Optineurin coding variants in Ghanaian patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.
ABSTRACT: Coding variants in the optineurin gene (OPTN, GLC1E) have been reported to play a role in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in various populations. This study investigated the role of OPTN sequence variants in patients with POAG in Ghana (West Africa).This is a case-control study of unrelated Ghanaian POAG cases and non-glaucomatous controls. Ascertainment criteria for POAG included the presence of glaucomatous optic nerve neuropathy, associated visual field loss, and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes, all in the absence of secondary causes of glaucoma. Controls had normal optic nerves, visual fields, and IOP. All the coding exons of OPTN were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced in all 140 cases and 130 controls using an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer.All the coding exons of OPTN were sequenced in 140 POAG patients and 130 controls. Several coding variants were identified including M98K, A134A, V147L, P292P, A301G, S321S, and E322K. Three coding variants (V147L, P292P, and A301G) have not been reported previously. There were no significant differences on the frequencies of all the identified variants between POAG cases and controls in this population.This is the first comprehensive study of OPTN in a single West African population. Our results suggest that coding variants in OPTN may not contribute to the risk for POAG in persons of West African descent.
Project description:Coding variants in both myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) are reported risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in many populations. This study investigated the contribution of MYOC and OPTN coding variants in Hispanics of Mexican descent with and without POAG. We conducted a case-control study of unrelated POAG cases and nonglaucomatous controls in a population of Hispanics of Mexican descent. Ascertainment criteria for POAG included the presence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss and the absence of secondary causes of glaucoma. Controls had normal optic nerves, visual fields and intraocular pressure. All coding exons of MYOC and OPTN were sequenced. The data set consisted of 88 POAG cases and 93 controls. A novel nonsynonymous coding variant (R7H) in the first exon of MYOC was identified. Other identified variants in MYOC and OPTN have been previously described and do not seem to contribute to POAG risk. This is the first comprehensive study of MYOC and OPTN in Hispanics of Mexican descent with POAG. Neither MYOC nor OPTN sequence variants seem to have a major role in the etiology of POAG in this population.
Project description:Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of late onset, progressive, irreversible blindness and, although its etiology is poorly understood, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) often appears to be a contributory factor. Proteomic and Western analyses of trabecular meshwork (TM) from patients with POAG and age-matched controls originally implicated cochlin as possibly contributing to glaucoma pathogenesis. Cochlin deposits were subsequently detected in glaucomatous but not in control TM and older glaucomatous TM was found to contain higher levels of cochlin and significantly lower amounts of collagen type II. More recently, similar results were reported in DBA/2J mice, which at older ages develop elevated IOP, retinal ganglion cell degeneration, and optic nerve damage. Notably, cochlin was absent in TM from C57BL/6J, CD1, and BALBc/ByJ mice, which do not exhibit elevated IOP or glaucoma. Cochlin was found in the TM of very young DBA/2J mice, prior to elevated IOP, suggesting that over time the protein may contribute to the events leading to increased IOP and optic nerve damage. Here we review these findings and describe how future studies in DBA/2J mice can help resolve whether cochlin plays a causal role in mechanisms of POAG and elevated IOP.
Project description:Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness affecting nearly 8 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). However, patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), a subtype of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), develop the disease without IOP elevation. The molecular pathways leading to the pathology of NTG and POAG are still unclear. Here, we describe the phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type (Wt) or mutated optineurin (Optn). Mutations E50K, H486R and Optn with a deletion of the first (amino acids 153-174) or second (amino acids 426-461) leucine zipper were used for overexpression. After 16 months, histological abnormalities were exclusively observed in the retina of E50K mutant mice with loss of RGCs and connecting synapses in the peripheral retina leading to a thinning of the nerve fiber layer at the optic nerve head at normal IOP. E50K mice also showed massive apoptosis and degeneration of entire retina, leading to approximately a 28% reduction of the retina thickness. At the molecular level, introduction of the E50K mutation disrupts the interaction between Optn and Rab8 GTPase, a protein involved in the regulation of vesicle transport from Golgi to plasma membrane. Wt Optn and an active GTP-bound form of Rab8 complex were localized at the Golgi complex. These data suggest that alternation of the Optn sequence can initiate significant retinal degeneration in mice.
