The APC/C maintains the spindle assembly checkpoint by targeting Cdc20 for destruction.
ABSTRACT: The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the essential APC/C activator Cdc20. It is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Here we show that most Cdc20 is not in a complex with Mad2; instead Mad2 is required for Cdc20 to form a complex with another checkpoint protein, BubR1. We further show that during the SAC, the APC/C ubiquitylates Cdc20 to target it for degradation. Thus, ubiquitylation of human Cdc20 is not required to release it from the checkpoint complex, but to degrade it to maintain mitotic arrest.
Project description:To prevent aneuploidy, cells require a mitotic surveillance mechanism, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The SAC prevents metaphase/anaphase transition by blocking the ubiquitylation and destruction of cyclin B and securin via the Cdc20-activated anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C)-mediated proteolysis pathway. This checkpoint involves the kinetochore proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Cdc20. Mad2 and BubR1 are inhibitors of the APC/C, but Cdc20 is an activator. Exactly how the SAC regulates Cdc20 via unattached kinetochores remains unclear; in vertebrates, most current models suggest that kinetochore-bound Mad2 is required for initial binding to Cdc20 to form a stable complex that includes BubR1. Here, we show that the Mad2 kinetochore dimerization recruitment mechanism is conserved and that the recruitment of Cdc20 to kinetochores in Drosophila requires BubR1 but not Mad2. BubR1 and Mad2 can bind to Cdc20 independently, and the interactions are enhanced after cells are arrested at mitosis by the depletion of Cdc27 using RNA interference (RNAi) in S2 cells or by MG132 treatment in syncytial embryos. These findings offer an explanation of why BubR1 is more important than Mad2 for SAC function in flies. These findings could lead to a better understanding of vertebrate SAC mechanisms.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays progression into anaphase until all chromosomes have aligned on the metaphase plate by inhibiting Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C. Mad2 and BubR1 bind and inhibit Cdc20, thereby forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which can bind stably to the APC/C. Whether MCC formation per se is sufficient for a functional SAC or MCC association with the APC/C is required remains unclear. Here, we analyze the role of two conserved motifs in Cdc20, IR and C-Box, in binding of the MCC to the APC/C. Mutants in both motifs assemble the MCC normally, but IR motif integrity is particularly important for stable binding to the APC/C. Cells expressing Cdc20 with a mutated IR motif have a compromised SAC, as uninhibited Cdc20 can compete with the MCC for APC/C binding and activate it. We thus show that stable MCC association with the APC/C is critical for a functional SAC.
Project description:The mitotic checkpoint system ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis by preventing premature initiation of anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle is reached. It promotes the assembly of a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and Mad2, which inhibits the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. When the checkpoint is satisfied, anaphase is initiated by the disassembly of MCC. Previous studies indicated that the dissociation of APC/C-bound MCC requires ubiquitylation and suggested that the target of ubiquitylation is the Cdc20 component of MCC. However, it remained unknown how ubiquitylation causes the release of MCC from APC/C and its disassembly and whether ubiquitylation of additional proteins is involved in this process. We find that ubiquitylation causes the dissociation of BubR1 from Cdc20 in MCC and suggest that this may lead to the release of MCC components from APC/C. BubR1 in MCC is ubiquitylated by APC/C, although to a lesser degree than Cdc20. The extent of BubR1 ubiquitylation was markedly increased in recombinant MCC that contained a lysine-less mutant of Cdc20. Mutation of lysine residues to arginines in the N-terminal region of BubR1 partially inhibited its ubiquitylation and slowed down the release of MCC from APC/C, provided that Cdc20 ubiquitylation was also blocked. It is suggested that ubiquitylation of both Cdc20 and BubR1 may be involved in their dissociation from each other and in the release of MCC components from APC/C.
