Cutting edge: developmental stage-specific recruitment of cohesin to CTCF sites throughout immunoglobulin loci during B lymphocyte development.
ABSTRACT: Contraction of the large Igh and Igkappa loci brings all V genes, spanning >2.5 Mb in each locus, in proximity to DJ(H) or J(kappa) genes. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression by long-range chromosomal looping. We therefore hypothesized that CTCF may be crucial for the contraction of the Ig loci, but no CTCF sites have been described in any V loci. Using ChIP-chip, we demonstrated many CTCF sites in the V(H) and V(kappa) regions. However, CTCF enrichment in the Igh locus, but not the Igkappa locus, was largely unchanged throughout differentiation, suggesting that CTCF binding alone cannot be responsible for stage-specific looping. Because cohesin can colocalize with CTCF, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation for the cohesin subunit Rad21 and found lineage and stage-specific Rad21 recruitment to CTCF in all Ig loci. The differential binding of cohesin to CTCF sites may promote multiple loop formation and thus effective V(D)J recombination.
Project description:Compaction and looping of the ~2.5-Mb Igh locus during V(D)J rearrangement is essential to allow all V(H) genes to be brought in proximity with D(H)-J(H) segments to create a diverse antibody repertoire, but the proteins directly responsible for this are unknown. Because CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been demonstrated to be involved in long-range chromosomal interactions, we hypothesized that CTCF may promote the contraction of the Igh locus. ChIP sequencing was performed on pro-B cells, revealing colocalization of CTCF and Rad21 binding at ~60 sites throughout the V(H) region and 2 other sites within the Igh locus. These numerous CTCF/cohesin sites potentially form the bases of the multiloop rosette structures at the Igh locus that compact during Ig heavy chain rearrangement. To test whether CTCF was involved in locus compaction, we used 3D-FISH to measure compaction in pro-B cells transduced with CTCF shRNA retroviruses. Reduction of CTCF binding resulted in a decrease in Igh locus compaction. Long-range interactions within the Igh locus were measured with the chromosomal conformation capture assay, revealing direct interactions between CTCF sites 5' of DFL16 and the 3' regulatory region, and also the intronic enhancer (E?), creating a D(H)-J(H)-E?-C(H) domain. Knockdown of CTCF also resulted in the increase of antisense transcription throughout the D(H) region and parts of the V(H) locus, suggesting a widespread regulatory role for CTCF. Together, our findings demonstrate that CTCF plays an important role in the 3D structure of the Igh locus and in the regulation of antisense germline transcription and that it contributes to the compaction of the Igh locus.
Project description:The RAG endonuclease initiates Igh locus V(D)J recombination in progenitor (pro)-B cells<sup>1</sup>. Upon binding a recombination centre-based J<sub>H</sub>, RAG scans upstream chromatin via loop extrusion, potentially mediated by cohesin, to locate Ds and assemble a DJ<sub>H</sub>-based recombination centre<sup>2</sup>. CTCF looping factor-bound elements (CBEs) within IGCR1 upstream of Ds impede RAG scanning<sup>3-5</sup>; however, their inactivation allows scanning to proximal V<sub>H</sub>s, where additional CBEs activate rearrangement and impede scanning any further upstream<sup>5</sup>. Distal V<sub>H</sub> utilization is thought to involve diffusional access to the recombination centre following large-scale Igh locus contraction<sup>6-8</sup>. Here we test the potential of linear RAG scanning to mediate distal V<sub>H</sub> usage in G1-arrested v-Abl pro-B cell lines<sup>9</sup>, which undergo robust D-to-J<sub>H</sub> but little V<sub>H</sub>-to-DJ<sub>H</sub> rearrangements, presumably owing to lack of locus contraction<sup>2,5</sup>. Through an auxin-inducible approach<sup>10</sup>, we degraded the cohesin component RAD21<sup>10-12</sup> or CTCF<sup>12,13</sup> in these G1-arrested lines. Degradation of RAD21 eliminated all V(D)J recombination and interactions associated with RAG scanning, except for reecombination centre-located DQ52-to-J<sub>H</sub> joining, in which synapsis occurs by diffusion<sup>2</sup>. Remarkably, while degradation of CTCF suppressed most CBE-based chromatin interactions, it promoted robust recombination centre interactions with, and robust V<sub>H</sub>-to-DJ<sub>H</sub> joining of, distal V<sub>H</sub>s, with patterns similar to those of 'locus-contracted' primary pro-B cells. Thus, downmodulation of CTCF-bound scanning-impediment activity promotes cohesin-driven RAG scanning across the 2.7-Mb Igh locus.
