Oxidation of plasma cysteine/cystine redox state in endotoxin-induced lung injury.
ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence indicate that perturbations in the extracellular thiol/disulfide redox environment correlate with the progression and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide Cystine (CySS) constitute the most abundant, low-molecular-weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and Cys homeostasis is adversely affected during the inflammatory response to infection and injury. While much emphasis has been placed on glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), little is known about the regulation of the Cys/CySS couple in ALI. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endotoxin administration causes a decrease in Cys and/or an oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox state (E(h) Cys/CySS), and to determine whether these changes were associated with changes in plasma E(h) GSH/GSSG. Mice received endotoxin intraperitoneally, and GSH and Cys redox states were measured at time points known to correlate with the progression of endotoxin-induced lung injury. E(h) in mV was calculated using Cys, CySS, GSH, and GSSG values by high-performance liquid chromatography and the Nernst equation. We observed distinct effects of endotoxin on the GSH and Cys redox systems during the acute phase; plasma E(h) Cys/CySS was selectively oxidized early in response to endotoxin, while E(h) GSH/GSSG remained unchanged. Unexpectedly, subsequent oxidation of E(h) GSH/GSSG and E(h) Cys/CySS occurred as a consequence of endotoxin-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results indicate that enhanced oxidation of Cys, altered transport of Cys and CySS, and decreased food intake each contribute to the oxidation of plasma Cys/CySS redox state in endotoxemia.
Project description:Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of the extracellular environment. The redox state of human plasma, defined by the concentrations of cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS), becomes more oxidized as we age. Recently, we showed that fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of young and old mice retain this differential phenotype; old cells produce and maintain a more oxidizing extracellular redox potential (Eh(Cys/CySS)) than young cells. Microarray analysis identified down-regulation of Slc7a11, the light subunit of the CySS/glutamate transporter, as a potential mediator of age-related oxidation in these cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanistic link between Slc7a11 expression and extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS). Sulforaphane treatment or overexpression of Slc7a11 was used to increase Slc7a11 in lung fibroblasts from old mice, and sulfasalazine treatment or siRNA-mediated knock down was used to decrease Slc7a11 in young fibroblasts. Slc7a11 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR, Slc7a11 activity was determined by measuring the rate of glutamate release, Cys, CySS, glutathione (GSH) and its disulfide (GSSG) were measured by HPLC, and Eh(Cys/CySS) was calculated from the Nernst equation. The results showed that both Eh(Cys/CySS) and Eh(GSH/GSSG) were more oxidized in the conditioned media of old cells than in young cells. Up-regulation of Slc7a11 via overexpression or sulforaphane treatment restored extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS) in cultures of old cells, whereas down-regulation reproduced the oxidizing Eh(Cys/CySS) in young cells. Only sulforaphane treatment was able to increase total GSH and restore Eh(GSH/GSSG), whereas overexpression, knock down and sulfasalazine had no effect on these parameters. In addition, inhibition of GSH synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine had no effect on the ability of cells to restore their extracellular redox potential in response to an oxidative challenge. In conclusion, our study reveals Slc7a11 is the key regulator of age-dependent changes in extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS) in primary mouse lung fibroblasts, and its effects are not dependent on GSH synthesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox couple found in human plasma. Arsenic, GSH, and Cys are linked in several ways: a) GSH is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway, and Cys is the rate-limiting substrate; b) intermediates of the methionine cycle regulate both the transsulfuration pathway and As methylation; c) GSH serves as the electron donor for reduction of arsenate to arsenite; and d) As has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and therefore binds to GSH and Cys.<h4>Objectives</h4>We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with decreases in GSH and Cys and increases in GSSG and CySS (i.e., a more oxidized environment).<h4>Methods</h4>For this cross-sectional study, the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, we recruited a total of 378 participants from each of five water As concentration categories: < 10 (n = 76), 10-100 (n = 104), 101-200 (n = 86), 201-300 (n = 67), and > 300 µg/L (n = 45). Concentrations of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS were measured using HPLC.<h4>Results</h4>An interquartile range (IQR) increase in water As was negatively associated with blood GSH (mean change, -25.4 µmol/L; 95% CI: -45.3, -5.31) and plasma CySS (mean change, -3.00 µmol/L; 95% CI: -4.61, -1.40). We observed similar associations with urine and blood As. There were no significant associations between As exposure and blood GSSG or plasma Cys.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The observed associations are consistent with the hypothesis that As may influence concentrations of GSH and other nonprotein sulfhydryls through binding and irreversible loss in bile and/or possibly in urine.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Disruptions in redox balance lead to oxidative stress, a promoter of morbidity in critical illness. This study aimed to: (1) characterize the plasma and alveolar thiol/disulfide redox pools, (2) examine their associations with alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, and (3) determine the effect of high dose vitamin D3 on plasma thiol/disulfide redox. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Subjects were 30 critically ill, ventilated adults in a double-blind randomized trial of high-dose (250 000 or 500 000 IU) vitamin D3 or placebo. Baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were analyzed for determination of alveolar phagocytosis index (PI) and for concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), and their respective redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS). Plasma redox outcomes were assessed at baseline and days 7 and 14. RESULTS:Baseline plasma Cys was inversely associated with alveolar PI (ρ = -0.69, P = 0.003), and EhCySS was positively associated with PI (ρ = 0.61, P = 0.01). Over time, among all subjects there was an increase in plasma GSH levels and a decrease in EhGSSG (P < 0.01 for both), with no difference by treatment group. Vitamin D3 decreased oxidized plasma GSSG to a more normal state (P for group x time = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS:Oxidative stress indicators were positively associated with alveolar macrophage phagocytic function in acutely ill ventilated adults. High-dose vitamin D3 decreased plasma GSSG concentrations, which suggests that vitamin D can possibly improve the oxidative stress environment.
