Functional roles of arcA, etrA, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein, and cya in the arsenate respiration pathway in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
ABSTRACT: Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
Project description:In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.
Project description:Microbial arsenate reduction affects the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. Arsenate respiratory (arr) and detoxifying (ars) reduction pathways in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 are induced by arsenite and under anaerobic conditions. Here it is shown that an ArsR family protein, called ArsR2, regulates the arsenate respiratory reduction pathway in response to elevated arsenite under anaerobic conditions. Strains lacking arsR2 grew faster in the presence of high levels of arsenite (3 mM). Moreover, expression of arrA and arsC (arsenate reductase-encoding genes) in the DeltaarsR2 mutant of ANA-3 were increased in cells grown under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of arsenic. Mutations in putative arsenic binding amino acid residues in ArsR2 (substitutions of Cys-30 and Cys-32 with Ser) resulted in ANA-3 strains that exhibited anaerobic growth deficiencies with high levels of arsenite and arsenate. DNA binding studies with purified ArsR2 showed that ArsR2 binding to the arr promoter region was impaired by trivalent arsenicals such as arsenite and phenylarsine oxide. However, ArsR2 binding occurred in the presence of arsenate. A second known regulator of the arr operon, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP), could bind simultaneously with ArsR2 within the arr promoter region. It is concluded that ArsR2 is most likely the major arsenite-dependent regulator of arr and ars operons in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. However, anaerobic growth on arsenate will require coregulation with global regulators such as cAMP-CRP.
Project description:Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Knockouts of ArcB, Cra, Fnr, and Mlc were phenotypically silent, while deletion of the catabolite repression regulators Crp and Cya resulted in a pronounced slow-growth phenotype but had only a nonspecific effect on the actual flux distribution. Knockout of ArcA-dependent redox regulation, however, increased the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity by over 60%. Like aerobic conditions, anaerobic derepression of TCA cycle enzymes in an ArcA mutant significantly increased the in vivo TCA flux when nitrate was present as an electron acceptor. The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that ArcA-dependent transcriptional regulation directly or indirectly controls TCA cycle flux in both aerobic and anaerobic glucose batch cultures of E. coli. This control goes well beyond the previously known ArcA-dependent regulation of the TCA cycle during microaerobiosis.
Project description:Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.
Project description:Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducer that uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, to regulate anaerobic respiration. In addition, ArcA(So) is required for anaerobic growth with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and plays a role in aerobic respiration. The sensor kinase that activates ArcA(So) in S. oneidensis is not known. ArcB1(So), a homolog of the Escherichia coli sensor kinase ArcB(Ec), was identified and found to be required for DMSO reductase gene expression. In combination with HptA, ArcB1(So) complemented an E. coli arcB(Ec) mutant. ArcA(So), ArcB1(So), and HptA appear to constitute a two-component signal transduction system that regulates DMSO reduction in S. oneidensis.
Project description:In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, utilization of arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor is conferred by a two-gene operon, arrAB, which lacks a gene encoding a membrane-anchoring subunit for the soluble ArrAB protein complex. Analysis of the genome sequence of Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 showed that it also contained the same arrAB operon with 100% nucleotide identity. Here, we report that CN-32 respires arsenate and that this metabolism is dependent on arrA and an additional gene encoding a membrane-associated tetraheme c-type cytochrome, cymA. Deletion of cymA in ANA-3 also eliminated growth on and reduction of arsenate. The DeltacymA strains of CN-32 and ANA-3 negatively affected the reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) but not growth on nitrate. Unlike the CN-32 DeltacymA strain, growth on fumarate was absent in the DeltacymA strain of ANA-3. Both homologous and heterologous complementation of cymA in trans restored growth on arsenate in DeltacymA strains of both CN-32 and ANA-3. Transcription patterns of cymA showed that it was induced under anaerobic conditions in the presence of fumarate and arsenate. Nitrate-grown cells exhibited the greatest level of cymA expression in both wild-type strains. Lastly, site-directed mutagenesis of the first Cys to Ser in each of the four CXXCH c-heme binding motifs of the CN-32 CymA nearly eliminated growth on and reduction of arsenate. Together, these results indicate that the biochemical mechanism of arsenate respiration and reduction requires the interactions of ArrAB with a membrane-associated tetraheme cytochrome, which in the non-arsenate-respiring Shewanella species Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, has pleiotropic effects on Fe(III), Mn(IV), dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate, nitrite, and fumarate respiration.
