The TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism and risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), particularly among young adults, has been rising steadily during the past 2 decades. T2D, especially in its early-onset subtype, is under genetic control. TRIB3 inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent insulin action. A TRIB3 gain-of-function polymorphism, Q84R (rs2295490), impairs insulin signaling.The objective of the study was to verify the association of TRIB3 Q84R with: 1) T2D, either subtyped or not according to age at diagnosis (early-onset, <45 yr, or >or= 45 yr); 2) insulin secretion and sensitivity in nondiabetic individuals; or 3) in vitro insulin secretion from isolated human islets.Four different case-control samples comprising a total of 5,469 whites were examined. Insulinogenic and insulin sensitivity indexes and their interplay (disposition index) were assessed in 645 nondiabetic individuals at oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (16.7 mmol/liter)-induced in vitro insulin secretion was assessed in islets isolated from 54 nondiabetic donors.In the whole sample, the R84 variant was nominally associated with T2D (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.36, P = 0.04). When stratifying according to age of diabetes onset, R84 carriers had an increased risk of early-onset T2D (odds ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.58, P = 0.002). Among 645 nondiabetic subjects, R84 carriers had higher glucose levels (P = 0.005) and lower insulinogenic (P = 0.03) and disposition index (P = 0.02) during the oral glucose tolerance test. R84 islets were more likely to display relatively low glucose-stimulated insulin release (P = 0.04).The TRIB3 R84 variant is associated with early-onset T2D in whites. Alteration in the insulin secretion/insulin sensitivity interplay appears to underlie this association.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study enrolled 513 Chinese subjects in three groups: control, MetS, and obese. The functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism was genotyped among subjects undergoing carotid ultrasonography. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were determined. RESULTS: For individuals with the TRIB3 R84 allele, the odds ratio for developing MetS was 2.349 (P = 0.018), abdominal obesity 2.351 (P = 0.012), hypertriglyceridemia 2.314 (P = 0.00003), and insulin resistance 1.697 (P = 0.023). Likewise, the odds ratio for individuals with the TRIB3 R84 allele to develop thickened intima-media thickness was 2.208 (P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with the functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism are at risk for MetS. The TRIB3 R84 allele especially predisposes to carotid atherosclerosis in part through the effects of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance.
Project description:Insulin signaling plays a physiological role in traditional insulin target tissues controlling glucose homeostasis as well as in pancreatic β-cells and in the endothelium. Insulin signaling abnormalities may, therefore, be pathogenic for insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, endothelial dysfunction, and eventually, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) is a 45-kDa pseudokinase binding to and inhibiting Akt, a key mediator of insulin signaling. Akt-mediated effects of TRIB3 in the liver, pancreatic β-cells, and skeletal muscle result in impaired glucose homeostasis. TRIB3 effects are also modulated by its direct interaction with other signaling molecules. In humans, TRIB3 overactivity, due to TRIB3 overexpression or to Q84R genetic polymorphism, with R84 being a gain-of-function variant, may be involved in shaping the risk of insulin resistance, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. TRIB3 overexpression has been observed in the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β-cells of individuals with insulin resistance and/or T2DM. The R84 variant has also proved to be associated with insulin resistance, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. TRIB3 direct effects on the endothelium might also play a role in increasing the risk of atherosclerosis, as indicated by studies on human endothelial cells carrying the R84 variant that are dysfunctional in terms of Akt activation, NO production, and other proatherogenic changes. In conclusion, studies on TRIB3 have unraveled new molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Additional investigations are needed to verify whether such acquired knowledge will be relevant for improving care delivery to patients with metabolic and cardiovascular alterations.