Project description:The fidelity of chromosome segregation depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). In the presence of unattached kinetochores, anaphase is delayed when three SAC components (Mad2, Mad3/BubR1, and Bub3) inhibit Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). We analyzed the role of Cdc20 autoubiquitination in the SAC of budding yeast. Reconstitution with purified components revealed that a Mad3-Bub3 complex synergizes with Mad2 to lock Cdc20 on the APC/C and stimulate Cdc20 autoubiquitination, while inhibiting ubiquitination of substrates. SAC-dependent Cdc20 autoubiquitination required the Mnd2/Apc15 subunit of the APC/C. General inhibition of Cdc20 ubiquitination in vivo resulted in high Cdc20 levels and a failure to establish a SAC arrest, suggesting that SAC establishment depends on low Cdc20 levels. Specific inhibition of SAC-dependent ubiquitination, by deletion of Mnd2, allowed establishment of a SAC arrest but delayed release from the arrest, suggesting that Cdc20 ubiquitination is also required for SAC inactivation.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis by delaying the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores. The Mad2 protein is essential for a functional checkpoint because it binds directly to Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C, thereby inhibiting progression into anaphase. Mad2 exists in at least 2 different conformations, open-Mad2 (O-Mad2) and closed-Mad2 (C-Mad2), with the latter representing the active form that is able to bind Cdc20. Our ability to dissect Mad2 biology in vivo is limited by the absence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) useful for recognizing the different conformations of Mad2. Here, we describe and extensively characterize mAbs specific for either O-Mad2 or C-Mad2, as well as a pan-Mad2 antibody, and use these to investigate the different Mad2 complexes present in mitotic cells. Our antibodies validate current Mad2 models but also suggest that O-Mad2 can associate with checkpoint complexes, most likely through dimerization with C-Mad2. Furthermore, we investigate the makeup of checkpoint complexes bound to the APC/C, which indicate the presence of both Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 and Mad2-Cdc20-BubR1-Bub3 complexes, with Cdc20 being ubiquitinated in both. Thus, our defined mAbs provide insight into checkpoint signaling and provide useful tools for future research on Mad2 function and regulation.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) bound to CDC20 (APC/C(CDC20)) initiates anaphase by ubiquitylating B-type cyclins and securin. During chromosome bi-orientation, CDC20 assembles with MAD2, BUBR1 and BUB3 into a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) that inhibits substrate recruitment to the APC/C. APC/C activation depends on MCC disassembly, which was proposed to require CDC20 autoubiquitylation. Here we characterize APC15, a human APC/C subunit related to yeast Mnd2. APC15 is located near APC/C's MCC binding site; it is required for APC/C-bound MCC (APC/C(MCC))-dependent CDC20 autoubiquitylation and degradation and for timely anaphase initiation but is dispensable for substrate ubiquitylation by APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1). Our results support the model wherein MCC is continuously assembled and disassembled to enable rapid activation of APC/C(CDC20) and CDC20 autoubiquitylation promotes MCC disassembly. We propose that APC15 and Mnd2 negatively regulate APC/C coactivators and report generation of recombinant human APC/C.
Project description:To guarantee genomic integrity and viability, the cell must ensure proper distribution of the replicated chromosomes among the two daughter cells in mitosis.The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a central regulatory mechanism to achieve this goal. A dysfunction of this checkpoint may lead to aneuploidy and likely contributes to the development of cancer. Kinetochores of unattached or misaligned chromosomes are thought to generate a diffusible ''wait-anaphase'' signal, which is the basis for downstream events to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The rate of Cdc20:C-Mad2 complex formation at the kinetochore is a key regulatory factor in the context of APC/C inhibition. Computer simulations of a quantitative SAC model show that the formation of Cdc20:C-Mad2 is too slow for checkpoint maintenance when cytosolic O-Mad2 has to encounter kinetochores by diffusion alone. Here, we show that an active transport of O-Mad2 towards the spindle mid-zone increases the efficiency of Mad2-activation. Our data indicate that this mechanism can greatly enhance the formation of Cdc20:Mad2 and furthermore gives an explanation on how the ''wait-anaphase'' signal can dissolve abruptly within a short time. Our results help to understand parts of the SAC mechanism that remain unclear.
Project description:Faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which monitors kinetochore attachment to the mitotic spindle. Unattached kinetochores generate mitotic checkpoint proteins complexes (MCCs) that bind and inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex, or cyclosome (APC/C). How the SAC proficiently inhibits the APC/C but still allows its rapid activation when the last kinetochore attaches to the spindle is important for the understanding of how cells maintain genomic stability. We show that the APC/C subunit APC15 is required for the turnover of the APC/C co-activator CDC20 and release of MCCs during SAC signalling but not for APC/C activity per se. In the absence of APC15, MCCs and ubiquitylated CDC20 remain 'locked' onto the APC/C, which prevents the ubiquitylation and degradation of cyclin B1 when the SAC is satisfied. We conclude that APC15 mediates the constant turnover of CDC20 and MCCs on the APC/C to allow the SAC to respond to the attachment state of kinetochores.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
Project description:Activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by Cdc20 is critical for the metaphase-anaphase transition. APC/C-Cdc20 is required for polyubiquitination and degradation of securin and cyclin B at anaphase onset. The spindle assembly checkpoint delays APC/C-Cdc20 activation until all kinetochores attach to mitotic spindles. In this study, we demonstrate that a HECT (homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus) ubiquitin ligase, Smurf2, is required for the spindle checkpoint. Smurf2 localizes to the centrosome, mitotic midbody, and centromeres. Smurf2 depletion or the expression of a catalytically inactive Smurf2 results in misaligned and lagging chromosomes, premature anaphase onset, and defective cytokinesis. Smurf2 inactivation prevents nocodazole-treated cells from accumulating cyclin B and securin and prometaphase arrest. The silencing of Cdc20 in Smurf2-depleted cells restores mitotic accumulation of cyclin B and securin. Smurf2 depletion results in enhanced polyubiquitination and degradation of Mad2, a critical checkpoint effector. Mad2 is mislocalized in Smurf2-depleted cells, suggesting that Smurf2 regulates the localization and stability of Mad2. These data indicate that Smurf2 is a novel mitotic regulator.