Project description:Arsenic is a toxic element widely distributed in nature, but numerous bacteria are able to resist its toxicity mainly through the ars genes encoding an arsenate reductase and an arsenite efflux pump. Some "arsenotrophic" bacteria are also able to use arsenite as energy supplier during autotrophic growth by coupling anaerobic arsenite oxidation via the arx gene products to nitrate respiration or photosynthesis. Here, we have demonstrated that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobic ?-proteobacterium, is able to resist arsenic oxyanions both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Genome mining, gene expression, and mutagenesis studies revealed the presence of a genomic island that harbors the ars and arx clusters involved in arsenic resistance in strain CIB. Orthologous ars clusters are widely distributed in the genomes of sequenced Azoarcus strains. Interestingly, genetic and metabolic approaches showed that the arx cluster of the CIB strain encodes an anaerobic arsenite oxidase also involved in the use of arsenite as energy source. Hence, Azoarcus sp. CIB represents the prototype of an obligate heterotrophic bacterium able to use arsenite as an extra-energy source for anaerobic cell growth. The arsenic island of strain CIB supports the notion that metabolic and energetic skills can be gained by genetic mobile elements.
Project description:For more than a decade, it has been recognized that arsenate [H2AsO41-; As(V)] can be used by microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. Given the toxicity of arsenic, the mechanistic basis of this process is intriguing, as is its evolutionary origin. Here we show that a two-gene cluster (arrAB; arsenate respiratory reduction) in the bacterium Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 specifically confers respiratory As(V) reductase activity. Mutants with in-frame deletions of either arrA or arrB are incapable of growing on As(V), yet both are able to grow on a wide variety of other electron acceptors as efficiently as the wild-type. Complementation by the wild-type sequence rescues the mutants' ability to respire As(V). arrA is predicted to encode a 95.2-kDa protein with sequence motifs similar to the molybdenum containing enzymes of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family. arrB is predicted to encode a 25.7-kDa iron-sulfur protein. arrA and arrB comprise an operon that contains a twin arginine translocation (Tat) motif in ArrA (but not in ArrB) as well as a putative anaerobic transcription factor binding site upstream of arrA, suggesting that the respiratory As(V) reductase is exported to the periplasm via the Tat pathway and under anaerobic transcriptional control. These genes appear to define a new class of reductases that are specific for respiratory As(V) reduction.
Project description:Microbial arsenate respiration contributes to the mobilization of arsenic from the solid to the soluble phase in various locales worldwide. To begin to predict the extent to which As(V) respiration impacts arsenic geochemical cycling, we characterized the expression and activity of the Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 arsenate respiratory reductase (ARR), the key enzyme involved in this metabolism. ARR is expressed at the beginning of the exponential phase and persists throughout the stationary phase, at which point it is released from the cell. In intact cells, the enzyme localizes to the periplasm. To purify ARR, a heterologous expression system was developed in Escherichia coli. ARR requires anaerobic conditions and molybdenum for activity. ARR is a heterodimer of approximately 131 kDa, composed of one ArrA subunit (approximately 95 kDa) and one ArrB subunit (approximately 27 kDa). For ARR to be functional, the two subunits must be expressed together. Elemental analysis of pure protein indicates that one Mo atom, four S atoms associated with a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor, and four to five [4Fe-4S] are present per ARR. ARR has an apparent melting temperature of 41 degrees C, a Km of 5 microM, and a Vmax of 11,111 micromol of As(V) reduced min(-1) mg of protein(-1) and shows no activity in the presence of alternative electron acceptors such as antimonite, nitrate, selenate, and sulfate. The development of a heterologous overexpression system for ARR will facilitate future structural and/or functional studies of this protein family.
Project description:Understanding bacterial physiology relies on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions of those differentially expressed genes in response to environmental changes. A widespread Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein OmpW has been implicated in the adaptation to stresses in various species. It is recently found to be present in the regulon of the global anaerobic transcription factor FNR and ArcA in Escherichia coli. However, little is known about the physiological implications of this regulatory disposition. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription of ompW is indeed mediated by a series of global regulators involved in the anaerobiosis of E. coli. We show that FNR can both activate and repress the expression of ompW through its direct binding to two distinctive sites, -81.5 and -126.5 bp respectively, on ompW promoter. ArcA also participates in repression of ompW under anaerobic condition, but in an FNR dependent manner. Additionally, ompW is also subject to the regulation by CRP and NarL which senses the availability and types of carbon sources and respiration electron acceptors in the environment respectively, implying a role of OmpW in the carbon and energy metabolism of E. coli during its anaerobic adaptation. Molecular docking reveals that OmpW can bind fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, with sufficient affinity. Moreover, supplement of fumarate or succinate which belongs to the C4-dicarboxylates family of metabolite, to E. coli culture rescues OmpW-mediated colicin S4 killing. Taken together, we propose that OmpW is involved in anaerobic carbon and energy metabolism to mediate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyle in E. coli.