Project description:The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (Igh) features higher-order chromosomal interactions to facilitate stage-specific assembly of the Ig molecule. Cohesin, a ring-like protein complex required for sister chromatid cohesion, shapes chromosome architecture and chromatin interactions important for transcriptional regulation and often acts together with CTCF. Cohesin is likely involved in B cell activation and Ig class switch recombination. Hence, binding profiles of cohesin in resting mature murine splenic B lymphocytes and at two stages after cell activation were elucidated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. Comparative genomic analysis revealed cohesin extensively changes its binding to transcriptional control elements after 48 h of stimulation with LPS/IL-4. Cohesin was clearly underrepresented at switch regions regardless of their activation status, suggesting that switch regions need to be cohesin-poor. Specific binding changes of cohesin at B-cell specific gene loci Pax5 and Blimp-1 indicate new cohesin-dependent regulatory pathways. Together with conserved cohesin/CTCF sites at the Igh 3'RR, a prominent cohesin/CTCF binding site was revealed near the 3' end of C? where PolII localizes to 3' enhancers. Our study shows that cohesin likely regulates B cell activation and maturation, including Ig class switching.
Project description:CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is largely responsible for the 3D architecture of the genome, in concert with the action of cohesin, through the creation of long-range chromatin loops. Cohesin is hypothesized to be the main driver of these long-range chromatin interactions by the process of loop extrusion. Here, we performed ChIP-seq for CTCF and cohesin in two stages each of T and B cell differentiation and examined the binding pattern in all six antigen receptor (AgR) loci in these lymphocyte progenitors and in mature T and B cells, ES cells, and fibroblasts. The four large AgR loci have many bound CTCF sites, most of which are only occupied in lymphocytes, while only the CTCF sites at the end of each locus near the enhancers or J genes tend to be bound in non-lymphoid cells also. However, despite the generalized lymphocyte restriction of CTCF binding in AgR loci, the Ig? locus is the only locus that also shows significant lineage-specificity (T vs. B cells) and developmental stage-specificity (pre-B vs. pro-B) in CTCF binding. We show that cohesin binding shows greater lineage- and stage-specificity than CTCF at most AgR loci, providing more specificity to the loops. We also show that the culture of pro-B cells in IL7, a common practice to expand the number of cells before ChIP-seq, results in a CTCF-binding pattern resembling pre-B cells, as well as other epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of pre-B cells. Analysis of the orientation of the CTCF sites show that all sites within the large V portions of the Igh and TCR? loci have the same orientation. This suggests either a lack of requirement for convergent CTCF sites creating loops, or indicates an absence of any loops between CTCF sites within the V region portion of those loci but only loops to the convergent sites at the D-J-enhancer end of each locus. The V region portions of the Ig? and TCR?/? loci, by contrast, have CTCF sites in both orientations, providing many options for creating CTCF-mediated convergent loops throughout the loci. CTCF/cohesin loops, along with transcription factors, drives contraction of AgR loci to facilitate the creation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors.
Project description:Cohesin regulates sister chromatid cohesion but also contributes to chromosome folding by promoting the formation of chromatin loops, a process mediated by loop extrusion. Although PDS5 regulates cohesin dynamics on chromatin, the exact function of PDS5 in cohesin-mediated chromatin looping remains unclear. Two paralogs of PDS5 exist in vertebrates, PDS5A and PDS5B. Here we show that PDS5A and PDS5B co-localize with RAD21 and CTCF at loop anchors. Rapid PDS5A or PDS5B degradation in liver cancer cells using an inducible degron system reduces chromatin loops and increases loop size. RAD21 enrichment at loop anchors is decreased upon depletion of PDS5A or PDS5B. PDS5B loss also reduces CTCF signals at loop anchors and has a stronger effect on loop enlargement compared with PDS5A. Co-depletion of PDS5A and PDS5B reduces RAD21 levels at loop anchors although the amount of cohesin on chromatin is increased. Our study provides insight into how PDS5 proteins regulate cohesin-mediated chromatin looping.
Project description:Establishment and segregation of distinct chromatin domains are essential for proper genome function. The insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is involved in creating boundaries that segregate chromatin and functional domains and in organizing higher-order chromatin structures by promoting chromosomal loops across the vertebrate genome. Here, we investigate the insulation properties of CTCF at the human and mouse homeobox gene A (HOXA) loci. Although cohesin loading at the CTCF binding site is required for looping, we found that cohesin is dispensable for chromatin barrier activity at that site. Using mouse embryonic stem cells in both a pluripotent and differentiated neuronal progenitor state, we determined that embryonic stem cell pluripotency factor OCT4 antagonizes cohesin loading at the CTCF binding site. Loss of OCT4 in the committed and differentiated neuronal progenitor cells results in loading of cohesin and chromosome looping, which contributes to heterochromatin partitioning and selective gene activation across the HOXA locus. Our analysis reveals that chromatin barrier activity of CTCF is evolutionarily conserved and is responsible for the coordinated establishment of chromatin structure, higher-order architecture, and developmental expression of the HOXA locus.