Project description:CONTEXT:Reduced insulin signaling in insulin secreting β-cells causes defective insulin secretion and hyperglycemia in mice. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether functional polymorphisms affecting insulin signaling (ie, ENPP1 K121Q, rs1044498; IRS1 G972R, rs1801278; and TRIB3 Q84R, rs2295490) exert a joint effect on insulin secretion and abnormal glucose homeostasis (AGH). DESIGN:Insulin secretion was evaluated by 1) the disposition index (DI) from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 829 individuals; 2) insulin secretion stimulation index (SI) in islets from nondiabetic donors after glucose (n = 92) or glibenclamide (n = 89) stimulation. AGH (including impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes; T2D) was evaluated in case-control studies from the GENetics of Type 2 Diabetes in Italy and the United States (GENIUS T2D) Consortium (n = 6607). RESULTS:Genotype risk score, obtained by totaling individual weighted risk allele effects, was associated with the following: 1) DI (P = .005); 2) glucose and glibenclamide SI (P = .046 and P = .009); or 3) AGH (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.13; P = .001). We observed an inverse relationship between genetic effect and age at AGH onset, as indicated by a linear correlation between AGH-genotype risk score odds ratios and age-at-diagnosis cutoffs (R(2) = 0.80, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Functional polymorphisms affecting insulin signaling exert a joint effect on both in vivo and in vitro insulin secretion as well as on early-onset AGH. Our data provide further evidence that abnormal insulin signaling reduces β-cell function and impairs glucose homeostasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Genes that modulate insulin sensitivity may also be involved in shaping the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relatively common TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism (rs2295490) has been associated with abnormal insulin signaling, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and pro-atherogenic phenotypes. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between low-frequency TRIB3 coding variants and CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:Three case-control studies for CAD from Italy and US were analyzed, for a total of 1565 individuals, all with type 2 diabetes. Infrequent variants were identified by re-sequencing TRIB3 exons in 140 "extreme cases" and 140 "super-controls" and then genotyped in all study subjects. RESULTS:TRIB3 infrequent variants (n = 8), considered according to a collapsing rare variants framework, were significantly associated with CAD in diabetic patients from Italy (n = 700, OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.91; p = 0.027), but not from the US (n = 865, OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.69-2.18; p = 0.49). In the Italian sets, the association was especially strong among individuals who also carried the common R84 variant. CONCLUSION:Although preliminary, our finding suggests a role of TRIB3 low-frequency variants on CAD among Italian patients with T2D. Further studies are needed to address the role of TRIB3 infrequent variants in other populations of both European and non-European ancestries.
Project description:Functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism has been associated with insulin resistance. Obestatin, improving insulin resistance, exerts obscure effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis. Aims to investigate whether the prevalent TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism has profound implications for alterations of serum obestatin and what effect obestatin exerts on carotid atherosclerosis.A total of 518 unrelated Chinese subjects consisted of control (n?=?258) and MetS (n?=?260) groups. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected. The level of serum obestatin was measured. Genotype the functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism. All subjects underwent ultrasonography to determine carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).Serum obestatin was significantly decreased in MetS as compared with the control group (P?=?0.042). Among the MetS group participants possessing RR84 genotype had significantly lower levels of serum obestatin than those with QQ84 or QR84 genotypes (P?=?0.008, P?=?0.043) with similar significant difference among the control group. Factorial analyses showed statistically significant interactions between MetS and RR84 genotype (P?=?0.009 for interaction for obestatin). On correlation analysis, obestatin correlated negatively with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (r?=?-0.163, P?=?0.010) and IMT (r?=?-0.256, P?=?0.011). On partial analyses, obestatin negatively correlated with IMT(r?=?-0.259, P?=?0.024) after controlling for the confounding factors.MetS individuals with TRIB3 RR84 genotype demonstrated further decreased serum obestatin. Decreased serum obestatin might in part exacerbate insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed loci associated with glucose and insulin-related traits. We aimed to characterize 19 such loci using detailed measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity to help elucidate their role in regulation of glucose control, insulin secretion and/or action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated associations of loci identified by the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) with circulating proinsulin, measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), euglycemic clamps, insulin suppression tests, or frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic humans (n = 29,084). RESULTS The glucose-raising allele in MADD was associated with abnormal insulin processing (a dramatic effect on higher proinsulin levels, but no association with insulinogenic index) at extremely persuasive levels of statistical significance (P = 2.1 x 10(-71)). Defects in insulin processing and insulin secretion were seen in glucose-raising allele carriers at TCF7L2, SCL30A8, GIPR, and C2CD4B. Abnormalities in early insulin secretion were suggested in glucose-raising allele carriers at MTNR1B, GCK, FADS1, DGKB, and PROX1 (lower insulinogenic index; no association with proinsulin or insulin sensitivity). Two loci previously associated with fasting insulin (GCKR and IGF1) were associated with OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity indices in a consistent direction. CONCLUSIONS Genetic loci identified through their effect on hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in associations with measures of insulin processing, secretion, and sensitivity. Our findings emphasize the importance of detailed physiological characterization of such loci for improved understanding of pathways associated with alterations in glucose homeostasis and eventually type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Recent studies in mice and human identified osteocalcin (OCN) as a bone-derived hormone that modulates insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. OCN is synthesized by the bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP) gene located in the well replicated region of type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage on chromosome 1q22. We resequenced BGLAP gene in 192 individuals with T2D and performed case-control studies in 766 Caucasian (461 T2D and 305 controls) and 563 African American individuals (371 T2D and 192 controls). Metabolic effects of BGLAP variants were examined in 127 nondiabetic members of Caucasian T2D families and in 498 unrelated nondiabetic African American and Caucasian individuals. BGLAP expression was tested in transformed lymphocytes from 60 Caucasian individuals. We identified 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans, but observed only the two known SNPs in Caucasians. No SNP was associated with T2D. Promoter SNP rs1800247 was not associated with metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity (S(I)) or fasting glucose in either population, but nonsynonymous SNP rs34702397 (R94Q) was nominally associated with S(I) (uncorrected p=0.05) and glucose-mediated glucose disposal (S(G); uncorrected p=0.03) in African Americans. No SNP altered measures of insulin secretion or obesity, nor was BGLAP expression associated with rs1800247. Our study was sufficiently powered to exclude BGLAP variants as a major risk factor (OR > 1.5) for T2D in Caucasians, but coding variants in exon 4 may alter glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk in African Americans.
