Contributions of F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase for coupling to the FcepsilonRI pathway in mast cells.
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the roles of Fer-CIP4 homology (FCH)-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase in regulating its activation and signaling downstream of the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgE) receptor (FcepsilonRI) in mast cells. Homology modeling of the Fes F-BAR domain revealed conservation of some basic residues implicated in phosphoinositide binding (R113/K114). The Fes F-BAR can bind phosphoinositides and induce tubulation of liposomes in vitro. Mutation of R113/K114 to uncharged residues (RK/QQ) caused a significant reduction in phosphoinositide binding in vitro and a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization in transfected COS-7 cells. RBL-2H3 mast cells expressing full-length Fes carrying the RK/QQ mutation show defects in FcepsilonRI-induced Fes tyrosine phosphorylation and degranulation compared to cells expressing wild-type Fes. This correlated with reduced localization to Lyn kinase-containing membrane fractions for the RK/QQ mutant compared to wild-type Fes in mast cells. The Fes SH2 domain also contributes to Fes signaling in mast cells, via interactions with the phosphorylated FcepsilonRI beta chain and the actin regulatory protein HS1. We show that Fes phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues in HS1 implicated in actin stabilization. Thus, coordinated actions of the F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes allow for coupling to FcepsilonRI signaling and potential regulation the actin reorganization in mast cells.
Project description:We developed a confocal real-time imaging approach that allows direct observation of the subcellular localization pattern of proteins involved in proximal FcepsilonRI signaling in RBL cells and primary bone marrow-derived mast cells. The adaptor protein Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is critical for FcepsilonRI-induced calcium flux, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. In this study, we imaged SLP-76 and found it in the cytosol of unstimulated cells. Upon FcepsilonRI cross-linking, SLP-76 translocates to the cell membrane, forming clusters that colocalize with the FcepsilonRI, the tyrosine kinase Syk, the adaptor LAT, and phosphotyrosine. The disruption of the SLP-76 interaction with its constitutive binding partner, Gads, through the mutation of SLP-76 or the expression of the Gads-binding region of SLP-76, inhibits the translocation and clustering of SLP-76, suggesting that the interaction of SLP-76 with Gads is critical for appropriate subcellular localization of SLP-76. We further demonstrated that the expression of the Gads-binding region of SLP-76 in bone marrow-derived mast cells inhibits FcepsilonRI-induced calcium flux, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. These studies revealed, for the first time, that SLP-76 forms signaling clusters following FcepsilonRI stimulation and demonstrated that the Gads-binding region of SLP-76 regulates clustering of SLP-76 and FcepsilonRI-induced mast cell responses.
Project description:Protein kinase C (PKC) and Syk protein tyrosine kinase play critical roles in immune cell activation including that through the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI. Mechanisms by which PKC activation leads to the activation of Ras, a family of GTPases essential for immune cell activation, have been elusive. We present evidence that Tyr-662 and Tyr-658 of PKCbetaI and PKCalpha, respectively, are phosphorylated by Syk in the membrane compartment of FcepsilonRI-stimulated mast cells. These phosphorylations require prior PKC autophosphorylation of the adjacent serine residues (Ser-661 and Ser-657, respectively) and generate a binding site for the SH2 domain of the adaptor protein Grb-2. By recruiting the Grb-2/Sos complex to the plasma membrane, these conventional PKC isoforms contribute to the full activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in FcepsilonRI-stimulated mast cells.
Project description:Fes and Fes-related (Fer) protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) comprise a subfamily of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases characterized by a unique multidomain structure composed of an N-terminal Fer/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain, a central Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, and a C-terminal PTK domain. Fer is ubiquitously expressed, and upregulation of Fer has been implicated in various human cancers. The PTK activity of Fes has been shown to be positively regulated by the binding of phosphotyrosine-containing ligands to the SH2 domain. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of human Fer SH2 domain bound to a phosphopeptide that has D-E-pY-E-N-V-D sequence is reported at 1.37?å resolution. The asymmetric unit (ASU) contains six Fer-phosphopeptide complexes, and the structure reveals three distinct binding modes for the same phosphopeptide. At four out of the six binding sites in the ASU, the phosphopeptide binds to Fer SH2 domain in a type I ?-turn conformation, and this could be the optimal binding mode of this phosphopeptide. At the other two binding sites in the ASU, it appears that spatial proximity of neighboring SH2 domains in the crystal induces alternative modes of binding of this phosphopeptide.