Project description:Estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells relies on long-range chromatin interactions connecting distal regulatory elements bound by the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) to target gene promoters. This ensures stimulus and subtype-specific transcriptional responses. Expanding on the function of CTCF and the cohesin complex in breast cancer, we demonstrate that the chromatin-looping factor ZNF143 binds the promoter of most early-response estrogen target genes connected to distal regulatory elements in ESR1-positive breast cancer cells. Its chromatin occupancy is unaffected by estrogen stimulation, supporting a stable three-dimensional genomic architecture within the early response to estrogen. Its loss abrogates the estrogen-induced transcriptional response and growth of breast cancer cells. When taking into account CTCF, ZNF143 and cohesin complex subunits, we show that chromatin-looping factors are genetically altered in over 20% of ESR1-positive primary breast tumors. Furthermore, the overexpression of ZNF143, CTCF and RAD21, a cohesin complex subunit, in ESR1-positive breast tumors associates with a worse clinical outcome. Overall, our results suggest that ZNF143 is a new critical effector of the estrogen response and highlights the contribution of the chromatin looping machinery to ESR1-positive breast cancer development. mRNA profiles of MCF-7 cells (siCtl or siZNF143) under vehicle (EtOH) or E2 (10 uM 17-beta oestradiol) stimulation
Project description:Estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells relies on long-range chromatin interactions connecting distal regulatory elements bound by the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) to target gene promoters. This ensures stimulus and subtype-specific transcriptional responses. Expanding on the function of CTCF and the cohesin complex in breast cancer, we demonstrate that the chromatin-looping factor ZNF143 binds the promoter of most early-response estrogen target genes connected to distal regulatory elements in ESR1-positive breast cancer cells. Its chromatin occupancy is unaffected by estrogen stimulation, supporting a stable three-dimensional genomic architecture within the early response to estrogen. Its loss abrogates the estrogen-induced transcriptional response and growth of breast cancer cells. When taking into account CTCF, ZNF143 and cohesin complex subunits, we show that chromatin-looping factors are genetically altered in over 20% of ESR1-positive primary breast tumors. Furthermore, the overexpression of ZNF143, CTCF and RAD21, a cohesin complex subunit, in ESR1-positive breast tumors associates with a worse clinical outcome. Overall, our results suggest that ZNF143 is a new critical effector of the estrogen response and highlights the contribution of the chromatin looping machinery to ESR1-positive breast cancer development. Examination of genome-wide ZNF143 binding in MCF-7 cells
Project description:A diverse Ab repertoire is formed through the rearrangement of V, D, and J segments at the IgH (Igh) loci. The C57BL/6 murine Igh locus has >100 functional VH gene segments that can recombine to a rearranged DJH. Although the nonrandom usage of VH genes is well documented, it is not clear what elements determine recombination frequency. To answer this question, we conducted deep sequencing of 5'-RACE products of the Igh repertoire in pro-B cells, amplified in an unbiased manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing results for several histone modifications and RNA polymerase II binding, RNA-sequencing for sense and antisense noncoding germline transcripts, and proximity to CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and Rad21 sites were compared with the usage of individual V genes. Computational analyses assessed the relative importance of these various accessibility elements. These elements divide the Igh locus into four epigenetically and transcriptionally distinct domains, and our computational analyses reveal different regulatory mechanisms for each region. Proximal V genes are relatively devoid of active histone marks and noncoding RNA in general, but having a CTCF site near their recombination signal sequence is critical, suggesting that being positioned near the base of the chromatin loops is important for rearrangement. In contrast, distal V genes have higher levels of histone marks and noncoding RNA, which may compensate for their poorer recombination signal sequences and for being distant from CTCF sites. Thus, the Igh locus has evolved a complex system for the regulation of V(D)J rearrangement that is different for each of the four domains that comprise this locus.
Project description:Higher order chromatin structures across the genome are maintained in part by the architectural proteins CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, which co-localize at many sites across the genome. Here, we examine the role of these proteins in mediating chromatin structure at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR encompasses nearly 200 kb flanked by CTCF-binding enhancer-blocking insulator elements and is regulated by cell-type-specific intronic enhancers, which loop to the promoter in the active locus. SiRNA-mediated depletion of CTCF or the cohesin component, RAD21, showed that these two factors have distinct roles in regulating the higher order organization of CFTR. CTCF mediates the interactions between CTCF/cohesin binding sites, some of which have enhancer-blocking insulator activity. Cohesin shares this tethering role, but in addition stabilizes interactions between the promoter and cis-acting intronic elements including enhancers, which are also dependent on the forkhead box A1/A2 (FOXA1/A2) transcription factors (TFs). Disruption of the three-dimensional structure of the CFTR gene by depletion of CTCF or RAD21 increases gene expression, which is accompanied by alterations in histone modifications and TF occupancy across the locus, and causes internalization of the gene from the nuclear periphery.