Construction of a versatile high precision ambient ionization source for direct analysis and imaging.
ABSTRACT: The design and construction of a high precision ambient ionization source matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (MALDESI) are described in full detail, including a complete parts list. The computer controlled high precision motion control system and high repetition rate Explorer laser are demonstrated during MALDESI-FT-ICR analysis of peptides and proteins ranging from 1 to 17 kDa. The high stability ionization source platform described herein demonstrates both the advantages of the new MALDESI source and versatility for application to numerous desorption and ionization techniques.
Project description:We have developed an atmospheric pressure ionization technique called liquid matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (liq-MALDESI) for the generation of multiply charged ions by laser desorption from liquid samples deposited onto a stainless steel sample target biased at a high potential. This variant of our previously reported MALDESI source does not utilize an ESI emitter to postionize neutrals. Conversely, we report desorption and ionization from a macroscopic charged droplet. We demonstrate high mass resolving power single-acquisition FT-ICR-MS analysis of peptides and proteins ranging from 1 to 8.6 kDa at atmospheric pressure. The liquid sample acts as a macroscopic charged droplet similar to those generated by electrospray ionization, whereby laser irradiation desorbs analyte from organic matrix containing charged droplets generating multiply charged ions. We have observed a singly charged radical cation of an electrochemically active species indicating oxidation occurs for analytes and therefore water; the latter would play a key role in the mechanism of ionization. Moreover, we demonstrate an increase in ion abundance and a concurrent decrease in surface tension with an increase in the applied potential.
Project description:Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique well suited for analysis of biological specimens. This tutorial review focuses on recent advancements and applications of IR-MALDESI MSI to better understand key biological questions. Through optimization of user-defined source parameters, comprehensive and quantitative MSI data can be obtained for a variety of analytes. The effect of an ice matrix layer is well defined in the context of desorption dynamics and resulting ion abundance. Optimized parameters and careful control of conditions affords quantitative MSI data which provides valuable information for targeted, label-free drug distribution studies and untargeted metabolomic datasets. Challenges and limitations of MSI using IR-MALDESI are addressed in the context of the bioimaging field.
Project description:The internal energy deposited into analytes during the ionization process largely influences the extent of fragmentation, thus the appearance of the resulting mass spectrum. The internal energy distributions of a series of para-substituted benzyl pyridinium cations in liquid and solid-state generated by infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) were measured using the survival yield method, of which results were subsequently compared with conventional electrospray ionization (ESI). The comparable mean internal energy values (e.g., 1.8-1.9 eV at a collision energy of 15 eV) and peak widths obtained with IR-MALDESI and ESI support that IR-MALDESI are essentially a soft ionization technique where analytes do not gain considerable internal energy during the laser-induced desorption process and/or lose energy during uptake into charged electrospray droplets. An unusual fragment ion, protonated pyridine, was only found for solid IR-MALDESI at relatively high collision energies, which is presumably resulted from direct ionization of the pre-charged analytes in form of salts. Analysis of tissue with an ice layer consistently yielded ion populations with higher internal energy than its counterpart without an ice layer, likely due to a substantially enhanced number of IR absorbers with ice. Further measurements with holo-myoglobin show that IR-MALDESI-MS retains the noncovalently bound heme-protein complexes under both native-like and denaturing conditions, while complete loss of the heme group occurred in denaturing ESI-MS, showing that the softness of IR-MALDESI is equivalent or superior to ESI for biomolecules.
Project description:Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) allows for the direct monitoring of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical compounds over the surface of a tissue sample. This technology has opened the field of mass spectrometry to numerous innovative applications over the past 15 years. First used with SIMS and MALDI MS that operate under vacuum, interest has grown for mass spectrometry ionization sources that allow for effective imaging but where the analysis can be performed at ambient pressure with minimal or no sample preparation. We introduce here a versatile source for MALDESI imaging analysis coupled to a hybrid LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The imaging source offers single shot or multi-shot capability per pixel with full control over the laser repetition rate and mass spectrometer scanning cycle. Scanning rates can be as fast as 1 pixel/second and a spatial resolution of 45 ?m was achieved with oversampling. Design and integration of a versatile IR-MALDESI imaging source offering multi-shot capability with a commercial FT-ICR mass spectrometer.
Project description:Determining the distribution of a drug and its metabolites within tissue is a key facet of evaluating drug candidates. Drug distribution can have a significant implication in appraising drug efficacy and potential toxicity. The specificity and sensitivity of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) make it a perfect complement to the analysis of drug distributions in tissue. The detection of lapatinib as well as several of its metabolites in liver tissue was determined by MSI using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) coupled to high resolving power Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers. IR-MALDESI required minimal sample preparation while maintaining high sensitivity. The effect of the electrospray solvent composition on IR-MALDESI MSI signal from tissue analysis was investigated and an empirical comparison of IR-MALDESI and UV-MALDI for MSI analysis is also presented.
