Depression and anxiety as major determinants of neck pain: a cross-sectional study in general practice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although psychosocial factors are known to be highly linked with neck pain, current therapies focus on somatically based interventions such as medicinal or manipulatory therapies. This study examines how socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical history and health-promoting lifestyle factors interact with neck pain in general practice patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey including 448 patients from a general practice setting in Germany. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire including the Neck Pain and Disability Scale German version (NPAD-d) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Crude and adjusted regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between neck pain and socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical history and health-promoting lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Both in crude and adjusted regression analyses, depression and anxiety were highly significantly linked with increasing levels of neck pain. Educational level, deficits in social support and physical exercise were associated with neck pain in bivariate analyses, but these associations did not persist with adjustment for depression and anxiety. When investigating levels of depression and anxiety by NPAD-d quartile subgroups, those who were identified to have depressive mood or to be anxious were very likely to be in the group with the highest levels of neck pain. CONCLUSION: The higher the neck pain level, the more attention should be paid to psychosocial distress as a related burden. Further research is needed to elucidate the causality and the direction of the association between psychosocial distress and neck pain and to determine the benefit of psychosocial interventions.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder. Pain is a major symptom of this disease which can be secondary to the development of plexiform and subcutaneous neurofibromas, musculoskeletal symptoms (such as scoliosis and pseudoarthrosis), and headaches. Visible neurofibromas add significant psychosocial distress for NF1 patients. Along with the chronic pain, psychosocial distress contributes to associated mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Cannabis has been the focus of many studies for treating multiple conditions, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsonism disease, and many chronic pain conditions. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotropic component of cannabis. CBD has shown anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, as well as having mood stabilizer and anxiolytic effects. In this report, we present the use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the management of chronic pain and concomitant mood disorder in an NF1 patient.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. RESULTS: Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79), the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83), the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66), and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65). Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71). However, 30-40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other depression scales more than the 4DSQ Depression scale. Measures of stress (i.e. life events, psychosocial problems, and work stress) were mainly associated with Distress, while Distress, in turn, was mainly associated with psychosocial dysfunctioning, including sick leave. CONCLUSION: The 4DSQ seems to be a valid self-report questionnaire to measure distress, depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care patients. The 4DSQ Distress scale appears to measure the most general, most common, expression of psychological problems.
Project description:PURPOSE:Given the complexities and risks of allogeneic HCT, patients and their family caregivers may experience elevated psychological distress, including symptoms of anxiety and depression, in anticipation of the procedure. Patients and caregivers also bring with them their pre-HCT experiences of diagnosis, prior treatment, and associated burdens, thus potentially compounding their acute distress. Identification of clinical, psychosocial, and sociodemographic factors related to pre-HCT distress would allow targeting of patients and caregivers who may require assistance during the HCT process. METHODS:Consecutive patients (n?=?111) and their caregivers (n?=?110) completed measures of anxiety, depression, cancer distress, perceived threat, perceived control, self-efficacy, relationship quality, and physical quality of life in the week before HCT. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with patient and caregiver anxiety or depression, including disease type, donor type, and patient and caregiver sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors. RESULTS:Family caregivers had higher levels of anxiety and depression symptoms than patients. Thirty percent of caregivers vs. 17% of patients met criteria for clinically significant anxiety and a lesser amount (5% for both) met criteria for clinically significant depression. Patient anxiety was related to younger age (b?=?-?0.22, p?=?0.005) and greater cancer-related distress (b?=?0.59, p?<?0.001), while caregiver anxiety was related to lower self-efficacy (b?=?-?0.19, p?=?0.011) and greater cancer-related distress (b?=?0.58, p?<?0.001). Similarly, patient depression was related to lower perceived control (b?=?-?0.17, p?=?0.050), greater cancer-related distress (b?=?0.34, p?=?0.005), and lower physical functioning (b?=?-?0.26, p?=?0.008), while caregiver depression was related to greater cancer-related distress (b?