53BP1 promotes non-homologous end joining of telomeres by increasing chromatin mobility.
ABSTRACT: Double-strand breaks activate the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, which promotes the accumulation of DNA damage factors in the chromatin surrounding the break. The functional significance of the resulting DNA damage foci is poorly understood. Here we show that 53BP1 (also known as TRP53BP1), a component of DNA damage foci, changes the dynamic behaviour of chromatin to promote DNA repair. We used conditional deletion of the shelterin component TRF2 (also known as TERF2) from mouse cells (TRF2(fl/-)) to deprotect telomeres, which, like double-strand breaks, activate the ATM kinase, accumulate 53BP1 and are processed by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Deletion of TRF2 from 53BP1-deficient cells established that NHEJ of dysfunctional telomeres is strongly dependent on the binding of 53BP1 to damaged chromosome ends. To address the mechanism by which 53BP1 promotes NHEJ, we used time-lapse microscopy to measure telomere dynamics before and after their deprotection. Imaging showed that deprotected telomeres are more mobile and sample larger territories within the nucleus. This change in chromatin dynamics was dependent on 53BP1 and ATM but did not require a functional NHEJ pathway. We propose that the binding of 53BP1 near DNA breaks changes the dynamic behaviour of the local chromatin, thereby facilitating NHEJ repair reactions that involve distant sites, including joining of dysfunctional telomeres and AID (also known as AICDA)-induced breaks in immunoglobulin class-switch recombination.
Project description:Dysfunctional telomeres elicit the canonical DNA damage response, which includes the activation of the ATM or ATR kinase signaling pathways and end processing by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). The cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks has been proposed to involve chromatin remodeling and nucleosome eviction, but whether dysfunctional telomeres undergo chromatin reorganization is not known. Here, we report on the nucleosomal organization of telomeres that have become deprotected through the deletion of the shelterin components TRF2 or POT1. We found no evidence of changes in the nucleosomal organization of the telomeric chromatin or nucleosome eviction near the telomere terminus. An unaltered chromatin structure was observed at telomeres lacking TRF2, which activate the ATM kinase and are a substrate for NHEJ. Similarly, telomeres lacking POT1a and POT1b, which activate the ATR kinase, showed no overt nucleosome eviction. Finally, telomeres lacking TRF2 and Ku70, which are processed by HR, appeared to maintain their original nucleosomal organization. We conclude that ATM signaling, ATR signaling, NHEJ, and HR at deprotected telomeres can take place in the absence of overt nucleosome eviction.
Project description:Here, we address the role of the MRN (Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1) complex in the response to telomeres rendered dysfunctional by deletion of the shelterin component TRF2. Using conditional NBS1/TRF2 double-knockout MEFs, we show that MRN is required for ATM signaling in response to telomere dysfunction. This establishes that MRN is the only sensor for the ATM kinase and suggests that TRF2 might block ATM signaling by interfering with MRN binding to the telomere terminus, possibly by sequestering the telomere end in the t-loop structure. We also examined the role of the MRN/ATM pathway in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of damaged telomeres. NBS1 deficiency abrogated the telomere fusions that occur in G(1), consistent with the requirement for ATM and its target 53BP1 in this setting. Interestingly, NBS1 and ATM, but not H2AX, repressed NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres in G(2), specifically at telomeres generated by leading-strand DNA synthesis. Leading-strand telomere ends were not prone to fuse in the absence of either TRF2 or MRN/ATM, indicating redundancy in their protection. We propose that MRN represses NHEJ by promoting the generation of a 3' overhang after completion of leading-strand DNA synthesis. TRF2 may ensure overhang formation by recruiting MRN (and other nucleases) to newly generated telomere ends. The activation of the MRN/ATM pathway by the dysfunctional telomeres is proposed to induce resection that protects the leading-strand ends from NHEJ when TRF2 is absent. Thus, the role of MRN at dysfunctional telomeres is multifaceted, involving both repression of NHEJ in G(2) through end resection and induction of NHEJ in G(1) through ATM-dependent signaling.
