Structural origins for the product specificity of SET domain protein methyltransferases.
ABSTRACT: SET domain protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) regulate transcription and other cellular functions through site-specific methylation of histones and other substrates. PKMTs catalyze the formation of monomethylated, dimethylated, or trimethylated products, establishing an additional hierarchy with respect to methyllysine recognition in signaling. Biochemical studies of PKMTs have identified a conserved position within their active sites, the Phe/Tyr switch, that governs their respective product specificities. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this switch, we have characterized a Phe/Tyr switch mutant of the histone H4 Lys-20 (H4K20) methyltransferase SET8, which alters its specificity from a monomethyltransferase to a dimethyltransferase. The crystal structures of the SET8 Y334F mutant bound to histone H4 peptides bearing unmodified, monomethyl, and dimethyl Lys-20 reveal that the phenylalanine substitution attenuates hydrogen bonding to a structurally conserved water molecule adjacent to the Phe/Tyr switch, facilitating its dissociation. The additional space generated by the solvent's dissociation enables the monomethyllysyl side chain to adopt a conformation that is catalytically competent for dimethylation and furnishes sufficient volume to accommodate the dimethyl epsilon-ammonium product. Collectively, these results indicate that the Phe/Tyr switch regulates product specificity through altering the affinity of an active-site water molecule whose dissociation is required for lysine multiple methylation.
Project description:Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examples is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the ?-amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs.
Project description:SET8 (also known as PR-SET7) is a histone H4-Lys-20-specific methyltransferase that is implicated in cell-cycle-dependent transcriptional silencing and mitotic regulation in metazoans. Herein we report the crystal structure of human SET8 (hSET8) bound to a histone H4 peptide bearing Lys-20 and the product cofactor S-adenosylhomocysteine. Histone H4 intercalates in the substrate-binding cleft as an extended parallel beta-strand. Residues preceding Lys-20 in H4 engage in an extensive array of salt bridge, hydrogen bond, and van der Waals interactions with hSET8, while the C-terminal residues bind through predominantly hydrophobic interactions. Mutational analysis of both the substrate-binding cleft and histone H4 reveals that interactions with residues in the N and C termini of the H4 peptide are critical for conferring substrate specificity. Finally, analysis of the product specificity indicates that hSET8 is a monomethylase, consistent with its role in the maintenance of Lys-20 monomethylation during cell division.
Project description:Methylation of certain lysine residues in the N-terminal tails of core histone proteins in nucleosome is of fundamental importance in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Such histone modification is catalyzed by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs). PKMTs contain a conserved SET domain in almost all of the cases and may transfer one to three methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the epsilon-amino group of the target lysine residue. Here, quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics and free-energy simulations are performed on human PKMT SET7/9 and its mutants to understand two outstanding questions for the reaction catalyzed by PKMTs: the mechanism for deprotonation of positively charged methyl lysine (lysine) and origin of product specificity. The results of the simulations suggest that Tyr-335 (an absolute conserved residue in PKMTs) may play the role as the general base for the deprotonation after dissociation of AdoHcy (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine) and before binding of AdoMet. It is shown that conformational changes could bring Y335 to the target methyl lysine (lysine) for proton abstraction. This mechanism provides an explanation why methyl transfers could be catalyzed by PKMTs processively. The free-energy profiles for methyl transfers are reported and analyzed for wild type and certain mutants (Y305F and Y335F) and the active-site interactions that are of importance for the enzyme's function are discussed. The results of the simulations provide important insights into the catalytic process and lead to a better understanding of experimental observations concerning the origin of product specificity for PKMTs.
Project description:Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, and Trithorax (SET) domain-containing protein 8 (SET8) is the sole enzyme that monomethylates Lys-20 of histone H4 (H4K20). SET8 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, the cell cycle, and senescence. SET8 quickly undergoes ubiquitination and degradation by several E3 ubiquitin ligases; however, the enzyme that deubiquitinates SET8 has not yet been identified. Here we demonstrated that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 17-like family member (USP17) deubiquitinates and therefore stabilizes the SET8 protein. We observed that USP17 interacts with SET8 and removes polyubiquitin chains from SET8. USP17 knockdown not only decreased SET8 protein levels and H4K20 monomethylation but also increased the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. As a consequence, USP17 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. We noted that USP17 was down-regulated in replicative senescence and that USP17 inhibition alone was sufficient to trigger cellular senescence. These results reveal a regulatory mechanism whereby USP17 prevents cellular senescence by removing ubiquitin marks from and stabilizing SET8 and transcriptionally repressing p21.
Project description:We have previously shown that an antigenic site in native lysozyme resides around the disulphide bridge 30-115 and incorporates Lys-33 and Lys-116 and one or both of Tyr-20 and Tyr-23. These residues fall in an imaginary line circumscribing part of the surface of the molecule and passing through the spatially adjacent residues Tyr-20, Arg-21, Tyr-23, Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34 and Lys-33. The identity of the site was confirmed by demonstrating that the synthetic peptide Tyr-Arg-Tyr-Gly-Lys-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Lys (which does not exist in lysozyme but simulates a surface region of it), and an analogue in which glycine replaced Tyr-23, possessed remarkable immuno-chemical reactivity that accounted entirely for the expected reactivity of the site in native lysozyme. Tyr-23 is not part of the site, and its contribution was satisfied by a glycine spacer. The novel approach presents a powerful technique for the delineation of antigenic (and other binding) sites in native proteins and confirms that these need not always comprise residues in direct peptide linkage.
