Mutations in the Arabidopsis peroxisomal ABC transporter COMATOSE allow differentiation between multiple functions in planta: insights from an allelic series.
ABSTRACT: COMATOSE (CTS), the Arabidopsis homologue of human Adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), is required for import of substrates for peroxisomal beta-oxidation. A new allelic series and a homology model based on the bacterial ABC transporter, Sav1866, provide novel insights into structure-function relations of ABC subfamily D proteins. In contrast to ALDP, where the majority of mutations result in protein absence from the peroxisomal membrane, all CTS mutants produced stable protein. Mutation of conserved residues in the Walker A and B motifs in CTS nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) 1 resulted in a null phenotype but had little effect in NBD2, indicating that the NBDs are functionally distinct in vivo. Two alleles containing mutations in NBD1 outside the Walker motifs (E617K and C631Y) exhibited resistance to auxin precursors 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA) but were wild type in all other tests. The homology model predicted that the transmission interfaces are domain-swapped in CTS, and the differential effects of mutations in the conserved "EAA motif" of coupling helix 2 supported this prediction, consistent with distinct roles for each NBD. Our findings demonstrate that CTS functions can be separated by mutagenesis and the structural model provides a framework for interpretation of phenotypic data.
Project description:The peroxisomal ABC transporter, Comatose (CTS), a full length transporter from Arabidopsis has intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) activity, important for physiological function. We used molecular modelling, mutagenesis and biochemical analysis to identify amino acid residues important for ACOT activity. D863, Q864 and T867 lie within transmembrane helix 9. These residues are orientated such that they might plausibly contribute to a catalytic triad similar to type II Hotdog fold thioesterases. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutation of these residues to alanine resulted in defective of ?-oxidation. All CTS mutants were expressed and targeted to peroxisomes and retained substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. When expressed in insect cell membranes, Q864A and S810N had similar ATPase activity to wild type but greatly reduced ACOT activity, whereas the Walker A mutant K487A had greatly reduced ATPase and no ATP-dependent ACOT activity. In wild type CTS, ATPase but not ACOT was stimulated by non-cleavable C14 ether-CoA. ACOT activity was stimulated by ATP but not by non-hydrolysable AMPPNP. Thus, ACOT activity depends on functional ATPase activity but not vice versa, and these two activities can be separated by mutagenesis. Whether D863, Q864 and T867 have a catalytic role or play a more indirect role in NBD-TMD communication is discussed.
Project description:Embryo dormancy in flowering plants is an important dispersal mechanism that promotes survival of the seed through time. The subsequent transition to germination is a critical control point regulating initiation of vegetative growth. Here we show that the Arabidopsis COMATOSE (CTS) locus is required for this transition, and acts, at least in part, by profoundly affecting the metabolism of stored lipids. CTS encodes a peroxisomal protein of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter class with significant identity to the human X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). Like X-ALD patients, cts mutant embryos and seedlings exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes associated with perturbation in fatty acid metabolism. CTS expression transiently increases shortly after imbibition during germination, but not in imbibed dormant seeds, and genetic analyses show that CTS is negatively regulated by loci that promote embryo dormancy through multiple independent pathways. Our results demonstrate that CTS regulates transport of acyl CoAs into the peroxisome, and indicate that regulation of CTS function is a major control point for the switch between the opposing developmental programmes of dormancy and germination.
Project description:The Arabidopsis ABC transporter Comatose (CTS; AtABCD1) is required for uptake into the peroxisome of a wide range of substrates for ?-oxidation, but it is uncertain whether CTS itself is the transporter or if the transported substrates are free acids or CoA esters. To establish a system for its biochemical analysis, CTS was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plant protein was correctly targeted to yeast peroxisomes, was assembled into the membrane with its nucleotide binding domains in the cytosol, and exhibited basal ATPase activity that was sensitive to aluminum fluoride and abrogated by mutation of a conserved Walker A motif lysine residue. The yeast pxa1 pxa2? mutant lacks the homologous peroxisomal ABC transporter and is unable to grow on oleic acid. Consistent with its exhibiting a function in yeast akin to that in the plant, CTS rescued the oleate growth phenotype of the pxa1 pxa2? mutant, and restored ?-oxidation of fatty acids with a range of chain lengths and varying degrees of desaturation. When expressed in yeast peroxisomal membranes, the basal ATPase activity of CTS could be stimulated by fatty acyl-CoAs but not by fatty acids. The implications of these findings for the function and substrate specificity of CTS are discussed.
