Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC). The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge) and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes) as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico). Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. RESULTS: Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1%) and negative predictive value (82.2%), the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58) and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16). Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4%) and positive predictive value (40.1%) as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8) and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39). CONCLUSION: Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher adherence prevalence. Therefore, more research is needed before using this method in other contexts.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the extent to which different forms of summarising diagnostic test information influence general practitioners' ability to estimate disease probabilities. DESIGN:Controlled questionnaire study. SETTING:Three Swiss conferences in continuous medical education. PARTICIPANTS:263 general practitioners. INTERVENTION:Questionnaire with multiple choice questions about terms of test accuracy and a clinical vignette with the results of a diagnostic test described in three different ways (test result only, test result plus test sensitivity and specificity, test result plus the positive likelihood ratio presented in plain language). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Doctors' knowledge and application of terms of test accuracy and estimation of disease probability in the clinical vignette. RESULTS:The correct definitions for sensitivity and predictive value were chosen by 76% and 61% of the doctors respectively, but only 22% chose the correct answer for the post-test probability of a positive screening test. In the clinical vignette doctors given the test result only overestimated its diagnostic value (median attributed likelihood ratio (aLR)=9.0, against 2.54 reported in the literature). Providing the scan's sensitivity and specificity reduced the overestimation (median aLR=6.0) but to a lesser extent than simple wording of the likelihood ratio (median aLR=3.0). CONCLUSION:Most general practitioners recognised the correct definitions for sensitivity and positive predictive value but did not apply them correctly. Conveying test accuracy information in simple, non-technical language improved their ability to estimate disease probabilities accurately.
Project description:Nonadherence to treatment remains high among patients with musculoskeletal conditions with negative impact on the treatment outcomes, use of personal and cost of care. An active knowledge translation (KT) strategy may be an effective strategy to support practice change. The purpose of this study was to deliver a brief, interactive, multifaceted and targeted KT program to improve physiotherapist knowledge and confidence in performing adherence enhancing activities related to risk, barriers, assessment and interventions.We utilised a 2-phase approach in this KT project. Phase 1 involved the development of an adherence tool kit following a synthesis of the literature and an iterative process involving 47 end-users. Clinicians treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited from two Physiotherapy and Occupational therapy national conferences in Canada. The intervention, based on the acronym SIMPLE TIPS was tested on 51 physiotherapists in phase 2. A pre- and post-repeated measures design was used in Phase 2. Graham's knowledge-to-action cycle was used as the conceptual framework. Participants completed a pre-intervention assessment, took part in a 1-h educational session and completed a post-intervention assessment. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of evidence-based treatment adherence barriers, interventions and measures and confidence to perform evidence-based adherence practice activities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage), Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked tests.Barriers and facilitators of adherence were identified under three domains (therapist, patient, health system) in phase 1. Seventy percent of the participants completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that 46.8% of respondents explored barriers including the use of behaviour change strategies and 45.7% reported that they measured adherence but none reported the use of validated outcomes. A significant improvement in post-self-efficacy scores for the four adherence enhancing activities was observed immediately after the workshop.The use of a multi-modal KT intervention is feasible in an educational setting. A brief interactive educational session was successfully implemented using a toolkit and caused a significant increase in physiotherapists' knowledge and confidence at performing adherence enhancing activities in the very short-term. Further testing of SIMPLE TIPS on long-term adherence practices could help advance best practices specific to treatment adherence in MSK practice.
