Phosphorylation and localization of protein-zero related (PZR) in cultured endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Protein-zero related (PZR) is an immunoglobulin V (IgV)-type immunoreceptor with two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). PZR interacts with Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) via its tyrosine-phosphorylated ITIMs, for which c-Src is a putative kinase. Towards elucidating PZR function in endothelial cells (ECs), the authors cloned PZR from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and characterized it. Mature bovine PZR had 94.8% and 92.7% sequence identity with canine and human proteins, respectively, and the two ITIM sequences were conserved among higher vertebrates. PZR was expressed in many cell types and was localized to cell contacts and intracellular granules in BAECs and mesothelioma (REN) cells. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that PZR, Grb-2-associated binder-1 (Gab1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were three major SHP-2-binding proteins in BAECs. H(2)O(2) enhanced PZR tyrosine phosphorylation and PZR/SHP-2 interaction in ECs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. To see if tyrosine kinases other than Src are also capable of phosphorylating PZR, the authors cotransfected HEK293 cells with PZR and one of several tyrosine kinases and found that c-Src, c-Fyn, c-Lyn, Csk, and c-Abl, but not c-Fes, phosphorylated PZR and increased PZR/SHP-2 interaction. These results suggest that PZR is a cell adhesion protein that may be involved in SHP-2-dependent signaling at interendothelial cell contacts.
Project description:SHP-2 (Src homology phosphatase type-2) is essential for haematopoietic skeletal and vascular development. Thus the identification of its binding partners is critically important. In the present study, we describe a unique monoclonal antibody, WM78, which interacts with PZR, a SHP-2 binding partner. Furthermore, we identify two novel isoforms of PZR, PZRa and PZRb, derived by differential splicing from a single gene transcription unit on human chromosome 1q24. All are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with identical extracellular and transmembrane domains, but differ in their cytoplasmic tails. The PZR intracellular domain contains two SHP-2 binding immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (VIY(246)AQL and VVY(263)ADI) which are not present in PZRa and PZRb. Using the WM78 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the common extracellular domain of the PZR isoforms, we demonstrate that the PZR molecules are expressed on mesenchymal and haematopoietic cells, being present on the majority of CD34(+)CD38(+) and early clonogenic progenitors, and at lower levels on CD34(+)CD38(-) cells and the hierarchically more primitive pre-colony forming units. Interestingly, we show by reverse transcriptase-PCR that the PZR isoforms are differentially expressed in haematopoietic, endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Both PZR and PZRb are present in CD133(+) precursors and endothelial cells, PZRb predominates in mesenchymal and committed myelomonocytic progenitor cells, and all three isoforms occur in erythroid precursor cell lines. Importantly, using SHP-2 mutant (Delta 46-110) and SHP-2 rescue of embryonic fibroblasts stably expressing the PZR isoforms, we demonstrate for the first time that PZR, but not PZRa or PZRb, facilitates fibronectin- dependent migration of cells expressing a competent SHP-2 molecule. These observations will be instrumental in determining the mechanisms whereby PZR isoforms regulate cell motility.
Project description:Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes.We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity.These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.
Project description:P0-related protein (PZR), a Noonan and Leopard syndrome target, is a member of the transmembrane Immunoglobulin superfamily. Its cytoplasmic tail contains two immune-receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs), implicated in adhesion-dependent signaling and regulating cell adhesion and motility. PZR promotes cell migration on the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule, fibronectin, by interacting with SHP-2 (Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2), a molecule essential for skeletal development and often mutated in Noonan and Leopard syndrome patients sharing overlapping musculoskeletal abnormalities and cardiac defects. To further explore the role of PZR, we assessed the expression of PZR and its ITIM-less isoform, PZRb, in human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM MSC), and its ability to facilitate adhesion to and spreading and migration on various ECM molecules. Furthermore, using siRNA knockdown, confocal microscopy, and immunoprecipitation assays, we assessed PZR and PZRb interactions with ?1 integrins. PZR was the predominant isoform in hBM MSC. Migrating hBM MSCs interacted most effectively with fibronectin and required the association of PZR, but not PZRb, with the integrin, VLA-5(?5?1), leading to modulation of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and vinculin levels. This raises the possibility that dysregulation of PZR function may modify hBM MSC migratory behavior, potentially contributing to skeletal abnormalities.
Project description:Fc receptor homolog 4 (FcRH4) is a B cell-specific member of the recently identified family of FcRHs whose intracellular domain contains three potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). The signaling potential of this receptor, shown here to be preferentially expressed by memory B cells, was compared with the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb in B cells expressing either WT FcgammaRIIb or chimeric proteins in which the intracellular domain of FcRH4 was fused to the transmembrane and extracellular domains of FcgammaRIIb. Coligation of the FcgammaRIIb/FcRH4 chimeric protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) led to tyrosine phosphorylation of the two membrane-distal tyrosines and profound inhibition of BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, whole cell tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activation. Mutational analysis of the FcRH4 cytoplasmic region indicated that the two membrane-distal ITIMs are essential for this inhibitory potential. Phosphopeptides corresponding to these ITIMs could bind the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, which associated with the WT FcRH4 and with mutants having inhibitory capability. These findings indicate the potential for FcRH4 to abort B cell receptor signaling by recruiting SHP-1 and SHP-2 to its two membrane distal ITIMs.