Project description:CONTEXT:Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE:To facilitate use of these SNPs in future genetic risk score (GRS)-based analyses, we aimed to classify the SNPs based on physiology. We also sought to validate GRS associations with insulin-related traits in deeply phenotyped Mexican Americans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A total of 457 T2D SNPs from the literature were assigned physiologic function based on association studies and cluster analyses. All SNPs (All-GRS), beta-cell (BC-GRS), insulin resistance (IR-GRS), lipodystrophy (Lipo-GRS), and body mass index plus lipids (B + L-GRS) were evaluated for association with diabetes and indices of insulin secretion (from oral glucose tolerance test), insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance (from euglycemic clamp), and adiposity and lipid markers in 1587 Mexican Americans. RESULTS:Of the 457 SNPs, 52 were classified as BC, 30 as IR, 12 as Lipo, 12 as B + L, whereas physiologic function of 351 was undefined. All-GRS was strongly associated with T2D. Among nondiabetic Mexican Americans, BC-GRS was associated with reduced insulinogenic index, IR-GRS was associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, and Lipo-GRS was associated with reduced adiposity. B + L-GRS was associated with increased insulin clearance. The latter did not replicate in an independent cohort wherein insulin clearance was assessed by a different method. CONCLUSIONS:Supporting their utility, BC-GRS, IR-GRS, and Lipo-GRS, based on SNPs discovered largely in Europeans, exhibited expected associations in Mexican Americans. The novel association of B + L-GRS with insulin clearance suggests that impaired ability to reduce insulin clearance in compensation for IR may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D. Whether this applies to other ethnic groups remains to be determined.
Project description:Aims:Emerging evidence has suggested a mechanistic link from vitamin D metabolism to glucose and insulin homeostasis. This study is aimed at specifically quantifying the direct effects of vitamin D supplementation on indexes of glucose and insulin homeostasis as well as incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among nondiabetic adults. Methods:We systematically searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation in nondiabetic adults in PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to pool the estimates. Results:Our meta-analysis included 47 RCTs involving 44,161 nondiabetic individuals with a median trial duration of 4 months and a median dose of 4000?IU/d. Vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced fasting glucose by 0.11?mmol/L, fasting insulin by 1.47?mIU/L, and HOMA-IR by 0.32 while increasing total 25 (OH) D levels by 40.14?nmol/L. We found no significant effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion or beta cell function indexes. Based on the data from six trials involving 39,633 participants and 2533 incident T2D cases, vitamin D supplementation was not associated with the risk of incident diabetes compared to placebo (pooled relative risk: 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 1.08). Conclusions:Our meta-analysis found that vitamin D supplementation might improve glucose and insulin metabolism without affecting the risk of T2D among nondiabetic adults.
Project description:Linkage to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well replicated on chromosome 1q21-q23. Within this region, T2D was associated with common single nucleotide polymorphisms that marked an extended linkage disequilibrium block, including the liver pyruvate kinase gene (PKLR), in several European-derived populations. In this study we sought to determine the molecular basis for the association and the phenotypic consequences of the risk haplotype.Genes surrounding PKLR were resequenced in European-American and African-American cases and controls, and association with T2D was tested. Copy number variants (CNVs) were tested for four regions with real-time PCR. Expression of genes in the region was tested in adipose and muscle from nondiabetic subjects with each genotype. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic glucose production were tested in nondiabetic individuals with each haplotype combination.No coding variant in the region was associated with T2D. CNVs were rare and not associated with T2D. PKLR was not expressed in available tissues, but expression of genes HCN3, CLK2, SCAMP3, and FDPS was not associated with haplotype combinations in adipose or muscle. Haplotype combinations were not associated with insulin secretion or peripheral insulin sensitivity, but homozygous carriers of the risk haplotype had increased hepatic glucose production during hyperinsulinemia.Noncoding variants in the PKLR region likely alter gene expression of one or more genes. Our extensive physiological and molecular studies suggest increased hepatic glucose production and reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity, thus pointing to PKLR itself as the most likely candidate gene in this population.