Project description:People with asthma who do not adhere to their maintenance medication may experience poorer asthma control and need more healthcare support than those who adhere. People (N?=?1010) aged 18-55 years with self-reported asthma, taking one or more asthma maintenance medication(s), from five European countries, participated in a survey using validated scales (Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS], Asthma Control Test™ [ACT], Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire [BMQ] and the Asthma Treatment Intrusiveness Questionnaire [ATIQ]). We performed a post hoc evaluation of adherence to maintenance medication, asthma control, beliefs about medication, preferences for once-daily vs. twice-daily asthma maintenance medication and treatment intrusiveness, using structural equation modelling to investigate the relationships between these factors. Most participants reported potential problems with asthma control (ACT?<?19: 76.8% [n?=?776]), low adherence (median MARS?=?3.40) and preferred once-daily medication (73.5% [n?=?742/1010]). Non-adherence was associated with worse asthma control (r?=?0.262 [P?<?0.001]) and a expressed preference for once-daily medication over a "twice daily medication that works slightly better" (test statistic [T]?=?2.970 [P?=?0.003]). Participants reporting non-adherence/preferring once-daily medication had negative beliefs about their treatment (BMQ necessity-concerns differential: r?=?0.437 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?6.886 [P?<?0.001]) and found medication intrusive (ATIQ: r?=?-0.422 [P?<?0.001]/T?=?2.689[P?=?0.007]). Structural equation modelling showed complex relationships between variables, including: (1) high concerns about treatment associated with increased perceived treatment intrusiveness and reduced adherence, which influenced asthma control; (2) high concerns about treatment and healthcare seeking behaviour, which were predictive of preferring twice-daily asthma medication. Concerns about medication and perceived treatment intrusiveness were predictive of poor adherence, and were associated with preference for once-daily asthma medication. Confirm the utility of the PAPA model and NCF in explaining nonadherence linked to poor asthma control.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH) is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common. The purpose of this study was to apply in-house prepared isoniazid (INH) urine test strips in a clinical setting, and identify predictors of positive test results in an adherence questionnaire in HIV-infected adults taking INH for prevention of TB. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adherence using a questionnaire and urine test strips for detection of INH metabolites at two hospitals in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Participants were aged at least 18 years, HIV positive, and receiving INH for prevention of tuberculosis disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses are used to identify factors relevant to adherence. RESULTS: 301 consecutive patients were recruited. 28% of participants had negative urine tests. 32 (37.2%, 95% CI25.4, 45.0) of the 86 patients who received INH from peripheral pharmacies said the pharmacy had run out of INH at some time, compared with central hospital pharmacies (p = 0.0001). In univariate analysis, a negative test was associated with self-reported missed INH doses (p = 0.043). Each 12-hour increment since last reported dose increased the likelihood of a negative test by 34% (p = 0.0007). Belief in INH safety was associated with a positive test (p = 0.021). In multivariate analysis, patients who believed INH is important for prevention of TB disease were more likely to be negative (p = 0.0086). CONCLUSION: Adequate drug availability at peripheral pharmacies remains an important intervention for TB prevention. Key questions may identify potentially non-adherent patients. In-house prepared urine tests strips are an effective and cheap method of objectively assessing INH adherence, and could be used an important tool in TB control programs.
Project description:Family history (FH) is used as a marker for inherited risk. Using FH for this purpose requires the FH to reflect true disease in the family. The aim was to analyse the concordance between young and middle-aged ischaemic stroke patients' reported FH of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with their parents' own reports.Ischaemic stroke patients aged 15-60 years and their eligible parents were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information of own CVD and FH of CVD was registered. Concordance between patients and parents was tested by kappa statistics, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Regression analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics associated with non-concordance of replies.There was no difference in response rate between fathers and mothers (P = 0.355). Both parents responded in 57 cases. Concordance between patient and parent reports was good, with kappa values ranging from 0.57 to 0.7. The patient-reported FH yielded positive predictive values of 75% or above and negative predictive values of 90% or higher. The positive likelihood ratios (LR+) were 10 or higher and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were generally 0.5 or lower. Interpretation regarding peripheral arterial disease was limited due to low parental prevalence. Higher age was associated with impaired concordance between patient and parent reports (odds ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.09; P = 0.020).The FH provided by young and middle-aged stroke patients is in good concordance with parental reports. FH is an adequate proxy to assess inherited risk of CVD in young stroke patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Opioid-related deaths continue to increase in North America, an epidemic that was initiated by high rates of opioid prescribing. We designed a multifaceted, theory-informed Opioid Self-Assessment (OSA) package, to increase adherence to the Canadian Opioid Guideline among family