Project description:The forensic analysis of textile fibers uses a variety of techniques from microscopy to spectroscopy. One such technique that is often used to identify the dye(s) within the fiber is mass spectrometry (MS). In the traditional MS method, the dye must be extracted from the fabric and the dye components are separated by chromatography prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Direct analysis of the dye from the fabric allows the omission of the lengthy sample preparation involved in extraction, thereby significantly reducing the overall analysis time. Herein, a direct analysis of dyed textile fabric was performed using the infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) source for MS. In MALDESI, an IR laser with wavelength tuned to 2.94 ?m is used to desorb the dye from the fabric sample with the aid of water as the matrix. The desorbed dye molecules are then postionized by electrospray ionization (ESI). A variety of dye classes were analyzed from various fabrics with little to no sample preparation allowing for the identification of the dye mass and in some cases the fiber polymer. Those dyes that were not detected using MALDESI were also not observed by direct infusion ESI of the dye standard.
Project description:Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue sections using a layer of deposited ice as an energy-absorbing matrix was investigated. Dynamics of plume ablation were first explored using a nanosecond exposure shadowgraphy system designed to simultaneously collect pictures of the plume with a camera and collect the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance FT-ICR mass spectrum corresponding to that same ablation event. Ablation of fresh tissue analyzed with and without using ice as a matrix were compared using this technique. Effect of spot-to-spot distance, number of laser shots per pixel, and tissue condition (matrix) on ion abundance were also investigated for 50 ?m-thick tissue sections. Finally, the statistical method called design of experiments was used to compare source parameters and determine the optimal conditions for IR-MALDESI of tissue sections using deposited ice as a matrix. With a better understanding of the fundamentals of ablation dynamics and a systematic approach to explore the experimental space, it was possible to improve ion abundance by nearly one order of magnitude.
Project description:Design of experiments (DOE) is a systematic and cost-effective approach to system optimization by which the effects of multiple parameters and parameter interactions on a given response can be measured in few experiments. Herein, we describe the use of statistical DOE to improve a few of the analytical figures of merit of the infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) source for mass spectrometry. In a typical experiment, bovine cytochrome c was ionized via electrospray, and equine cytochrome c was desorbed and ionized by IR-MALDESI such that the ratio of equine:bovine was used as a measure of the ionization efficiency of IR-MALDESI. This response was used to rank the importance of seven source parameters including flow rate, laser fluence, laser repetition rate, ESI emitter to mass spectrometer inlet distance, sample stage height, sample plate voltage, and the sample to mass spectrometer inlet distance. A screening fractional factorial DOE was conducted to designate which of the seven parameters induced the greatest amount of change in the response. These important parameters (flow rate, stage height, sample to mass spectrometer inlet distance, and laser fluence) were then studied at higher resolution using a full factorial DOE to obtain the globally optimized combination of parameter settings. The optimum combination of settings was then compared with our previously determined settings to quantify the degree of improvement in detection limit. The limit of detection for the optimized conditions was approximately 10 attomoles compared with 100 femtomoles for the previous settings, which corresponds to a four orders of magnitude improvement in the detection limit of equine cytochrome c.
Project description:Because of its high degree of selectivity and chemical resolution, mass spectrometry (MS) is rapidly becoming the analytical method of choice for high-throughput evaluations and clinical diagnostics. While advances in MS resolving power have increased by an order of magnitude over the past decade, advances in sample introduction are still needed for high-throughput screening applications where the time frame of chromatographic separation would limit the duty cycle. Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is an ambient ionization source that has been shown to be applicable for direct analyses and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of complex biological samples in a high-throughput manner. To increase a range of detectable features in IR-MALDESI experiments, we integrated the home-built ion source with a commercially available drift tube ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) and analyzed small polar molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and intact proteins. We also describe in detail how the pulsed ionization source was synchronized with IMS-MS.
Project description:RATIONALE:High-throughput screening (HTS) is a critical step in the drug discovery process. However, most mass spectrometry (MS)-based HTS methods require sample cleanup steps prior to analysis. In this work we present the utility of infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) for monitoring an enzymatic reaction directly from a biological buffer system with no sample cleanup and at high throughput. METHODS:IR-MALDESI was used to directly analyze reaction mixtures from a well plate at different time points after reaction initiation. The percent conversion of precursors to products was used to screen the enzyme activity. The reaction was performed with two different concentrations of precursors and enzyme in order to assess the dynamic range of the assay. Eventually, a pseudo-HTS study was designed to investigate the utility of IR-MALDESI screening enzyme activity in a high-throughput manner. RESULTS:IR-MALDESI was able to readily monitor the activity of IDH1 over time at two different concentrations of precursors and enzyme. The calculated Z-factors of 0.65 and 0.41 confirmed the suitability of the developed method for screening enzyme activity in HTS manner. Finally, in a single-blind pseudo-HTS analysis IR-MALDESI was able to correctly predict the identity of all samples, where 8/10 samples were identified with high confidence and the other two samples with lower confidence. CONCLUSIONS:The enzymatic activity of IDH1 was screened by directly analyzing the reaction content from the buffer in well plates with no sample cleanup steps. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the robustness of IR-MALDESI for direct analysis of enzymatic reactions from biological buffers with no sample cleanup and its immense potential for HTS applications.