=?0.46, p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Family caregivers may be more emotionally vulnerable than patients before HCT and in need of additional assistance. Cancer-related distress was the strongest correlate of anxiety and depression in both patients and caregivers, suggesting that distress related to their cancer experience and its consequences plays a major role in their emotional functioning prior to HCT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and health indicators among Bolivian school teachers. DESIGN:School-based cross-sectional study. SETTING:Sixty randomly selected schools from rural (33) and urban (27) schools in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1062 school teachers were invited to participate, of which 597 answered the questionnaire (response 56.2%). EXPOSURE MEASURE:Psychosocial factors at work were explored through the short version of the Effort-Reward Questionnaire. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Health outcomes included self-rated overall health, mental distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire ≥5) and the 7-day prevalence of low back pain (LBP) as well as neck or shoulder pain (Nordic Questionnaire). Crude and adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs for each health outcome were calculated using logistic regression models. RESULTS:The median value for the effort-reward ratio was 0.91 (range: 0.3-2.3) with higher values for teachers from rural versus urban schools. Overall, about 43% of the teachers reported their overall health as fair or poor; 45% suffered mental distress, 17% reported LBP and 29% neck or shoulder pain. Prevalences were higher for teachers employed at rural schools compared with those at urban schools. After adjusting for potential confounders and school location, ERI was statistically significantly associated with fair/poor self-rated health (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9); mental distress (1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.1) and LBP (2.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.1). CONCLUSION:Our results indicate the urgent need to improve psychosocial working conditions among Bolivian school teachers, in order to promote their health and well-being.
Project description:Mindfulness, defined as purposively and nonjudgementally paying attention in the present moment, could be used within psychosocial interventions to reduce the distress associated with social anxiety and avoidance found in many skin conditions. However, little is known about the relationship between naturally occurring levels of mindfulness and distress in dermatology patients.To examine the relationship between mindfulness and psychosocial distress in a dermatological population. It was hypothesized that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with lower levels of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and skin shame, and with better quality of life.Adult dermatology outpatients (n = 120) from one hospital completed items assessing subjective severity, skin shame, fear of negative evaluation, anxiety and depression, quality of life, and levels of mindfulness.Considering depression, 14% reported mild, 5% moderate and 2·5% severe symptoms. For anxiety, 22% reported mild, 23% moderate and 6% severe symptoms. In addition, 33·4% reported clinically significant social anxiety. After controlling for subjective severity, mindfulness explained an additional 19% of the variance in depression, 39% in anxiety, 41% in social anxiety, 13% in skin shame and 6% in dermatological quality of life. One specific facet of mindfulness (acting with awareness) was found to be the most consistent predictor of distress.The findings indicate that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with lower distress. This suggests that facilitating mindfulness may be helpful in reducing distress in dermatology patients, and the use of mindfulness techniques warrants further investigation.
Project description:Distress tolerance, the degree to which one is able to cope with and endure negative emotional states, has been broadly applied to understand and treat a variety of health (including behavioral) problems, but little is known about its role in oral health care and specifically dental care-related fear and anxiety, making it a novel construct in the oral health care literature. This cross-sectional study examined distress tolerance as a possible predictor of dental fear and anxiety among a sample of adults with and without diagnoses of dental phobia, investigated possible differences in levels of distress tolerance between adults with and without dental phobia, and determined possible associations between distress tolerance and fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, and depression. Using 52 volunteers (n = 31, dental phobia group; n = 21, healthy comparison group), this investigation used self-report measures of distress tolerance, fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, dental fear, and depression. The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, a semi-structured interview, was used to assess for dental phobia and other psychological disorders. Distress tolerance significantly predicted dental fear and anxiety, even after controlling for age, sex, fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, and depression. In addition, the dental phobia group had lower distress tolerance than the healthy comparison group. Distress tolerance was significantly associated with fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, and depression. Findings indicate that low distress tolerance plays a unique and distinct role as a possible mechanism in the genesis of dental care-related fear and anxiety and phobia and may exacerbate the experience of other states, including fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity. Knowledge Transfer Statement: Results indicate that patients who have a lower ability to tolerate emotional and physical distress may have higher levels of dental care-related fear and anxiety and even dental phobia, as well as associated sequelae (e.g., avoidance of dental care). Treatment of highly fearful dental patients may helpfully include a focus on increasing distress tolerance.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC) on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck's multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders.