Project description:Head-to-tail cyclized analogues of the ? opioid receptor (MOR) agonist tetrapeptides DALDA (H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 and [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and their enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized in vitro. Three pairs of enantiomeric cyclic peptides with both mirror-image isomers having equipotent MOR binding affinities but different binding affinities at the ? and ? opioid receptors were identified. The cyclic peptide enantiomers c[-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-Tyr-] (1) and c[-Arg-D-Phe-D-Lys-D-Tyr-] (2) showed nearly identical MOR binding affinity (1 - 2 nM) and equipotent MOR antagonist activity. The results of a MOR docking study indicated a very similar binding mode of the two enantiomers with nearly complete spatial overlap of the peptide ring structures and side chain interactions with the same MOR residues. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first pair of enantiomeric G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands having multiple chiral centers, with both optical antipodes showing equal, low nanomolar receptor binding affinity.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:1. Previous reports from this laboratory have shown that both Lys-33 and Lys-116 are parts of an antigenic site in native lysozyme. Similar studies of tyrosine derivatives indicated that one or both of Tyr-20 and Tyr-23 are located in or very close to an antigenic site in lysozyme. The site, which was located around the disulphide bridge 30-115, was recently shown unequivocally to include the residues Tyr-20, Arg-21, Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34 and Lys-33. This was confirmed by the ;surface-simulation' synthetic approach that we have recently developed, in which the foregoing eight surface residues were directly linked via peptide bonds, with intervening spacers where appropriate, into a single peptide. The peptide does not exist in native lysozyme, but simulates a surface region of it. 2. In the present work several surface-simulation peptides were synthesized representing various parts of the region, to determine the minimum structural feature that retains full antigenic reactivity and to investigate if the spatially constructed antigenic site has a preferred direction. 3. The peptide Lys-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Lys exhibited a remarkable inhibitory activity towards the immune reaction of lysozyme and accounted entirely for the maximum expected reactivity of the site in the native protein (i.e. about one-third of the total lysozyme reactivity). An immunoadsorbent of the peptide bound about one-third of the total antibody to lysozyme. 4. The residues Tyr-20 and Arg-21 are not part of the site. The previously reported immunochemical effect observed on nitration of Tyr-20 was due to a deleterious ionic effect exerted by the modified tyrosine residue on the adjacent Lys-96, which is in an entirely different antigenic site of lysozyme. Thus the modification of Tyr-20 impairs the reactivity of an adjacent antigenic site, even though the residue itself is not part of a site. The conformational and immunochemical implications of this finding are discussed. 5. The antigenic site therefore comprises the five spatially adjacent residues Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34, Lys-33. The antigenic site exhibited a preferred direction (Lys-116 to Lys-33), since the reverse surface-simulation synthetic sequence was immunochemically inefficient. The site describes a line which circumscribes part [2.1nm in C((alpha))-C((alpha)) distance from Lys-116 to Lys-33] of the surface of the molecule.
Project description:Based on the promising opioid pharmacological profile of the peptide, Tyr-Pro-Trp-Gly-NH(2) (Tyr-W-MIF), Zadina et al. [Zadina, J.E., Hackler, L., Ge, L.-J., Kastin, A.J., 1997. A potent and selective endogenous agonist for the mu-opiate receptor. Nature 386, 499-5502] synthesized and screened other Gly(4)-substituted peptides, culminating in the synthesis of Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2) (endomorphin-1), which displayed high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. The amidated peptide was then isolated from bovine brain frontal cortex, as was a related peptide, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2) (endomorphin-2), that displayed similar high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. The biosynthesis of the endomorphins in the brain remains obscure, since the putative precursor proteins for the peptides have not been identified. With the completion of the human genome sequencing project, we hypothesized that we should uncover the biological precursors of the peptides using a bioinformatic approach to search the current human proteome for proteins that contained the endomorphin peptide sequences followed by Gly-Lys/Arg, the consensus sequence for peptide alpha-amidation and precursor cleavage. Twelve proteins were identified that contained the endomorphin-1 Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe sequence, however none contained the Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-Gly sequence necessary for alpha-amidation. Twenty-two distinct proteins contained the endomorphin-2 tetrapeptide sequence, and two of those contained the sequence, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-Gly, however, none contained the requisite peptide-Gly-Lys/Arg sequence. Western blot analysis using an endomorphin-2 antibody detected 4 prominent proteins in mouse brain, necessitating reinterpretation of previous immunocytolocalization studies in the brain. Screening of the current human proteome yielded no evidence for endomorphin precursor proteins based on accepted biochemical criteria.
Project description:The known amino acid sequences at the two sites on phosphorylase kinase that are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were extended. The sequences of 42 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the alpha-subunit and of 14 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the beta-subunit were shown to be: alpha-subunit Phe-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ile-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Glx-Pro-Asx-Gly-Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Asp-Leu-Met-Ser-Pro-Ser-Phe-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-Thr-Ser-Val-Phe(Ser,Pro,Gly)His-Thr-Ser-Lys; beta-subunit, Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Ser(P)-VALIle-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Leu-Lys. The sites on histone H2B which are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro were identified as serine-36 and serine-32. The amino acid sequence in this region is: Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Ser32(P)-Arg-Lys-Glu-Ser36(P)-Tyr-Ser-Val-Tyr-Val- [Iwai, K., Ishikawa, K. & Hayashi, H. (1970) Nature (London) 226, 1056-1058]. Serine-36 was phosphorylated at 50% of the rate at which the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase was phosphorylated, and it was phosphorylated 6-7-fold more rapidly than was serine-32. The amino acid sequences when compared with those at the phosphorylation sites of other physiological substrates suggest that the presence of two adjacent basic amino acids on the N-terminal side of the susceptible serine residue may be critical for specific substrate recognition in vivo.