Therapeutic comparison of chemotherapy and surgery for early stage diffuse large B-cell gastric lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The use of surgery versus stomach-preserving treatment for primary gastric lymphoma has caused controversy among doctors. This retrospective, single center study aims to evaluate the efficacy and benefit of stomach-preserving treatment against surgery for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS:From August 1991 to January 2006, 43 cases of early-stage diffuse large B-cell gastric lymphoma were reviewed. RESULTS:Eleven cases were treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus radiation (CT +/- RT), 17 were treated with surgery alone (OP), and 15 were treated with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (OP + CT). The complete remission and response rates were 63.6% and 90.9% in those treated with CT +/- RT (7 complete responders, 3 partial responders, 1 non-responder), 100% and 100% in those treated with OP, and 100% and 100% in those treated with OP + CT, respectively. Five-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 87.5%, and 100% in those treated by CT +/- RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p=0.76). The five-year disease free survival rates were 100%, 87.5% and 100% in those treated by CT +/- RT, OP, and OP + CT, respectively (p=0.99). There was no significant difference in overall survival and disease free survival between modalities. Even though there are no definite differences in the number of complications between those treated by CT +/- RT or OP, these facts reflect little concern on complications after surgery. CONCLUSION:In preventing morbidity arising from early or late complications from surgery and promoting quality of life, chemotherapy should be a primary consideration for early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach.
Project description:Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common type of extranodal lymphoma and commonly involved site is the stomach. We have compared the superiority between treatment modalities for primary gastric lymphoma and we want to investigate efficacy of rituximab in gastric lymphoma.Between April 2002 and December 2011, 146 patients with a histologically confirmed primary gastric lymphoma, initially diagnosed at eight different Cancer Centers within Turkey were evaluated retrospectively. According to the treatment modality, the patients were divided into chemotherapy (CT) alone, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CRT), surgery and chemotherapy (SCT), surgery along with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (SCRT), and surgery (S) alone groups.Median follow-up period was 25.5 months. The 5-year EFS (event free survival) and OS (overall survival) rates for the patients were 55% and 62.3% respectively. In Log rank analysis of OS and EFS, we have identified levels of albumin and hemoglobine, IPI score, stage at diagnosis as factors influencing survival. In multivariate analysis of OS and EFS, only albumin and stage at diagnosis were factors independently contributing to survival. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of survival between different treatment modalities (p = 0.707 in EFS and p = 0.124 in OS). In analysis of patients treated with chemotherapy alone, there was no a statistically significant difference in terms of EFS and OS between chemotherapy regimens with or without rituximab in localized and advanced stage groups (p = 0.264 and p = 0.639). There was no statistical difference in survival rate (EFS and OS) between surgical or non-surgical treatment modalities for localized/advanced stage gastric lymphoma groups (p = 0.519 / p = 0.165).There are several treatment options due to similar results in different treatment modalities. Also benefit of rituximab treatment in gastric lymphoma is still a controversial subject. Additional prospective trials are definitely required in order to clarify use of rituximab in treatment of extranodal gastric lymphoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MSSCC) is a relatively rare head and neck cancer with poorly defined prognosis, and the present study aimed to investigate the outcomes for MSSCC according to different treatments. METHODS:Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital pathology database was reviewed from 2007 to 2017, and 98 patients with pathologically confirmed MSSCC were enrolled. Retrospective analysis and follow-up were performed for each patient. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed using Cox's regression model. RESULTS:For all the 98 cases of MSSCC, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.0% and 29.3%, respectively. Among 98 patient, 33 patients were treated with systemic treatment (NON-SUR), 19 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy followed by surgery (CT/RT+SUR), 38 patients received surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (SUR+RT/CT), and 8 patients were performed surgery alone (SUR).The OS rate for each group was 27.3%, 57.9%, 30.6% and 37.5%, respectively, while the DFS was 21.2%, 36.8%, 31.6% and 25.0%, respectively. The OS rate of CT/RT+SUR was significantly higher than that of NON-SUR and SUR+CT/RT groups (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking, low differentiation, and advanced T stage were independent risk factors for OS, while low differentiation and advanced N stage for DFS. CONCLUSIONS:Surgery-based treatment is still the first-line therapeutic strategy for MSSCC. And neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery is highly recommended for MSSCC patients, especially those with advanced tumors or requesting high quality of life.