Project description:Significant association has recently been reported between pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3825942, and rs1048661, in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene (LOXL1). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether XFG-associated variants of LOXL1 play a significant role in primary open-angle glaucoma in the Caucasian, African-American, and Ghanaian (West-African) populations.POAG was defined as the presence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage, associated visual field loss, and elevated intraocular pressure (>22 mm Hg in both eyes). Thirteen tagging SNPs were genotyped by allelic discrimination assays in the Caucasian (279 cases and 227 controls), African-American (193 cases and 97 controls), and Ghanaian (170 cases and 138 controls) populations. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between the cases and controls from each population.None of the SNPs associated with XFG in LOXL1 were significantly associated with POAG in these populations. The risk allele frequencies for rs2165241 and rs3825942 were significantly lower in the African-American and Ghanaian populations, compared with Caucasian individuals.There was no association between SNPs in the LOXL1 gene and POAG. This is the first analysis of the LOXL1 gene in African-American and West-African populations. LOXL1 gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of POAG in populations of either Caucasian or West-African ancestry.
Project description:Peripheral vision loss followed by "tunnel vision" and eventual irreversible blindness is the fate of patients afflicted by various forms of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normotensive glaucoma (NTG). These complex and heterogeneous diseases are characterized by extensive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) accompanied by retraction and severance of their axonal connections to the brain and thus damage to and thinning of the optic nerve. Since patients suffering from this glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) first notice visual impairment when they have lost > 40% of their RGCs, early diagnosis is the key to retard the progression of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), low cerebrospinal and/or low intracranial fluid pressure, advancing age, and ethnicity are major risk factors associated with POAG. However, retinal vascular abnormalities and a high sensitivity of RGCs and optic nerve head components to neurotoxic, inflammatory, oxidative and mechanical insults also contribute to vision loss in POAG/GON. Current treatment modalities for POAG and NTG involve lowering IOP using topical ocular drugs, combination drug products, and surgical interventions. Two recently approved multi-pharmacophoric drugs (e.g., rho kinase inhibitor, Netarsudil; a drug conjugate, Latanoprostene Bunod) and novel aqueous humor drainage devices (iStent and CyPass) are also gaining acceptance for treating POAG/ NTG. Neuroprotective and regenerative agents, coupled with electroceutical, mechanical support systems, stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are emerging therapeutics on the horizon to help combat GON. The latter techniques and approaches hope to rejuvenate RGCs and repair the optic nerve structures, thereby providing a gain of function of the visual system for the glaucoma patients.
Project description:Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and optic nerve fibers. Increased age and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation are the main risk factors for developing glaucoma. Mice that are heterozygous (HET) for the mega-karyocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (PTP-Meg2) show chronic and progressive IOP elevation, severe RGCs loss, and optic nerve damage, and represent a valuable model for IOP-dependent primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Previously, evidence accumulated suggesting that glaucomatous neurodegeneration is associated with the extensive remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Unfortunately, little is known about the exact ECM changes in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve. Hence, the goal of the present study was to comparatively explore ECM alterations in glaucomatous PTP-Meg2 HET and control wild type (WT) mice. Due to their potential relevance in glaucomatous neurodegeneration, we specifically analyzed the expression pattern of the ECM glycoproteins fibronectin, laminin, tenascin-C, and tenascin-R as well as the proteoglycans aggrecan, brevican, and members of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) family. The analyses were carried out in the retina and optic nerve of glaucomatous PTP-Meg2 HET and WT mice using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Interestingly, we observed increased fibronectin and laminin levels in the glaucomatous HET retina and optic nerve compared to the WT group. RT-qPCR analyses of the laminins α4, β2 and γ3 showed an altered isoform-specific regulation in the HET retina and optic nerve. In addition, an upregulation of tenascin-C and its interaction partner RPTPβ/ζ/phosphacan was found in glaucomatous tissue. However, comparable protein and mRNA levels for tenascin-R as well as aggrecan and brevican were observed in both groups. Overall, our study showed a remodeling of various ECM components in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve of PTP-Meg2 HET mice. This dysregulation could be responsible for pathological processes such as neovascularization, inflammation, and reactive gliosis in glaucomatous neurodegeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To date, only a small portion of the genetic variation for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the major type of glaucoma, has been elucidated. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined our two data sets of the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) derived from a total of 2,219 Japanese subjects. First, we performed a GWAS by analyzing 653,519 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 833 POAG patients and 686 controls. As a result, five variants that passed the Bonferroni correction were identified in CDKN2B-AS1 on chromosome 9p21.3, which was already reported to be a significant locus in the Caucasian population. Moreover, we combined the data set with our previous GWAS data set derived from 411 POAG patients and 289 controls by the Mantel-Haenszel test, and all of the combined variants showed stronger association with POAG (P<5.8 × 10(-10)). We then subdivided the case groups into two subtypes based on the value of intraocular pressure (IOP)--POAG with high IOP (high pressure glaucoma, HPG) and that with normal IOP (normal pressure glaucoma, NPG)--and performed the GWAS using the two data sets, as the prevalence of NPG in Japanese is much higher than in Caucasians. The results suggested that the variants from the same CDKN2B-AS1 locus were likely to be significant for NPG patients. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we successfully identified POAG-associated variants in the CDKN2B-AS1 locus using a Japanese population, i.e., variants originally reported as being associated with the Caucasian population. Although we cannot rule out that the significance could be due to the differences in sample size between HPG and NPG, the variants could be associated specifically with the vulnerability of the optic nerve to IOP, which is useful for investigating the etiology of glaucoma.