Project description:The reduction potentials (E(h)) for the redox couples GSH/GSSG and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) in plasma are useful indicators of systemic oxidative stress and other medically relevant physiological states. This article describes a sensitive method for determining plasma levels of GSH, GSSG, Cys, and CySS used to calculate the in vivo E(h) values. The method uses iodoacetate to alkylate free thiols, derivatization with dansyl chloride to fluorescently tag amino groups, and HPLC and fluorescence to separate, detect, and quantify the molecules. Benefits of the method, such as sensitivity and dynamic range, are described, as are caveats, such as the importance of preventing red blood cell hemolysis and limitations in quantification of GSSG. General principles of redox chemistry and previous studies showing that the compounds are more oxidized than predicted from their standard reduction potentials are reviewed. The calculated in vivo E(h) is a convenient and informative way of summarizing the redox environment of plasma and is also useful for studies of cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, human biopsies, and a broad range of in vitro cell culture conditions.
Project description:Critically ill populations incur high levels of oxidative stress and commonly present with vitamin D deficiency. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and plasma markers of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) redox and immunity in critically ill children. This was a cross-sectional study of n=50 PICU patients. Subjects were categorized according to their plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations: (<20, 20-30, and ?30ng/dL). Plasma GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), Cys, and cystine (CySS) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and their associated redox potentials determined (EhGSSG and EhCySS, respectively). Plasma LL-37, an indicator of innate immune function, was assayed with ELISA. Data were analyzed using general linear regression before and after adjustment for age, sex, and race. Results showed that EhCySS was more reduced in subjects with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations ?30ng/mL compared to those with 25(OH)D concentrations <20ng/mL (P=0.009). Plasma GSH, GSSG, and total GSH decreased with increasing 25(OH)D category (P=0.06, 0.03, and 0.01, respectively), and plasma glutamine levels were lowest in subjects with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations ?30ng/mL (P=0.004). Plasma LL-37 concentrations did not significantly differ by vitamin D status (P=0.08). In conclusion, vitamin D sufficiency was associated with more reduced plasma EhCySS, indicative of lower oxidative stress in critically ill children. Plasma GSH, GSSG, and glutamine, however, were lower in the vitamin D sufficient group. The role of vitamin D in maintaining redox status during pediatric critical illness requires further study.
Project description:Background:Both systemic redox status and diet quality are associated with risk outcomes in chronic disease. It is not known, however, the extent to which diet quality influences plasma thiol/disulfide redox status. Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of diet, as measured by diet quality scores and other dietary factors, on systemic thiol/disulfide redox status. Methods:We performed a cross-sectional study of 685 working men and women (ages ?18 y) in Atlanta, GA. Diet was assessed by 3 diet quality scores: the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). We measured concentrations of plasma glutathione (GSH), cysteine, their associated oxidized forms [glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and cystine (CySS), respectively], and their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) to determine thiol/disulfide redox status. Linear regression modeling was performed to assess relations between diet and plasma redox after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, and history of chronic disease. Results:MDS was positively associated with plasma GSH (? = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03) and total GSH (GSH + GSSG) (? = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03), and inversely associated with the CySS:GSH ratio (? = -0.02; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004). There were significant independent associations between individual MDS components (dairy, vegetables, fish, and monounsaturated fat intake) and varying plasma redox indexes (P < 0.05). AHEI and DASH diet quality indexes and other diet factors of interest were not significantly correlated with plasma thiol and disulfide redox measures. Conclusion:Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with a favorable plasma thiol/disulfide redox profile, independent of BMI, in a generally healthy working adult population. Although longitudinal studies are warranted, these findings contribute to the feasibility of targeting a Mediterranean diet to improve plasma redox status.
