Nickel-catalyzed asymmetric cross-couplings of racemic propargylic halides with arylzinc reagents.
ABSTRACT: A stereoconvergent method for the catalytic asymmetric Negishi cross-coupling of racemic secondary propargylic halides with arylzinc reagents has been developed. Neither family of compounds has previously been shown to be a suitable partner in such coupling processes. From a practical point of view, it is noteworthy that the catalyst components (NiCl2.glyme and pybox ligand 1) are commercially available.
Project description:The first method for the stereoconvergent cross-coupling of racemic ?-halonitriles is described, specifically, nickel-catalyzed Negishi arylations and alkenylations that furnish an array of enantioenriched ?-arylnitriles and allylic nitriles, respectively. Noteworthy features of this investigation include: the highly enantioselective synthesis of ?-alkyl-?-aryl nitriles that bear secondary ?-alkyl substituents; the first examples of the use of alkenylzinc reagents in stereoconvergent Negishi reactions of alkyl electrophiles; demonstration of the utility of a new family of ligands for asymmetric Negishi cross-couplings (a bidentate bis(oxazoline), rather than a tridentate pybox); in the case of arylzinc reagents, carbon-carbon bond formation at a remarkably low temperature (-78 °C), the lowest reported to date for an enantioselective cross-coupling of an alkyl electrophile; a mechanistic dichotomy between Negishi reactions of an unactivated versus an activated secondary alkyl bromide.
Project description:Although nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent couplings of racemic alkyl electrophiles are emerging as a powerful tool in organic chemistry, to date there have been no systematic mechanistic studies of such processes. Herein, we examine the pathway for enantioselective Negishi arylations of secondary propargylic bromides, and we provide evidence for an unanticipated radical chain pathway wherein oxidative addition of the C-Br bond occurs through a bimetallic mechanism. In particular, we have crystallographically characterized a diamagnetic arylnickel(II) complex, [(i-Pr-pybox)Ni(II)Ph]BAr(F)4, and furnished support for [(i-Pr-pybox)Ni(II)Ph](+) being the predominant nickel-containing species formed under the catalyzed conditions as well as a key player in the cross-coupling mechanism. On the other hand, our observations do not require a role for an organonickel(I) intermediate (e.g., (i-Pr-pybox)Ni(I)Ph), which has previously been suggested to be an intermediate in nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings, oxidatively adding alkyl electrophiles through a monometallic pathway.
Project description:Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling has emerged as the most versatile approach to date for achieving enantioconvergent carbon-carbon bond formation using racemic alkyl halides as electrophiles. In contrast, there have not yet been reports of the application of chiral nickel catalysts to the corresponding reactions with heteroatom nucleophiles to produce carbon-heteroatom bonds with good enantioselectivity. Herein, we establish that a chiral nickel/pybox catalyst can borylate racemic secondary benzylic chlorides to provide enantioenriched benzylic boronic esters, a highly useful family of compounds in organic synthesis. The method displays good functional group compatibility (e.g., being unimpeded by the presence of an indole, a ketone, a tertiary amine, or an unactivated alkyl bromide), and both of the catalyst components (NiCl2 ?glyme and the pybox ligand) are commercially available.
Project description:We have developed a nickel-catalyzed method for the asymmetric cross-coupling of secondary electrophiles with secondary nucleophiles, specifically, stereoconvergent Negishi reactions of racemic benzylic bromides with achiral cycloalkylzinc reagents. In contrast to most previous studies of enantioselective Negishi cross-couplings, tridentate pybox ligands are ineffective in this process; however, a new, readily available bidentate isoquinoline-oxazoline ligand furnishes excellent ee's and good yields. The use of acyclic alkylzinc reagents as coupling partners led to the discovery of a highly unusual isomerization that generates a significant quantity of a branched cross-coupling product from an unbranched nucleophile.
Project description:Fluorinated organic molecules are of interest in fields ranging from medicinal chemistry to polymer science. Described herein is a mild, convenient, and versatile method for the synthesis of compounds bearing a perfluoroalkyl group attached to a tertiary carbon atom by using an alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling. A nickel catalyst derived from NiCl2 ?glyme and a pybox ligand achieves the coupling of a wide range of fluorinated alkyl halides with alkylzinc reagents at room temperature. A broad array of functional groups is compatible with the reaction conditions, and highly selective couplings can be achieved on the basis of differing levels of fluorination. A mechanistic investigation has established that the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) inhibits cross-coupling under these conditions and that a TEMPO-electrophile adduct can be isolated.