Project description:While brain stimulation techniques have been examined as treatment options for chronic tinnitus for many years, they have recently been extended to multimodal treatment approaches. As chronic tinnitus is often accompanied by comorbid muscular tension in the neck and back, we performed a one-arm pilot study to explore the feasibility of a new multimodal treatment approach. In detail, repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) of the back was performed before and after each session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the brain. Data of 41 patients were analyzed, all of which were treated with ten sessions of rTMS of the left prefrontal and left temporoparietal cortex followed by rPMS of the neck and back muscles. Tinnitus severity was measured using the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). Neck pain was assessed using the neck pain and disability scale (NPAD). The new treatment approach was feasible and well accepted by the majority of patients. However, the overall patient group did not improve significantly in either of the questionnaires. If patients were divided in different subgroups depending on whether they were suffering from neck pain or somatosensory tinnitus, explorative post-hoc tests suggested differential effects: patients with both neck pain and somatosensory tinnitus had better outcomes than patients without those conditions or with neck pain only. This was true for both the TQ and the NPAD. This effect was of transient nature though: the TQ score went back to its baseline level after a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Based on our results we recommend that in studies that investigate tinnitus treatments targeting somatosensory afferents patients should be stratified according to somatic co-morbidities and somatosensory influence on the tinnitus percept.www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02306447.
Project description:Many patients who attend an emergency department (ED) with chest pain receive a diagnosis of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), and often suffer poor psychological outcomes and continued pain. This study assessed the role of illness representations in explaining psychological distress and continued chest pain in patients attending an ED.ED NCCP patients (N = 138) completed measures assessing illness representations, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) at baseline, and chest pain at one month.Illness representations explained significant amounts of the variance in anxiety (Adj. R² = .38), depression (Adj. R² = .18) and mental QoL (Adj. R² = .36). A belief in psychological causes had the strongest associations with outcomes. At one month, 28.7% of participants reported experiencing frequent pain, 13.2% infrequent pain and 58.1% no pain. Anxiety, depression and poor QoL, but not illness representations, were associated with continued chest pain.The findings suggest that (i) continued chest pain is related to psychological distress and poor QoL, (ii) interventions should be aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving QoL and (iii) given the associations between perceived psychological causes and psychological distress/QoL, NCCP patients in the ED might benefit from psychological therapies to manage their chest pain.
Project description:PURPOSE:Head and neck surgeons are among the highest risk for COVID-19 exposure, which also brings great risk to their mental wellbeing. In this study, we aim to evaluate mental health symptoms among head and neck surgeons in Brazil surrounding the time it was declared the epicenter of the virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional, survey-based study evaluating burnout, anxiety, distress, and depression among head and neck surgeons in Brazil, assessed through the single-item Mini-Z burnout assessment, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS:163 physicians completed the survey (74.2% males). Anxiety, distress, burnout, and depression symptoms were reported in 74 (45.5%), 43 (26.3%), 24 (14.7%), and 26 (16.0%) physicians, respectively. On multivariable analysis, female physicians were more likely to report a positive screening for burnout compared to males (OR 2.88, CI [1.07-7.74]). Physicians 45 years or older were less likely to experience anxiety symptoms than those younger than 45 years (OR 0.40, CI [0.20-0.81]). Physicians with no self-reported prior psychiatric conditions were less likely to have symptoms of distress compared to those with such history (OR 0.11, CI [0.33-0.38]). CONCLUSION:Head and neck surgeons in Brazil reported symptoms of burnout, anxiety, distress and depression during our study period within the COVID-19 pandemic. Institutions should monitor these symptoms throughout the pandemic. Further study is required to assess the long-term implications for physician wellness.