 were sequenced in g.4339delG- and p.G61E-negative or heterozygous probands. Then the coding exons of MYOC were sequenced in patients who had no mutation in CYP1B1 or carried heterozygous CYP1B1 mutation. RESULTS: Twelve CYP1B1 mutations were identified in 43 PCG pedigrees. Three of them were novel (p.R163C, p.C470Y, and g.4330-4331delTG) and associated with moderate to severe phenotypes. Two novel intronic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 were identified in addition to those previously described. The g.4339delG was the most frequent mutation detected in 31 families (34.44%), followed by the p.G61E in seven families (7.77%). The remaining mutations (p.R163C, p.E173K, g.4330-4331delTG, p.E229K, p.R390S, p.R368H, p.R469W, p.C470Y, and g.7901-7913del13bp) were infrequent. One family with the p.R390S mutation showed both PCG and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) phenotypes. One proband was heterozygous for p.T193K mutation in MYOC. This mutation has been initially associated with POAG, but never with PCG. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that mutations in CYP1B1 are a major cause for PCG in the Moroccan population with a predominance of the g.4339delG mutation. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the diversity of CYP1B1 mutations, while suggesting a modest role of MYOC in Moroccan PCG.