Incorporation of hexafluorobutyne into furans or phenols via reaction with iron(0) carbene or vinylketene complexes.
ABSTRACT: Reaction of iron(0) carbene complexes with hexafluorobut-2-yne produces 3,4-bis(trifluoromethylated)furans in a process that is favored for electron rich carbenes. No traces of furannulation or benzannulation are observed with Group 6 Fischer carbenes. Reaction of hexafluorobut-2-yne with a vinylketene iron(0) complex gives a 2,3-bis-trifluoromethylated phenol.
Project description:An intramolecular rhodium-catalyzed reaction of 1-tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles with furans has been explored. The tosylimino functionality was found to play a significant chemical role participating in the subsequent domino-transformations of a key reaction intermediate. One of the reaction pathways leads to valuable 2-formyl- and 2-acetylpyridine building blocks, which could be obtained in one-pot starting from easily accessible (furan-2-ylmethyl)propargyl amines. An original method for the synthesis of highly functionalized indolizines from the obtained pyridines has been proposed.
Project description:The catalytic transformation of a C(sp3)-H bond to a C(sp3)-C bond via an iron carbene intermediate represents a long-standing challenge. Despite the success of enzymatic and small molecule iron catalysts mediating challenging C(sp3)-H oxidations and aminations via high-valent iron oxos and nitrenes, C(sp3)-H alkylations via isoelectronic iron carbene intermediates have thus far been unsuccessful. Iron carbenes have been inert, or shown to favor olefin cyclopropanation and heteroatom-hydrogen insertion. Herein we report an iron phthalocyanine-catalyzed alkylation of allylic and benzylic C(sp3)-H bonds. Mechanistic investigations support that an electrophilic iron carbene mediates homolytic C-H cleavage and rebounds from the resulting organoiron intermediate to form the C-C bond; both steps are tunable via catalyst modifications. These studies suggest that for iron carbenes, distinct from other late metal carbenes, C-H cleavage is partially rate-determining and must be promoted to effect reactivity.
Project description:We present the first experimental study of the frontier orbitals in an ultrathin film of the novel hexa-carbene photosensitizer [Fe(btz)3]3+, where btz is 3,3'-dimethyl-1,1'-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene). Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES) was used to probe the electronic structure of films where the molecular and oxidative integrities had been confirmed with optical and X-ray spectroscopies. In combination with density functional theory calculations, RPES measurements provided direct and site-selective information about localization and interactions of occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. Fe 2p, N 1s, and C 1s measurements selectively probed the metal, carbene, and side-group contributions revealing strong metal-ligand orbital mixing of the frontier orbitals. This helps explain the remarkable photophysical properties of iron-carbenes in terms of unconventional electronic structure properties and favorable metal-ligand bonding interactions-important for the continued development of these type of complexes toward light-harvesting and light-emitting applications.
Project description:N-heterocyclic carbenes catalyze the rearrangement of 1,1-bis(arylsulfonyl)ethylene to the corresponding trans-1,2-bis(phenylsulfonyl) under mild conditions. Tandem rearrangement/cycloadditions have been developed to capitalize on this new process and generate highly substituted isoxazolines and additional heterocyclic compounds. Preliminary mechanistic studies support a new conjugate addition/Umpolung process involving the ejection and subsequent unusual re-addition of a sulfinate ion.
Project description:N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) promote the addition of 1,1-bis(phenylsulfonyl)ethylene to the ?-position of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes. The proposed reaction pathway for this Rauhut-Currier-type reaction includes an unusual conjugate addition of an NHC to a bis-vinyl sulfone.
Project description:One-pot processes for the synthesis of benzo[b]furans from 1-aryl- or 1-alkylketones using nonprecious transition metal catalysts have been developed. Regioselective iron(III)-catalyzed halogenation of the aryl ring, followed by iron- or copper-catalyzed O-arylation allowed the synthesis of various structural analogues, including the benzo[b]furan-derived natural products corsifuran C, moracin F, and caleprunin B.
Project description:Ideally Cs-/C2v-symmetric chromophores, constituted by two electro-active groups conjugated through the carbo-mer of the cyclohexa-1,3-diene core, are selectively prepared by the SnCl2-mediated reduction of tailored hexaoxy-pericyclynes: in the latter substrates, one of the 1,4-dioxybut-2-yne edges is "chemically locked" by two CF3 substituents preventing complete reduction to the corresponding aromatic carbo-benzenic core, which is expected to be more "?-insulating" between the electro-active ends. The bis-trifluoromethylated carbo-cyclohexadiene products are also shown to be significantly stabilized with respect to their bis-phenylated analogues. Their structural (crystal X-ray diffraction analyses), spectroscopical (NMR and UV-vis spectra), physio-optical (dichromism in solution) and electrochemical (cyclic voltammograms) properties are compared on the basis of the electron-donating/electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents. These properties are also compared with those of their aromatic carbo-benzene and flexible carbo-n-butadiene counterparts.
Project description:Oxidative addition of cobaltoceniumdiazonium bis(hexafluoridophosphate) with (pseudo)halide aurates gave gold(III) complexes containing zwitterionic cobaltoceniumide as a ligand. Its selenium derivative, cobaltoceniumselenolate, was obtained by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction of iodocobaltocenium iodide with Na2 Se. Spectroscopic and structural data in combination with DFT calculations showed that this cobaltocenylidene species is a mesoionic carbene quite different from common N-heterocyclic carbenes. Its ligand properties (TEP, singlet-triplet gap, nucleophilicity, ?-acidity, Brønsted basicity) are in part comparable to those of cyclic (amino)(alkyl/aryl)carbenes. Electrochemistry data showed that the mesoionic cobaltoceniumides are more electron-rich than their parent ferrocenes. The reversible reduction of the tricyanido gold complex appears 50?mV negative of the cobaltocenium/cobaltocene couple, whereas that of the selenide derivative is shifted cathodically by 550?mV.
Project description:Previous work has demonstrated that variants of a heme protein, Rhodothermus marinus cytochrome c (Rma cyt c), catalyze abiological carbene boron-hydrogen (B-H) bond insertion with high efficiency and selectivity. Here we investigated this carbon-boron bondforming chemistry with cyclic, lactone-based carbenes. Using directed evolution, we obtained a Rma cyt c variant BOR LAC that shows high selectivity and efficiency for B-H insertion of 5- and 6-membered lactone carbenes (up to 24,500 total turnovers and 97.1:2.9 enantiomeric ratio). The enzyme shows low activity with a 7-membered lactone carbene. Computational studies revealed a highly twisted geometry of the 7membered lactone carbene intermediate relative to 5- and 6-membered ones. Directed evolution of cytochrome c together with computational characterization of key iron-carbene intermediates has allowed us to expand the scope of enzymatic carbene B-H insertion to produce new lactone-based organoborons.
Project description:The steric and electronic influence of backbone substitution in IMes-based (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) was probed by synthesizing the [RhCl(CO)?(NHC)] series of complexes to quantify experimentally the Tolman electronic parameter (electronic) and the percent buried volume (%V(bur), steric) parameters. The corresponding ruthenium-indenylidene complexes were also synthesized and tested in benchmark metathesis transformations to establish possible correlations between reactivity and NHC electronic and steric parameters.