Project description:Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma, prevalent in approximately 1-2% of Caucasians in the UK over the age of 40. It is characterised by an open anterior chamber angle, raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve damage leading to loss of sight. The myocilin gene (MYOC) is the most common glaucoma-causing gene, accounting for ~2% of British POAG cases. 358 patients were selected for next generation sequencing (NGS) with the following selection criteria: Caucasian ethnicity, intraocular pressure (IOP) 21-40?mm Hg, cup:disc ratio??0.6 and visual field mean deviation ?-3. The entire MYOC gene (17,321?bp) was captured including the promoter, introns, UTRs and coding exons. We identify 12 exonic variants (one stop-gain, five missense and six synonymous variants), two promoter variants, 133 intronic variants, two 3' UTR variants and 23 intergenic variants. Four known or predicted pathogenic exonic variants (p.R126W, p.K216K, p.Q368* and p.T419A) were identified across 11 patients, which accounts for 3.07% of this POAG cohort. This is the first time that the entire region of MYOC has been sequenced and variants reported for a cohort of POAG patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glaucoma is a leading neurodegenerative disease affecting over 70 million individuals worldwide. Early pathological events of axonal degeneration and retinopathy in response to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are limited and not well-defined due to the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully replicate all the phenotypes of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma. Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and its associated iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma share many features with POAG. Here, we characterized a novel mouse model of GC-induced OHT for glaucomatous neurodegeneration and further explored early pathological events of axonal degeneration in response to elevated IOP. METHODS:C57BL/6?J mice were periocularly injected with either vehicle or the potent GC, dexamethasone 21-acetate (Dex) once a week for 10?weeks. Glaucoma phenotypes including IOP, outflow facility, structural and functional loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), optic nerve (ON) degeneration, gliosis, and anterograde axonal transport deficits were examined at various stages of OHT. RESULTS:Prolonged treatment with Dex leads to glaucoma in mice similar to POAG patients including IOP elevation due to reduced outflow facility and dysfunction of trabecular meshwork, progressive ON degeneration and structural and functional loss of RGCs. Lowering of IOP rescued Dex-induced ON degeneration and RGC loss, suggesting that glaucomatous neurodegeneration is IOP dependent. Also, Dex-induced neurodegeneration was associated with activation of astrocytes, axonal transport deficits, ON demyelination, mitochondrial accumulation and immune cell infiltration in the optic nerve head (ONH) region. Our studies further show that ON degeneration precedes structural and functional loss of RGCs in Dex-treated mice. Axonal damage and transport deficits initiate at the ONH and progress toward the distal end of ON and target regions in the brain (i.e. superior colliculus). Most of anterograde transport was preserved during initial stages of axonal degeneration (30% loss) and complete transport deficits were only observed at the ONH during later stages of severe axonal degeneration (50% loss). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that ON degeneration and transport deficits at the ONH precede RGC structural and functional loss and provide a new potential therapeutic window for rescuing neuronal loss and restoring health of damaged axons in glaucoma.
Project description:Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multi-ancestry participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP-associated loci located on chromosome 3q25.31 within the FNDC3B gene (P = 4.19 × 10(-8) for rs6445055), two on chromosome 9 (P = 2.80 × 10(-11) for rs2472493 near ABCA1 and P = 6.39 × 10(-11) for rs8176693 within ABO) and one on chromosome 11p11.2 (best P = 1.04 × 10(-11) for rs747782). Separate meta-analyses of 4 independent POAG cohorts, totaling 4,284 cases and 95,560 controls, showed that 3 of these loci for IOP were also associated with POAG.