Project description:Progressive telomere attrition or uncapping of the shelterin complex elicits a DNA damage response as a result of a cell's inability to distinguish dysfunctional telomeric ends from DNA double-strand breaks. Telomere deprotection activates both ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase-dependent DNA damage response pathways, and promotes efficient non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of dysfunctional telomeres. The mammalian MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN; NBS1 is also known as NBN) complex interacts with ATM to sense chromosomal double-strand breaks and coordinate global DNA damage responses. Although the MRN complex accumulates at dysfunctional telomeres, it is not known whether mammalian MRN promotes repair at these sites. Here we address this question by using mouse alleles that either inactivate the entire MRN complex or eliminate only the nuclease activities of MRE11 (ref. 8). We show that cells lacking MRN do not activate ATM when telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is removed from telomeres, and ligase 4 (LIG4)-dependent chromosome end-to-end fusions are markedly reduced. Residual chromatid fusions involve only telomeres generated by leading strand synthesis. Notably, although cells deficient for MRE11 nuclease activity efficiently activate ATM and recruit 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to deprotected telomeres, the 3' telomeric overhang persists to prevent NHEJ-mediated chromosomal fusions. Removal of shelterin proteins that protect the 3' overhang in the setting of MRE11 nuclease deficiency restores LIG4-dependent chromosome fusions. Our data indicate a critical role for the MRN complex in sensing dysfunctional telomeres, and show that in the absence of TRF2, MRE11 nuclease activity removes the 3' telomeric overhang to promote chromosome fusions. MRE11 can also protect newly replicated leading strand telomeres from NHEJ by promoting 5' strand resection to generate POT1a-TPP1-bound 3' overhangs.
Project description:Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) regulates the repair of dysfunctional telomeres lacking the shelterin protein TRF2 by promoting their mobility, their nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and, as we show here, by blocking 5' resection by CtIP. We report that these functions of 53BP1 required its N-terminal ATM/ATR target sites and its association with H4K20diMe, but not the BRCT domain, the GAR domain, or the binding of 53BP1 to dynein. A mutant lacking the oligomerization domain (53BP1(oligo)) was only modestly impaired in promoting NHEJ of dysfunctional telomeres and showed no defect with regard to the repression of CtIP. This 53BP1(oligo) allele was previously found to be unable to support class switch recombination or to promote radial chromosome formation in PARP1 inhibitor-treated Brca1-deficient cells. The data therefore support two conclusions. First, the requirements for 53BP1 in mediating NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres and in class switch recombination are not identical. Second, 53BP1-dependent repression of CtIP at double-strand breaks (DSBs) is unlikely to be sufficient for the generation of radial chromosomes in PARP1 inhibitor-treated Brca1-deficient cells.
2013-01-01 | S-EPMC3568336 | BioStudies
Project description:Structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain-containing protein 1 (SMCHD1) has been implicated in X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and DNA damage repair, and mutations in SMCHD1 can cause facioscapulohumoral muscular dystrophy. More recently, SMCHD1 has also been identified as a component of telomeric chromatin. Here, we report that SMCHD1 is required for DNA damage signaling and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) at unprotected telomeres. Co-depletion of SMCHD1 and the shelterin subunit TRF2 reduced telomeric 3'-overhang removal in time-course experiments, as well as the number of chromosome end fusions. SMCHD1-deficient cells displayed reduced ATM S1981 phosphorylation and diminished formation of ?H2AX foci and of 53BP1-containing telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs), indicating defects in DNA damage checkpoint signaling. Removal of TPP1 and subsequent activation of ATR signaling rescued telomere fusion events in TRF2-depleted SMCHD1 knockout cells. Together, these data indicate that SMCHD1 depletion reduces telomere fusions in TRF2-depleted cells due to defects in ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling, and that SMCHD1 mediates DNA damage response activation upstream of ATM phosphorylation at uncapped telomeres.
Project description:Repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is crucial for the maintenance of genome stability. DSBs are repaired by either error prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or error-free homologous recombination. NHEJ precedes either by a classic, Lig4-dependent process (C-NHEJ) or an alternative, Lig4-independent one (A-NHEJ). Dysfunctional telomeres arising either through natural attrition due to telomerase deficiency or by removal of telomere-binding proteins are recognized as DSBs. In this report, we studied which end-joining pathways are required to join dysfunctional telomeres. In agreement with earlier studies, depletion of Trf2 resulted in end-to-end chromosome fusions mediated by the C-NHEJ pathway. In contrast, removal of Tpp1-Pot1a/b initiated robust chromosome fusions that are mediated by A-NHEJ. C-NHEJ is also dispensable for the fusion of naturally shortened telomeres. Our results reveal that telomeres engage distinct DNA repair pathways depending on how they are rendered dysfunctional, and that A-NHEJ is a major pathway to process dysfunctional telomeres.