Project description:The activation state of many blood and vascular cells is tightly controlled by a delicate balance between receptors that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and those that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Precisely how the timing of cellular activation by ITAM-coupled receptors is regulated by ITIM-containing receptors is, however, poorly understood. Using platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) as a prototypical ITIM-bearing receptor, we demonstrate that initiation of inhibitory signaling occurs via a novel, sequential process in which Src family kinases phosphorylate the C-terminal ITIM, thereby enabling phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of PECAM-1 by other Src homology 2 domain-containing nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). NRTKs capable of mediating the second phosphorylation event include C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk and Csk function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation during ITAM-dependent platelet activation. In ITAM-activated platelets that were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, PECAM-1 was phosphorylated but did not bind the tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, indicating that it was not phosphorylated on its N-terminal ITIM. Csk bound to and phosphorylated PECAM-1 more efficiently than did Btk and required its SH2 domain to perform these functions. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of Siglec-9 by Csk is enhanced by the prior phosphorylation of its C-terminal ITIM, providing evidence that the ITIMs of other dual ITIM-containing receptors are also sequentially phosphorylated. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sequential ITIM phosphorylation provides a general mechanism for precise temporal control over the recruitment and activation of tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases that dampen ITAM-dependent signals.
Project description:The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) represent a recently defined distinct subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily. By using the Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a new member of the mouse siglec family, mSiglec-E. The mSiglec-E cDNA encodes a protein of 467 amino acids that contains three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail bearing two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). mSiglec-E is highly expressed in mouse spleen, a tissue rich in leucocytes. The ITIMs of mSiglec-E can recruit SHP-1 and SHP-2, two inhibitory regulators of immunoreceptor signal transduction. This suggests that the function of mSiglec-E is probably an involvement in haematopoietic cells and the immune system as an inhibitory receptor. When expressed in COS-7 cells, mSiglec-E was able to mediate sialic acid-dependent binding to human red blood cells, suggesting that mSiglec-E may function through cell-cell interactions. In comparison with the known members of the siglec family, mSiglec-E exhibits a high degree of sequence similarity to both human siglec-7 and siglec-9. The gene encoding mSiglec-E is localized in the same chromosome as that encoding mouse CD33. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that neither mouse mSiglec-E nor CD33 shows a clear relationship with any human siglecs so far identified.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is an inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) that negatively regulates natural killer cell cytotoxicity. The KIR3DL1 cytoplasmic region (3DL1-cyto) is disordered and can be dissected into three segments: (I) H340-V351; (II) M352-D371; and (III) P372-P423. NMR studies indicate that segment II can dynamically adopt a loop-like conformation, and segments I and III can form dynamic helices that may mediate binding to membranes, particularly in the region around the N-terminal (N) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), consistent with its role in signaling. Furthermore, individual SH2 domains of SHP-2 strongly engage with the unphosphorylated N-ITIM of 3DL1-cyto, while binding of the tandem SHP-2 SH2 domains to the bis-phosphorylated ITIMs results in more extensive conformational changes in segments I and III. The findings enhance our understanding of KIR function and how ITIMs in a target receptor operate in concert to engage the tandem SH2 domains of SHP-2.
Project description:Although carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is an activation marker for neutrophils and delays neutrophil apoptosis, the role of CEACAM1 in granulopoiesis and neutrophil-dependent host immune responses has not been investigated. CEACAM1 expression correlated with granulocytic differentiation, and Ceacam1(-/-) mice developed neutrophilia because of loss of the Src-homology-phosphatase-1 (SHP-1)-dependent inhibition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat3) pathway provided by CEACAM1. Moreover, Ceacam1(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to Listeria Monocytogenes (LM) infection with an accelerated mortality. Reintroduction of CEACAM1 into Ceacam1(-/-) bone marrow restored normal granulopoiesis and host sensitivity to LM infection, while mutation of its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) abrogated this restoration. shRNA-mediated reduction of Stat3 amounts rescued normal granulopoiesis, attenuating host sensitivity to LM infection in Ceacam1(-/-) mice. Thus, CEACAM1 acted as a coinhibitory receptor for G-CSFR regulating granulopoiesis and host innate immune response to bacterial infections.
Project description:The Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRL5) on B cells has both an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence and two consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic region. To evaluate its signaling potential, we expressed constructs for chimeric molecules composed of the cytoplasmic region of FCRL5 and the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB in a B cell line lacking an endogenous Fc receptor. Coligation of this fusion protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) inhibited BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation, and Erk kinase activation. Our mutational analysis indicated that, whereas tyrosines in both the inhibitory and activation motifs are phosphorylated after ligation, only those in ITIMs influence BCR-mediated signaling. This FCRL5 inhibitory effect was mediated through dual ITIM recruitment of the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, which in turn dephosphorylates the ITAM-based tyrosines in BCR Igalpha/Igbeta heterodimers. An FCRL5 inhibitory effect on BCR signaling was likewise demonstrable for primary B cells. Although its ligand is presently unknown, we conclude that FCRL5 has the functional potential to serve as an inhibitory coreceptor on mature B cells in humans.
Project description:Innate-like splenic marginal zone (MZ) and peritoneal cavity B1 B lymphocytes share critical responsibilities in humoral responses but have divergent B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling features. A discrete marker of these subsets with tyrosine-based dual regulatory potential termed "Fc receptor-like 5" (FCRL5) was investigated to explore this discrepancy. Although FCRL5 repressed the robust BCR activity that is characteristic of MZ B cells, it had no influence on antigen receptor stimulation that is blunted in peritoneal cavity-derived B1 B cells. The molecular basis for the receptor's inhibitory function derived from recruitment of the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Surprisingly, mutagenesis of this docking site unearthed coactivation properties for FCRL5 that were orchestrated by independent association of the Lyn Src-family kinase with an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like sequence. FCRL5's unique binary regulation directly correlated with SHP-1 and Lyn activity, which, like BCR function, differed between MZ and B1 B cells. These findings collectively imply a specialized counterregulatory role for FCRL molecules at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity.