Repetitive ischemia by coronary stenosis induces a novel window of ischemic preconditioning.
ABSTRACT: The hypothesis of the present study was that molecular mechanisms differ markedly when mediating ischemic preconditioning induced by repetitive episodes of ischemia versus classic first- or second-window preconditioning.To test this, chronically instrumented conscious pigs were subjected to either repetitive coronary stenosis (RCS) or a traditional protocol of second-window ischemic preconditioning (SWIPC). Lethal ischemia, induced by 60 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion, resulted in an infarct size/area at risk of 6+/-3% after RCS and 16+/-3% after SWIPC (both groups P<0.05, less than shams 42+/-4%). Two molecular signatures of SWIPC, the increased expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and the translocation of protein kinase Cepsilon to the plasma membrane, were observed with SWIPC but not with RCS. Confirming this, pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor prevented the protection conferred by SWIPC but not by RCS. Microarray analysis revealed a qualitatively different genomic profile of cardioprotection between ischemic preconditioning induced by RCS and that induced by SWIPC. The number of genes significantly regulated was greater in RCS (5739) than in SWIPC (2394) animals. Of the 5739 genes regulated in RCS, only 31% were also regulated in SWIPC. Broad categories of genes induced by RCS but not SWIPC included those involved in autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The upregulation of these pathways was confirmed by Western blotting.RCS induces cardioprotection against lethal myocardial ischemia that is at least as powerful as traditional ischemic preconditioning but is mediated through radically different mechanisms.
Project description:Ischemic preconditioning represents the most powerful mechanism of cardioprotection. The mechanisms mediating the second window of preconditioning (SWOP) differ from those mediating first window preconditioning. We hypothesized that chronic ischemia induced by repetitive ischemic stimuli would be mediated by yet different molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, conscious, chronically instrumented pigs (n=5/group) were submitted to a protocol of classical SWOP (two 10-min episodes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 24 hr reperfusion) and compared to pigs submitted to repetitive occlusion/reperfusion (RCO) by repeating 6 episodes of SWOP 12 hrs apart, and to a model of repetitive coronary stenosis (RCS), in which 6 episodes of 90 min coronary stenosis were performed 12 hrs apart. Microarray analysis was performed on the three models. There was an 85% homology in gene response between both models of RCO and RCS, whereas SWOP was qualitatively different. Both models of RCO and RCS but not SWOP showed a down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative metabolism, and an up-regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis and unfolded protein response, autophagy, heat shock response, protein secretion, and a strong activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Two thirds of the genes regulated in the three models showed a gradual pattern of up- or down-regulation, in which RCO was quantitatively intermediary between RCS and SWOP. Therefore, the regulated genes in response to chronic, repetitive episodes of ischemia differ radically from classical first or second window preconditioning. Overall design: Four groups of pigs were used for the study, i.e., control (n=5), SWOP (n=5), RCO (n=5), and RCS (n=5). SWOP was induced by two episodes of 10 min coronary artery occlusion (CAO), each followed by 10 min coronary artery reperfusion (CAR). RCO was induced by the same stimulus as SWOP (two cycles of 10 min CAO and 10 min CAR), but repeated six times every 12 hrs. RCS was induced by 90 min low-flow ischemia repeated six times every 12 hrs.
Project description:Ischemic preconditioning represents the most powerful mechanism of cardioprotection. The mechanisms mediating the second window of preconditioning (SWOP) differ from those mediating first window preconditioning. We hypothesized that chronic ischemia induced by repetitive ischemic stimuli would be mediated by yet different molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, conscious, chronically instrumented pigs (n=5/group) were submitted to a protocol of classical SWOP (two 10-min episodes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 24 hr reperfusion) and compared to pigs submitted to repetitive occlusion/reperfusion (RCO) by repeating 6 episodes of SWOP 12 hrs apart, and to a model of repetitive coronary stenosis (RCS), in which 6 episodes of 90 min coronary stenosis were performed 12 hrs apart. Microarray analysis was performed on the three models. There was an 85% homology in gene response between both models of RCO and RCS, whereas SWOP was qualitatively different. Both models of RCO and RCS but not SWOP showed a down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative metabolism, and an up-regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis and unfolded protein response, autophagy, heat shock response, protein secretion, and a strong activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Two thirds of the genes regulated in the three models showed a gradual pattern of up- or down-regulation, in which RCO was quantitatively intermediary between RCS and SWOP. Therefore, the regulated genes in response to chronic, repetitive episodes of ischemia differ radically from classical first or second window preconditioning. Four groups of pigs were used for the study, i.e., control (n=5), SWOP (n=5), RCO (n=5), and RCS (n=5). SWOP was induced by two episodes of 10 min coronary artery occlusion (CAO), each followed by 10 min coronary artery reperfusion (CAR). RCO was induced by the same stimulus as SWOP (two cycles of 10 min CAO and 10 min CAR), but repeated six times every 12 hrs. RCS was induced by 90 min low-flow ischemia repeated six times every 12 hrs.
Project description:A major difference between experimental ischemic preconditioning (IPC), induced by brief ischemic episodes, and the clinical situation is that patients generally have repetitive episodes of ischemia. We used a swine model to examine differences in genes regulated by classical second-window IPC (SWOP) [two 10-min episodes of coronary artery occlusion (CAO) followed by 24 h reperfusion] compared with repetitive CAO/reperfusion (RCO), i.e., two 10-min CAO 12 h apart, and to repetitive coronary stenosis (RCS), six episodes of 90 min coronary stenosis 12 h apart (n = 5/group). All three models reduced infarct size by 60-85%, which was mediated by nitric oxide in SWOP but not in the other two models. We employed microarray analyses to discover additional molecular pathways intrinsic to models of repetitive ischemia and different from classical SWOP. There was an 85% homology in gene response between the RCO and RCS models, whereas SWOP was qualitatively different. Both RCO and RCS, but not SWOP, showed downregulation of genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative metabolism and upregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis, unfolded protein response, autophagy, heat shock response, protein secretion, and an activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Therefore, the regulated genes mediating IPC with repetitive ischemia differ radically from SWOP both quantitatively and qualitatively, showing that a repetitive pattern of ischemia, rather than the difference between no-flow vs. low-flow ischemia, dictates the genomic response of the heart. These findings illustrate new cardioprotective mechanisms developed by repetitive IPC, which are potentially more relevant to patients with chronic ischemic heart disease, who are subjected to repetitive episodes of ischemia.
Project description:Recently we described an ischemic preconditioning induced by repetitive coronary stenosis, which is induced by 6 episodes of non-lethal ischemia over 3 days, and which also resembles the hibernating myocardium phenotype. When compared with traditional second window of ischemic preconditioning using cDNA microarrays, many genes which differed in the repetitive coronary stenosis appeared targeted to metabolism. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to provide a more in depth analysis of changes in metabolism in the different models of delayed preconditioning, i.e., second window and repetitive coronary stenosis. This was accomplished using a metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Myocardial samples from the ischemic section of porcine hearts subjected to both models of late preconditioning were compared against sham controls. Interestingly, although both models involve delayed preconditioning, their metabolic signatures were radically different; of the total number of metabolites that changed in both models (135 metabolites) only 7 changed in both models, and significantly more, p<0.01, were altered in the repetitive coronary stenosis (40%) than in the second window (8.1%). The most significant changes observed were in energy metabolism, e.g., phosphocreatine was increased 4 fold and creatine kinase activity increased by 27.2%, a pattern opposite from heart failure, suggesting that the repetitive coronary stenosis and potentially hibernating myocardium have enhanced stress resistance capabilities. The improved energy metabolism could also be a key mechanism contributing to the cardioprotection observed in the repetitive coronary stenosis and in hibernating myocardium. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism".
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether ischemia-reperfusion increased the content of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) transcripts and (2) whether myocardial content of Hsp72 is increased by ischemic preconditioning so that they can be considered as end effectors of preconditioning. Twelve male minipigs (8 protocol, 4 sham) were used, with the following ischemic preconditioning protocol: 3 ischemia and reperfusion 5-minute alternative cycles and last reperfusion cycle of 3 hours. Initial and final transmural biopsies (both in healthy and ischemic areas) were taken in all animals. Heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was measured by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using complementary DNA normalized against the housekeeping gene cyclophilin. The identification of heat shock protein 72 was performed by immunoblot. In our "classic" preconditioning model, we found no changes in mRNA hsp72 levels or heat shock protein 72 content in the myocardium after 3 hours of reperfusion. Our experimental model is valid and the experimental techniques are appropriate, but the induction of heat shock proteins 72 as end effectors of cardioprotection in ischemic preconditioning does not occur in the first hours after ischemia, but probably at least 24 hours after it, in the so-called "second protection window."
Project description:Adenosine is a powerful trigger for ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Myocardial ischemia induces intracellular and extracellular ATP degradation to adenosine, which then activates adenosine receptors and elicits cardioprotection. Conventionally extracellular adenosine formation by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) during ischemia was thought to be negligible compared to the massive intracellular production, but controversial reports in the past demand further evaluation. In this study we evaluated the relevance of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) for infarct size reduction by ischemic preconditioning in in vitro and in vivo mouse models of myocardial infarction, comparing CD73-/- and wild type (WT) mice.3x5 minutes of IPC induced equal cardioprotection in isolated saline perfused hearts of wild type (WT) and CD73-/- mice, reducing control infarct sizes after 20 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion from 46 ± 6.3% (WT) and 56.1 ± 7.6% (CD73-/-) to 26.8 ± 4.7% (WT) and 25.6 ± 4.7% (CD73-/-). Coronary venous adenosine levels measured after IPC stimuli by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed no differences between WT and CD73-/- hearts. Pharmacological preconditioning of WT hearts with adenosine, given at the measured venous concentration, was evenly cardioprotective as conventional IPC. In vivo, 4x5 minutes of IPC reduced control infarct sizes of 45.3 ± 8.9% (WT) and 40.5 ± 8% (CD73-/-) to 26.3 ± 8% (WT) and 22.6 ± 6.6% (CD73-/-) respectively, eliciting again equal cardioprotection. The extent of IPC-induced cardioprotection in male and female mice was identical.The infarct size limiting effects of IPC in the mouse heart in vitro and in vivo are not significantly affected by genetic inactivation of CD73. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase derived extracellular formation of adenosine does not contribute substantially to adenosine's well known cardioprotective effect in early phase ischemic preconditioning.
Project description:Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) maintains connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation and reduces chemical gap junction (GJ) coupling in cardiomyocytes to protect against ischemic damage. However, the signal transduction pathways underlying these effects are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) and protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) contribute to IPC-induced cardioprotection by maintaining Cx43 phosphorylation and inhibiting chemical GJ coupling. IPC reduced ischemia-induced myocardial infarction and increased cardiomyocyte survival; phosphorylated Cx43, eNOS, and PKC-ε levels; and chemical GJ uncoupling. Administration of the NO donor SNAP mimicked the effects of IPC both in vivo and in vitro, maintaining Cx43 phosphorylation, promoting chemical GJ uncoupling, and reducing myocardial infarction. Preincubation with the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME or PKC-ε translocation inhibitory peptide (PKC-ε-TIP) abolished these effects of IPC. Additionally, by inducing NO production, IPC induced translocation of PKC-ε, but not PKC-δ, from the cytosolic to the membrane fraction in primary cardiac myocytes. IPC-induced cardioprotection thus involves increased NO production, PKC-ε translocation, Cx43 phosphorylation, and chemical GJ uncoupling.