Project description:The development of new approaches to the construction of fluorine-containing target molecules is important for a variety of scientific disciplines, including medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary alkyl fluorides through Negishi reactions of racemic ?-halo-?-fluoroketones, which represents the first catalytic asymmetric cross-coupling that employs geminal dihalides as electrophiles. Thus, selective reaction of a C-Br (or C-Cl) bond in the presence of a C-F bond can be achieved with the aid of a nickel/bis(oxazoline) catalyst. The products of the stereoconvergent cross-couplings, enantioenriched tertiary ?-fluoroketones, can be converted into an array of interesting organofluorine compounds.
Project description:A tertiary stereogenic center that bears two different aryl substituents is found in a variety of bioactive compounds, including medicines such as Zoloft and Detrol. We have developed an efficient method for the synthesis of enantioenriched 1,1-diarylalkanes from readily available racemic benzylic alcohols. Formation of a benzylic mesylate (which is not isolated), followed by treatment with an arylzinc reagent, LiI, and a chiral nickel/bis(oxazoline) catalyst, furnishes the Negishi cross-coupling product in high ee and good yield. A wide array of functional groups (e.g., an aryl iodide, a thiophene, and an N-Boc-indole) are compatible with the mild reaction conditions. This method has been applied to a gram-scale synthesis of a precursor to Zoloft.
Project description:To date, effective nickel-catalyzed enantioselective cross-couplings of alkyl electrophiles that bear oxygen leaving groups have been limited to reactions of allylic alcohol derivatives with Grignard reagents. In this Communication, we establish that, in the presence of a nickel/pybox catalyst, a variety of racemic propargylic carbonates are suitable partners for asymmetric couplings with organozinc reagents. The method is compatible with an array of functional groups and utilizes commercially available catalyst components. The development of a versatile nickel-catalyzed enantioselective cross-coupling process for electrophiles that bear a leaving group other than a halide adds a significant new dimension to the scope of these reactions.
Project description:Although chiral allene preparation via formal S<sub>N</sub>2' nucleophilic substitutions of enantioenriched propargylic derivatives or metal-catalyzed reactions of racemic propargylic derivatives has attracted considerable attention and found applications in many areas of research, direct use of propargylic alcohols instead of propargylic derivatives for catalytic asymmetric allene synthesis is unknown. Here, we show that a highly enantioselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted allenes from racemic propargylic alcohols has been realized by organocatalysis with good efficiency (up to 96% yield and 97% ee). The intermolecular C-C and C-S bond formation was achieved efficiently with simultaneous stereocontrol over the axial chirality. Furthermore, an adjacent quaternary stereocenter could also be constructed. Mechanistically, the reaction may involve efficient stereocontrol on the propargylic cation by its chiral counter anion or 1,8-conjugate addition of para-quinone methides. In sharp contrast to previous central chirality construction, this process employs quinone methides for axial chirality construction.Axially chiral allenes that are normally present in natural products, bioactive molecules, organocatalysts, and functional materials are usually produced from propargylic derivatives. Here, the authors show direct use of propargylic alcohols for catalytic asymmetric allene synthesis.
Project description:The generation of arylzinc reagents (ArZnX) by direct insertion of zinc into the C-X bond of ArX electrophiles has typically been restricted to iodides and bromides. The insertions of zinc dust into the C-O bonds of various aryl sulfonates (tosylates, mesylates, triflates, sulfamates), or into the C-X bonds of other moderate electrophiles (X=Cl, SMe) are catalyzed by a simple NiCl2 -1,4-diazadiene catalyst system, in which 1,4-diazadiene (DAD) stands for diacetyl diimines, phenanthroline, bipyridine and related ligands. Catalytic zincation in DMF or NMP solution at room temperature now provides arylzinc sulfonates, which undergo typical catalytic cross-coupling or electrophilic substitution reactions.