Project description:Chemokines play important regulatory roles in immunity, but their contributions to mast cell function remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of FcepsilonRI-chemokine receptor (CCR) 1 co-stimulation on receptor localization and cellular morphology of bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whereas FcepsilonRI and CCR1 co-localized at the plasma membrane in unsensitized cells, sensitization with IgE promoted internalization of CCR1 molecules. Co-stimulation of FcepsilonRI and CCR1 with antigen and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha was more effective than FcepsilonRI stimulation alone in causing leading edge formation, flattened morphology, membrane ruffles and ganglioside (GM1(+)) lipid mediator release. Co-stimulation resulted in phalloidin-positive cytoneme-like cellular extensions, also known as tunneling nanotubes, which originated at points of calcium accumulation. This is the first report of cytoneme formation by mast cells. To determine the importance of lipid rafts for mast cell function, the cells were cholesterol depleted. Cholesterol depletion enhanced degranulation in resting, sensitized and co-stimulated cells, but not in FcepsilonRI-cross-linked cells, and inhibited formation of filamentous actin(+) cytonemes but not GM1(+) cytonemes. Treatment with latrunculin A to sequester globular-actin abolished cytoneme formation. The cytonemes may participate in intercellular communication during allergic and inflammatory responses, and their presence in the co-stimulated mast cells suggests new roles for CCRs in immunopathology.
Project description:Mast cells, perhaps best known by their ability to trigger allergic reactions after stimulation through the FcepsilonRI, express the unusual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent, Rac-binding protein SWAP-70. Here, we show that the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous and the systemic anaphylactic responses are strongly reduced in SWAP-70(-/-) mice. Cultured SWAP-70(-/-) immature bone marrow mast cells (BMMC) are also impaired in FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation, which can be restored by expression of exogenous wild-type SWAP-70, but less so if a phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP(3)) binding mutant is expressed. SWAP-70 itself supports inositol-3-phosphate and PIP(3) production, the latter indicating a potential feedback from SWAP-70 towards PI3K. FcepsilonRI-stimulated transcription and release of cytokines is controlled by SWAP-70. Key FcepsilonRI signal transduction events like activation of LAT by phosphorylation, activation of Akt/PKB and of p38 MAP kinase are reduced in SWAP-70(-/-) BMMC, but ERK is strongly hyperactivated. Some requirements for SWAP-70 were apparent only under limited-strength signaling conditions. We suggest that SWAP-70 defines a new element of efficient mast cell activation upon FcepsilonRI signaling, important for the control of mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.
Project description:Mast cells are the major effector-cell type for immediate hypersensitivity and other forms of allergic reactions. Expression of 4-1BB, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is induced at mRNA and protein levels on stimulation through the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE; FcepsilonRI). In this study, we present evidence that agonistic anti-4-1BB antibodies can enhance FcepsilonRI-induced cytokine production and secretion. Consistent with this, 4-1BB-deficient mast cells exhibit reduced degranulation and cytokine production on FcepsilonRI stimulation. Analysis of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)-deficient cells supported this notion. As a potential mechanism for these defects, we identified a defect in Ca2+ flux induced by FcepsilonRI stimulation. The defective Ca2+ flux could be accounted for by the reduced activity of Lyn/Btk/phospholipase C-gamma2 pathway and constitutive interactions between 4-1BB and Lyn. Therefore, FcepsilonRI-inducible 4-1BB plays a costimulatory function together with FcepsilonRI stimulation.