Project description:Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is a human incretin hormone responsible for the release of insulin in response to food. Pre-clinical and human physiological studies have demonstrated cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. It can reduce infarct size, ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, and myocardial stunning. GLP-1 receptor agonists have also been shown to reduce infarct size in myocardial infarction. The mechanism through which this protection occurs is uncertain but may include hijacking the subcellular pathways of ischemic preconditioning, modulation of myocardial metabolism, and hemodynamic effects including peripheral, pulmonary, and coronary vasodilatation. This review will assess the evidence for each of these mechanisms in turn. Challenges remain in successfully translating cardioprotective interventions from bench-to-bedside. The window of cardioprotection is short and timing of cardioprotection in the appropriate clinical setting is critically important. We will emphasize the need for high-quality, well-designed research to evaluate GLP-1 as a cardioprotective agent for use in real-world practice.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardioprotection, and recent work from our group and others has implicated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) as a critical component of NO-mediated protection in different models, including ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and sex-dependent cardioprotection. However, studies have yet to examine whether protein SNO levels are similarly increased with pharmacologic preconditioning in male and female hearts, and whether an increase in protein SNO levels, which is protective in male hearts, is sufficient to increase baseline protection in female hearts. Therefore, we pharmacologically preconditioned male and female hearts with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclohexyl adenosine (CHA). CHA administration prior to ischemia significantly improved functional recovery in both male and female hearts compared to baseline in a Langendorff-perfused heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (% of preischemic function ± SE: male baseline: 37.5±3.4% vs. male CHA: 55.3±3.2%; female baseline: 61.4±5.7% vs. female CHA: 76.0±6.2%). In a separate set of hearts, we found that CHA increased p-Akt and p-eNOS levels. We also used SNO-resin-assisted capture with LC-MS/MS to identify SNO proteins in male and female hearts, and determined that CHA perfusion induced a modest increase in protein SNO levels in both male (11.4%) and female (12.3%) hearts compared to baseline. These findings support a potential role for protein SNO in a model of pharmacologic preconditioning, and provide evidence to suggest that a modest increase in protein SNO levels is sufficient to protect both male and female hearts from ischemic injury. In addition, a number of the SNO proteins identified with CHA treatment were also observed with other forms of cardioprotective stimuli in prior studies, further supporting a role for protein SNO in cardioprotection.
Project description:Cardiomyocytes can resist ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) which is repetitive ischemia induced during the onset of reperfusion. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning up-regulated protein 2 (MIP2) is a member of the WD-40 family proteins, we previously showed that MIP2 was up-regulated during ischemic preconditioning (IPC). As IPC and IPoC engaged similar molecular mechanisms in cardioprotection, this study aimed to elucidate whether MIP2 was up-regulated during IPoC and contributed to IPoC-mediated protection against I/R injury. The experiment was conducted on two models, an in vivo open chest rat coronary artery occlusion model and an in vitro model with H9c2 myogenic cells. In both models, 3 groups were constituted and randomly designated as the sham, I/R and IPoC/hypoxia postconditioning (HPoC) groups. In the IPoC group, after 45 min of ischemia, hearts were allowed three cycles of reperfusion/ischemia phases (each of 30 s duration) followed by reperfusion. In the HPoC group, after 6 h of hypoxia, H9c2 cells were subjected to three cycles of 10 minute reoxygenation and 10 minute hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. IPoC significantly reduced the infarct size, plasma level of Lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB in rats. 12 h after the reperfusion, MIP2 mRNA levels in the IPoC group were 10 folds that of the sham group and 1.4 folds that of the I/R group. Increased expression of MIP2 mRNA and attenuation of apoptosis were similarly observed in the HPoC group in the in vitro model. These effects were blunted by transfection with MIP2 siRNA in the H9c2 cells. This study demonstrated that IPoC induced protection was associated with increased expression of MIP2. Both MIP2 overexpression and MIP2 suppression can influence the IPoC induced protection.