Project description:Different neoadjuvant therapy regimens are available for rectal cancer, but the relative effects are controversial. The aim of the present network meta-analysis (NMA) was to estimate the relative efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapies for resectable rectal cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials were searched for publications dated from 1946 up to June 2018. The present study included randomized clinical trials that compared treatments for resected rectal cancer: Surgery alone, surgery preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Direct pairwise comparisons and NMA were conducted. A total of 23 randomized controlled trials were included in the present study. RT had an overall survival (OS) benefit when compared with surgery alone [HR (hazard ratio), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.97; quality of evidence, high]. All three neoadjuvant regimens were associated with lower local recurrence (LR) when compared with surgery alone [RT: odds ratio (OR), 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.65; quality of evidence, high; CRT: OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.56; quality of evidence, low and CT: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-1.00; quality of evidence, low]. There were no significant differences in OS and LR between CRT and RT (OS: OR, 1.10); 95% CI, 0.93-1.20; LR: OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). Ranking probabilities indicated that CRT was the best strategy for local control, with a surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) of 78.78%. Patients treated with RT had improved disease-free survival compared with those treated with surgery alone (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; quality of evidence, low). Neoadjuvant RT or CRT did not significantly improve distant metastases compared with surgery alone (RT: OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69-1.10 and CRT: OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47-1.10). CRT had an improved pathological complete response rate compared with RT (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 21.80-17.00; quality of evidence, low). No significant difference for the risk of anastomotic leak between each treatment was observed in the NMA. In conclusion, RT decreased the LR and improved OS compared with surgery alone for resected rectal cancer. CRT was the best neoadjuvant therapy analyzed and CT was likely the second best for all outcomes based on SUCRA. However, these findings were limited by overall low quality of evidence.
Project description:BACKGROUND The use of adjuvant therapy for high-risk endometrial cancer patients (HREC) in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-III remains debatable. This network meta-analysis was conducted to compare and rank adjuvant therapies based on efficacies and toxicities to facilitate clinical decision-making and further research. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched 3 databases - PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - from inception to December 9, 2019. Only randomized controlled trials that compared any of these adjuvant therapies (pelvic radiotherapy, vaginal brachytherapy, chemotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy) with each other or surgery alone were included. The network meta-analysis was performed in a frequentist framework using Stata software 15.0. RESULTS Fourteen RCTs with 5872 participants were eligible. No significant difference between treatments was observed in 5-year overall survival (OS) or distant metastasis. Compared with surgery alone, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (pelvic RT-CT) prolonged 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and pelvic radiotherapy (pelvic RT) (RR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.96; RR=0.779, 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Compared with surgery alone, pelvic RT, the combination of pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy (pelvic RT-VBT), chemotherapy (CT), and pelvic RT-CT led to fewer local recurrences (RR=0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.50; RR=0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.74; RR=0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.73; RR=0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.46). Adjuvant CT was found to result in more grade III/IV late toxicities than surgery alone (RR=11.8, 95% CI 1.02-137.14). Pelvic RT-CT ranked first for OS, PFS, distant metastasis, and local recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Pelvic RT-CT is superior to other treatments for PFS and local recurrence rate, and associated related toxicities are tolerable, suggesting it may be an ideal adjuvant therapy for HREC patients.
Project description:The stomach is the most frequent site of extranodal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originating from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is typically a low-grade, B-cell neoplasia strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Only certain H. pylori strains in some predisposed patients determine lymphoma development in the stomach, according to a strain-host-organ specific process. The clinical presentation is poorly specific, symptoms ranging from vague dyspepsia to alarm symptoms. Similarly, different endoscopy patterns have been described for gastric lymphoma. H. pylori eradication is advised as first-line therapy in early stage disease, and complete lymphoma remission is achieved in 75% of cases. Neoplasia stage, depth of infiltration in the gastric wall, presence of the API2-MALT1 translocation, localization in the stomach, and patient ethnicity have been identified as predictors of remission. Recent data suggests that H. pylori eradication therapy may be successful for gastric lymphoma treatment also in a small subgroup (15%) of H. pylori-negative patients. The overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates are as high as 90% and 75%, respectively. Management of patients who failed to achieve lymphoma remission following H. pylori eradication include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery.
Project description:The present study aimed to compare the pattern of distant recurrence between patients with non-metastatic rectal cancer treated with pre-operative (OP) and those treated with post-operative (post-OP) chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A total of 631 patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic rectal cancer who had received pre-OP or post-OP CRT with curative intent surgery between August 2008 and April 2015 were identified. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to account for baseline differences between the two arms. Overall, 449 and 182 patients were treated with pre-OP and post-OP CRT, respectively. Sex, tumor location, clinical tumor stage, CRT regimen and adjuvant chemotherapy regimen were significantly different between the two arms. The median follow-up duration was 55.4 months (range, 53.7-57.1). The 5-year distant recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were not significantly different between the pre-OP and post-OP CRT arms (RFS, 67.5 vs. 71.6%, P=0.595 and OS, 81.9 vs. 77.0%, P=0.449), and no difference was observed in the distant recurrence patterns. Following IPTW, there was still no difference in distant RFS (pre-OP vs. post-OP CRT; hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; P=0.911), but pre-OP CRT was significantly associated with lower peritoneal recurrence (pre-OP vs. post-OP CRT; HR, 0.13; P=0.032). In addition, there was no significant difference in OS between the two arms (pre-OP vs. post-OP CRT; HR, 0.85; P=0.665). In conclusion, although distant RFS was not significantly different between the two arms, pre-OP CRT was significantly associated with a lower risk of peritoneal recurrence than post-OP CRT in patients non-metastatic rectal cancer.