Project description:We have applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging method, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), to visualize the structure of functional telomeres and telomeres rendered dysfunctional through removal of shelterin proteins. The STORM images showed that functional telomeres frequently exhibit a t-loop configuration. Conditional deletion of individual components of shelterin showed that TRF2 was required for the formation and/or maintenance of t-loops, whereas deletion of TRF1, Rap1, or the POT1 proteins (POT1a and POT1b) had no effect on the frequency of t-loop occurrence. Within the shelterin complex, TRF2 uniquely serves to protect telomeres from two pathways that are initiated on free DNA ends: classical nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and ATM-dependent DNA damage signaling. The TRF2-dependent remodeling of telomeres into t-loop structures, which sequester the ends of chromosomes, can explain why NHEJ and the ATM signaling pathway are repressed when TRF2 is present.
Project description:Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2TRFH domain. Phosphorylation of NBS1 serine 432 by CDK2 in S/G2 dissociates NBS1 from TRF2, promoting TRF2-Apollo/SNM1B complex formation and the protection of leading-strand telomeres. Classical-NHEJ-mediated repair of telomeres lacking TRF2 requires phosphorylated NBS1S432 to activate ATM, while interaction of de-phosphorylated NBS1S432 with TRF2 promotes alternative-NHEJ repair of telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1. Our work advances understanding of how the TRF2TRFH domain orchestrates telomere end protection and reveals how the phosphorylation status of the NBS1S432 dictates repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres.
Project description:Telomere dysfunction promotes genomic instability and carcinogenesis via inappropriate end-to-end chromosomal rearrangements, or telomere fusions. Previous work indicates that the DNA Damage Response (DDR) factor 53BP1 promotes the fusion of telomeres rendered dysfunctional by loss of TRF2, but is dispensable for the fusion of telomeres lacking Pot1 or critically shortened (in telomerase-deficient mice). Here, we examine a role for 53BP1 at telomeres rendered dysfunctional by loss or catalytic inhibition of DNA-PKcs. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking 53BP1 and/or DNA-PKcs, we show that 53BP1 deficiency suppresses G1-generated telomere fusions that normally accumulate in DNA-PKcs-deficient fibroblasts with passage. Likewise, we find that 53BP1 promotes telomere fusions during the replicative phases of the cell cycle in cells treated with the specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7026. However, telomere fusions are not fully abrogated in DNA-PKcs-inhibited 53BP1-deficient cells, but occur with a frequency approximately 10-fold lower than in control 53BP1-proficient cells. Treatment with PARP inhibitors or PARP1 depletion abrogates residual fusions, while Ligase IV depletion has no measurable effect, suggesting that PARP1-dependent alternative end-joining operates at low efficiency at 53BP1-deficient, DNA-PKcs-inhibited telomeres. Finally, we have also examined the requirement for DDR factors ATM, MDC1 or H2AX in this context. We find that ATM loss or inhibition has no measurable effect on the frequency of NU7026-induced fusions in wild-type MEFs. Moreover, analysis of MEFs lacking both ATM and 53BP1 indicates that ATM is also dispensable for telomere fusions via PARP-dependent end-joining. In contrast, loss of either MDC1 or H2AX abrogates telomere fusions in response to DNA-PKcs inhibition, suggesting that these factors operate upstream of both 53BP1-dependent and -independent telomere rejoining. Together, these experiments define a novel requirement for 53BP1 in the fusions of DNA-PKcs-deficient telomeres throughout the cell cycle and uncover a Ligase IV-independent, PARP1-dependent pathway that fuses telomeres at reduced efficiency in the absence of 53BP1.
Project description:The telomere end-protection problem is defined by the aggregate of DNA damage signaling and repair pathways that require repression at telomeres. To define the end-protection problem, we removed the whole shelterin complex from mouse telomeres through conditional deletion of TRF1 and TRF2 in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) deficient cells. The data reveal two DNA damage response pathways not previously observed upon deletion of individual shelterin proteins. The shelterin-free telomeres are processed by microhomology-mediated alternative-NHEJ when Ku70/80 is absent and are attacked by nucleolytic degradation in the absence of 53BP1. The data establish that the end-protection problem is specified by six pathways [ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) signaling, classical-NHEJ, alt-NHEJ, homologous recombination, and resection] and show how shelterin acts with general DNA damage response factors to solve this problem.