Project description:Mast cells are key participants in allergic diseases via activation of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI) resulting in release of proinflammatory mediators. The biochemical pathways linking IgE activation to calcium influx and cytoskeletal changes required for intracellular granule release are incompletely understood. We demonstrate, genetically, that Pak1 is required for this process. In a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis experiment, W(sh)/W(sh) mast cell-deficient mice locally reconstituted with Pak1(-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) experienced strikingly decreased allergen-induced vascular permeability compared with controls. Consistent with the in vivo phenotype, Pak1(-/-) BMMCs exhibited a reduction in FcepsilonRI-induced degranulation. Further, Pak1(-/-) BMMCs demonstrated diminished calcium mobilization and altered depolymerization of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) in response to FcepsilonRI stimulation. These data implicate Pak1 as an essential molecular target for modulating acute mast cell responses that contribute to allergic diseases.
Project description:Sphingosine kinase has been recognized as an essential signaling molecule that mediates the intracellular conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate. In mast cells, induction of sphingosine kinase and generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate have been linked to the initial rise in Ca(2+), released from internal stores, and to degranulation. These events either precede or are concomitant with the activation of phospholipase C-gamma and the generation of inositol trisphosphate. Here we show that sphingosine kinase type 1 (SPHK1) interacts directly with the tyrosine kinase Lyn and that this interaction leads to the recruitment of this lipid kinase to the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcepsilonRI). The interaction of SPHK1 with Lyn caused enhanced lipid and tyrosine kinase activity. After FcepsilonRI triggering, enhanced sphingosine kinase activity was associated with FcepsilonRI in sphingolipid-enriched rafts of mast cells. Bone marrow-derived mast cells from Lyn(-/)(-) mice, compared to syngeneic wild-type cells, were defective in the initial induction of SPHK1 activity, and the defect was overcome by retroviral Lyn expression. These findings position the activation of SPHK1 as an FcepsilonRI proximal event.
Project description:We demonstrate that binding of different IgE molecules (IgEs) to their receptor, FcepsilonRI, induces a spectrum of activation events in the absence of a specific antigen and provide evidence that such activation reflects aggregation of FcepsilonRI. Highly cytokinergic IgEs can efficiently induce production of cytokines and render mast cells resistant to apoptosis in an autocrine fashion, whereas poorly cytokinergic IgEs induce these effects inefficiently. Highly cytokinergic IgEs seem to induce more extensive FcepsilonRI aggregation than do poorly cytokinergic IgEs, which leads to stronger mast cell activation and survival effects. These effects of both types of IgEs require Syk tyrosine kinase and can be inhibited by FcepsilonRI disaggregation with monovalent hapten. In hybridoma-transplanted mice, mucosal mast cell numbers correlate with serum IgE levels. Therefore, survival effects of IgE could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic disease.
Project description:Treatments for allergic disease block the effects of mediators released from activated mast cells and blood basophils. A panel of fullerene derivatives was synthesized and tested for their ability to preempt the release of allergic mediators in vitro and in vivo. The fullerene C(70)-tetraglycolic acid significantly inhibited degranulation and cytokine production from mast cells and basophils, while C(70)-tetrainositol blocked only cytokine production in mast cells and degranulation and cytokine production in basophils. The early phase of FcepsilonRI inhibition was dependent on the blunted release of intracellular calcium stores, elevations in reactive oxygen species, and several signaling molecules. Gene microarray studies further showed the two fullerene derivatives inhibited late phase responses in very different ways. C(70)-tetraglycolic acid was able to block mast cell-driven anaphylaxis in vivo, while C(70)-tetrainositol did not. No toxicity was observed with either compound. These findings demonstrate the biological effects of fullerenes critically depends on the moieties added to the carbon cage and suggest they act on different FcepsilonRI-specific molecules in mast cells and basophils. These next generation fullerene derivatives represent a new class of compounds that interfere with FcepsilonRI signaling pathways to stabilize mast cells and basophils. Thus, fullerene-based therapies may be a new approach for treating allergic diseases.