Project description:The Arabidopsis acn (acetate non-utilizing) mutants were isolated by fluoroacetate-resistant germination and seedling establishment. We report the characterization of the acn2 mutant. Physiological analyses of acn2 showed that it possessed characteristics similar to those of the mutants cts (COMATOSE)-1 and pxa [peroxisomal ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporter]1. The acn2 locus was mapped to within 3 cM of the CTS gene on the bottom arm of chromosome IV using CAPS (cleavage amplification polymorphism) and SSLP (simple sequence-length polymorphism) markers. Crossing acn2 and cts-1 failed to restore the fluoroacetate-sensitive phenotype, suggesting that these mutations were allelic. Sequencing of the ACN2 locus revealed a C-->T nonsense mutation in exon 13, which would have resulted in the elimination of the C-terminal hemitransporter domain of the encoded protein. Neither the full-length CTS protein nor the truncated protein was detected on immunoblots using either C-terminal- or N-terminal-specific anti-CTS antibodies respectively, demonstrating the absence of the entire CTS protein in acn2 mutants. Emerged seedlings of both cts-1 and pxa1 alleles displayed increased resistance to FAc (monofluoroacetic acid) compared with the corresponding wild-type seedlings. Complementation studies showed that mutation of the CTS gene was responsible for the FAc-resistant phenotype, as when the wild-type protein was expressed in both the cts-1 and pxa1 mutant lines, the strains became FAc-sensitive. Feeding studies confirmed that both acn2 and cts-1 mutants were compromised in their ability to convert radiolabelled acetate into soluble carbohydrate. These results demonstrate a role for the ABC protein CTS in providing acetate to the glyoxylate cycle in developing seedlings.
Project description:In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ.
Project description:Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is ?-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for ?-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the ?-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget.
Project description:X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). X-ALD is characterized by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; > or =C24) in plasma and tissues. In this manuscript we provide insight into the pathway underlying the elevated levels of C26:0 in X-ALD. ALDP transports VLCFacyl-CoA across the peroxisomal membrane. A deficiency in ALDP impairs peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFA but also raises cytosolic levels of VLCFacyl-CoA which are substrate for further elongation. We identify ELOVL1 (elongation of very-long-chain-fatty acids) as the single elongase catalysing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1). ELOVL1 expression is not increased in X-ALD fibroblasts suggesting that increased levels of C26:0 result from increased substrate availability due to the primary deficiency in ALDP. Importantly, ELOVL1 knockdown reduces elongation of C22:0 to C26:0 and lowers C26:0 levels in X-ALD fibroblasts. Given the likely pathogenic effects of high C26:0 levels, our findings highlight the potential of modulating ELOVL1 activity in the treatment of X-ALD.
Project description:Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a severe demyelinating disease, is caused by mutations in a gene coding for a peroxisomal membrane protein (ALDP), which belongs to the superfamily of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters and has the structure of a half transporter. ALDP showed 38% sequence identity with another peroxisomal membrane protein, PMP70, up to now its closest homologue. We describe here the cloning and characterization of a mouse ALD-related gene (ALDR), which codes for a protein with 66% identity with ALDP and shares the same half transporter structure. The ALDR protein was overexpressed in COS cells and was found to be associated with the peroxisomes. The ALD and ALDR genes show overlapping but clearly distinct expression patterns in mouse and may thus play similar but nonequivalent roles. The ALDR gene, which appears highly conserved in man, is a candidate for being a modifier gene that could account for some of the extreme phenotypic variability of ALD. The ALDR gene is also a candidate for being implicated in one of the complementation groups of Zellweger syndrome, a genetically heterogeneous disorder of peroxisome biogenesis, rare cases of which were found to be associated with mutations in the PMP70 (PXMP1) gene.
Project description:X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding ALDP, an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane. ALDP deficiency results in impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation and the subsequent accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; > C22:0) in plasma and tissues. VLCFA are primarily derived from endogenous synthesis by ELOVL1. Therefore inhibiting this enzyme might constitute a feasible therapeutic approach. In this paper we demonstrate that bezafibrate, a PPAR pan agonist used for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidaemia reduces VLCFA levels in X-ALD fibroblasts. Surprisingly, the VLCFA-lowering effect was independent of PPAR activation and not caused by the increase in either mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation capacity. In fact, our results show that bezafibrate reduces VLCFA synthesis by decreasing the synthesis of C26:0 through a direct inhibition of fatty acid elongation activity. Taken together, our data indicate bezafibrate as a potential pharmacotherapeutic treatment for X-ALD. A clinical trial is currently ongoing to evaluate the effect in patients with X-ALD.
Project description:The adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the human peroxisome membrane. It is defective in X chromosome-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder with impaired peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. We report cloning and characterization of PXA1, a yeast gene encoding a protein (Pxa1p) exhibiting high similarity to ALDp. Disruption of PXA1 results in impaired growth on oleic acid and reduced ability to oxidize oleate. Pxa1p is peroxisome associated; however, in the PXA1 mutant yeast, as in ALD cells, peroxisomes are morphologically intact. Disruption of a second yeast gene, YKL741, which encodes a more distantly related ALDp homolog (Yk174p), in either wild-type or PXA1 mutant yeast, results in a growth phenotype identical to that of the PXA1 mutant. This result suggests that Yk1741p and Pxa1p may be subunits of the same transporter. Sequence analysis of Pxa1p, ALDp, and related ABC transporters reveals a possible fatty acid binding domain and a 14-amino acid EAA-like motif, previously described only in prokaryotes. Because of the similarities in sequence and function, we propose that Pxa1p is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of ALDp.