Project description:Redox status and inflammation are important in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases. Epidemiological studies have linked vitamin D status to a number of chronic diseases. We aimed to examine the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and circulating thiol/disulphide redox status and biomarkers of inflammation.This was a cross-sectional study of N = 693 adults (449 females, 244 males) in an apparently healthy, working cohort in Atlanta, GA. Plasma glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and their associated disulphides were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, and their redox potentials (Eh GSSG and Eh CySS) were calculated using the Nernst equation. Serum inflammatory markers included interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-?, assayed on a multiplex platform, and C-reactive protein (CRP), assayed commercially. Relationships were assessed with multiple linear regression analyses.Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with plasma GSH (? ± SE: 0·002 ± 0·0004) and negatively associated with plasma Eh GSSG (? ± SE: -0·06 ± 0·01) and Cys (? ± SE: -0·01 ± 0·003) (P < 0·001 for all); statistical significance remained after adjusting for age, gender, race, percentage body fat and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0·01-0·02). The inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and CRP was confounded by percentage body fat, and full adjustment for covariates attenuated serum 25(OH)D relationships with other inflammatory markers to nonstatistical significance.Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with major plasma thiol/disulphide redox systems, suggesting that vitamin D status may be involved in redox-mediated pathophysiology.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in obesity pathophysiology. Redox signaling underlies several aspects of WAT physiology; however, the thiol redox environment of WAT has not yet been fully characterized. Dietary and endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during development can transiently impact the cellular redox environment, but it is unknown whether these exposures can reprogram the WAT thiol redox environment. To characterize the WAT thiol redox environment, we took a descriptive approach and measured thiol redox parameters using high-performance liquid chromatography in mouse mesenteric (mWAT), gonadal (gWAT) and subinguinal (sWAT) depots. Cysteine (CYSS:CYS) and glutathione (GSSG:GSH) redox potentials (Eh) were more oxidizing in gWAT and sWAT than mWAT. Increased body weight, relative WAT weight and age were associated with oxidizing GSSG:GSH Eh in mWAT in a sex-specific manner. Body weight and relative WAT weight were also positively associated with GSSG:GSH Eh in sWAT. We carried out a second mouse study with perinatal exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and Mediterranean and Western high-fat diets (HFDs) to determine whether early-life chemical and dietary factors have long-lasting impacts on mWAT redox parameters. Mice exposed to Mediterranean HFD or BPA had more oxidizing GSSG:GSH mWAT Eh than controls, with more pronounced differences in females. These findings suggest an important role for the thiol redox environment in WAT physiology. Observed sex-specific and depot-specific differences in thiol redox parameters are consistent with known WAT physiology. Lastly, mWAT GSSG:GSH Eh may be reprogrammed by developmental exposure to HFDs and EDCs, which may have implications for obesity risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes.<h4>Methods</h4>Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1.5-4 hours. ROS measurements were done with CM-H2DCFDA. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed by a modification of the thiobarbituric acid method. Lipolysis was measured as glycerol release. Lipid synthesis was measured as 14C-glucose incorporated into lipid. Respiration was assessed using the SeaHorse XF24 analyzer and the proton leak was determined from the difference in respiration with oligomycin and antimycin A.<h4>Results</h4>Metabolites with increasing oxidation potentials (GSSG, CySS, Acoc) increased adipocyte ROS. In contrast, P caused a decrease in ROS compared with L. Acoc also induced a significant increase in both LPO and lipid synthesis. L and Acoc increased lipolysis. ?OHB increased respiration, mainly due to an increased proton leak. GSSG, when present throughout 14 days of differentiation significantly increased fat accumulation, but not when added later.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrated that in human adipocytes changes in the external redox state impacted ROS production, LPO, energy efficiency, lipid handling, and differentiation. A more oxidized state generally led to increased ROS, LPO and lipid turnover and more reduction led to increased respiration and a proton leak. However, not all of the redox couples were the same suggesting compartmentalization. These data are consistent with the concept of the circulating redox metabolome as a master metabolic regulatory system.
Project description:Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of plasma cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS) redox state, expressed as EhCySS. Cultured cells condition their media to reproduce physiological EhCySS, but it is unknown whether aged cells produce a more oxidized extracellular environment reflective of that seen in vivo. In the current study, we isolated primary lung fibroblasts from young and old female mice and measured the media EhCySS before and after challenge with Cys or CySS. We also measured expression of genes related to redox regulation and fibroblast function. These studies revealed that old fibroblasts produced a more oxidizing extracellular EhCySS than young fibroblasts and that old fibroblasts had a decreased capacity to recover from an oxidative challenge due to a slower rate of reduction of CySS to Cys. These defects were associated with 10-fold lower expression of the Slc7a11 subunit of the xCT cystine-glutamate transporter. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (Sod3) was the only antioxidant or thiol-disulfide regulating enzyme among 36 examined that was downregulated in old fibroblasts by more than 2-fold, but there were numerous changes in extracellular matrix components. Thus, aging fibroblasts not only contribute to remodeling of the extracellular matrix but also have a profound effect on the extracellular redox environment.