Project description:Worldwide, almost one million new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed in 2012, making it the fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. The current tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system represents a consensus between the East and the West, and will serve as a strong foundation upon which to build future evidence. In this review article, we first discuss the definition and optimal surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer, followed by the general principles when considering a pre vs. postoperative radiotherapy (RT) strategy. We then provide a synthesis of the existing randomized trial evidence in an attempt clarify the role of pre and postoperative RT in the management of locally advanced gastric cancer.A Medline search 1966-Jun 2014 was undertaken. Randomized trials including patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (using established definitions), comparing RT [with or without chemotherapy (CT)], with surgery alone or other treatment modalities were included. Systematic reviews and evidence based practice guidelines that include this body of primary studies were preferentially discussed. Medline, Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrial.gov, Guidelines Clearinghouse were searched.Sixteen randomized trials, three systematic reviews and one practice guideline were included as the evidence base. In this group of studies, two reports compared postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with surgery alone. Driven predominantly by INT0116, they established the role of postoperative CRT to provide a survival benefit in a patient group that underwent surgery with predominantly D0-1 dissections. Preoperative RT (four studies) showed promise for survival benefit but the risks of bias in these trials were high. Postoperative CRT compared with CT alone (eight trials) showed no survival benefit with the addition of radiation although some evidence of activity can be observed with improved local regional control.Technical expertise to enable the delivery of high quality RT to complex target volumes as is required in gastric cancer, and surgical standards to ensure the delivery of high quality surgery, have matured in recent years. Six trials with large sample sizes are currently ongoing to better define the role of preoperative CRT (two studies) and postoperative CRT (four studies), when used in conjunction with high quality surgery and RT, and contemporary CT regimens. The moderate likelihood of locoregional recurrences and the favorable therapeutic ratio with using RT preoperatively in other settings, provide optimism that preoperative CRT would have a pivotal role to play in locally advanced gastric cancer. Active accrual into ongoing trials is strongly encouraged.
Project description:Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse.We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned.Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases.Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond chemotherapy alone after R-EPOCH.
Project description:The stomach is the most frequently involved site for extranodal lymphomas, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all gastrointestinal cases. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma is caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. MALT-lymphomas may engender different clinical and endoscopic patterns. Often, diagnosis is confirmed in patients with only vague dyspeptic symptoms and without macroscopic lesions on gastric mucosa. H. pylori eradication leads to lymphoma remission in a large number of patients when treatment occurs at an early stage (I-II(1)). Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, localized in the antral region of the stomach, and without API2-MALT1 translocation, shows a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When both bacterial infection and lymphoma recur, further eradication therapy is generally effective. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are the available therapeutic options with a high success rate for those patients who fail to achieve remission, while data on immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) are still scarce. The 5-year survival rate is higher than 90%, but careful, long-term follow-up is required in these patients since lymphoma recurrence has been reported in some cases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell lymphoma that can be divided into two categories: anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) and ALK-negative. Gastrointestinal ALK+ ALCL is rare. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) is thought to be a representative form of gastrointestinal lesion in mantle cell lymphoma, and T-cell lymphomas seldom show this feature. Here, we report the first known case of ALK+ ALCL with gastroduodenal involvement to present with MLP. CASE SUMMARY:The patient was a 43-year-old man who was complained of a mass in the left inguinal area and was performed open biopsy. ALK+ ALCL was diagnosed pathologically. Computed tomography scan demonstrated multiple lymph node lesions in the abdomen - pelvis/inguinal region, and scattered nodular lesions in both lung fields. He did not complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. While, esophagogastroduodenoscopy identified MLP lesions from the antrum of the stomach to the descending portion of the duodenum and mild thickened folds on the corpus of the stomach, and biopsy showed invasion of ALK+ ALCL. We treated this patient with six cycles of CHOEP (Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Etoposide, and Prednisone) chemotherapy. At the conclusion of treatment, there was complete remission. Numerous white scars were found on the stomach, endoscopically consistent with a remission image of lymphoma. The endoscopic features of this case were thought to be similar to those of MCL. CONCLUSION:The macroscopic/endoscopic features of gastrointestinal ALK+ ALCL may be more similar to those of B-cell lymphomas rather than T-cell lymphomas.