physicians. This study aimed to assess changes in Canadian family physicians' knowledge and practices after completing the OSA package. DESIGN:We conducted a mixed-method evaluation using a pre-test and post-test design that involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. SETTING:This research was conducted in the primary care setting in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:We recruited a purposive sample of nine family physicians in Ontario who use long-term opioid therapy to treat patients with chronic pain. INTERVENTIONS:The OSA package included four components: an online knowledge test, an online learning programme, a safe medication practice self-assessment questionnaire and chart audit with feedback. OUTCOME MEASURES:Our measures included changes in knowledge, opioid safety practices and physicians' perspectives on the OSA package. RESULTS:We found statistically significant improvements between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores at both baseline and 6-month follow-up. Physicians' scores improved significantly on five of the seven core characteristics of the practice self-assessment questionnaire. On the chart audits, we observed an improvement in patient education between baseline and 6?months. Qualitative interviews showed that participants appreciated embedded resources in the OSA package. The completion of the package stimulated identification of gaps or deficits in practice and served as a useful reminder to discuss risk and safety with patients. Participants described the chart review as helpful in prompting discussions with their patients, identifying deficits and strengths and a 'primary motivator' for project participation. CONCLUSIONS:The OSA package has the potential to improve medication safety practices in primary care related to opioid monitoring and adherence to current opioid guidelines.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of pain on travelling over speed bumps for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Secondary care surgical assessment unit at a district general hospital in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 101 patients aged 17-76 years referred to the on-call surgical team for assessment of possible appendicitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for pain over speed bumps in diagnosing appendicitis, with histological diagnosis of appendicitis as the reference standard. RESULTS: The analysis included 64 participants who had travelled over speed bumps on their journey to hospital. Of these, 34 had a confirmed histological diagnosis of appendicitis, 33 of whom reported increased pain over speed bumps. The sensitivity was 97% (95% confidence interval 85% to 100%), and the specificity was 30% (15% to 49%). The positive predictive value was 61% (47% to 74%), and the negative predictive value was 90% (56% to 100%). The likelihood ratios were 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8) for a positive test result and 0.1 (0.0 to 0.7) for a negative result. Speed bumps had a better sensitivity and negative likelihood ratio than did other clinical features assessed, including migration of pain and rebound tenderness. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of pain while travelling over speed bumps was associated with an increased likelihood of acute appendicitis. As a diagnostic variable, it compared favourably with other features commonly used in clinical assessment. Asking about speed bumps may contribute to clinical assessment and could be useful in telephone assessment of patients.
Project description:PURPOSE: To develop a predictive test for response and survival following neoadjuvant taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy for HER2-negative invasive breast cancer. METHODS: We developed a microarray-based gene expression test from pre-treatment tumor biopsies (310 patients) to predict favorable outcome based on estrogen receptor (ER) status,pathologic response to chemotherapy, 3-year disease outcomes, and sensitivity to endocrine therapy. Tumors were classified as treatment-sensitive if predicted to have pathologic response (and not resistance) to chemotherapy, or sensitive to endocrine therapy. We tested predictive accuracy, with 95% confidence interval (CI), for pathologic response (PPV, positive predictive value), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), and absolute risk reduction at median follow-up in 198 other patients. Independence from clinical-pathologic factors was assessed in a multivariate Cox regression analysis based on the likelihood ratio test. Other evaluable, published response predictors (genomic grade index (GGI), intrinsic subtype (PAM50), pCR predictor (DLDA30)) were compared. Neoadjuvant validation cohort of 198 HER2-negative breast cancer cases treated with taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy pre-operatively and endocrine therapy if ER-positive. Response was assessed at the end of neoadjuvant treatment and distant-relapse-free survival was followed for at least 3 years post-surgery.
Project description:PURPOSE: To develop a predictive test for response and survival following neoadjuvant taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy for HER2-negative invasive breast cancer. METHODS: We developed a microarray-based gene expression test from pre-treatment tumor biopsies (310 patients) to predict favorable outcome based on estrogen receptor (ER) status,pathologic response to chemotherapy, 3-year disease outcomes, and sensitivity to endocrine therapy. Tumors were classified as treatment-sensitive if predicted to have pathologic response (and not resistance) to chemotherapy, or sensitive to endocrine therapy. We tested predictive accuracy, with 95% confidence interval (CI), for pathologic response (PPV, positive predictive value), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), and absolute risk reduction at median follow-up in 198 other patients. Independence from clinical-pathologic factors was assessed in a multivariate Cox regression analysis based on the likelihood ratio test. Other evaluable, published response predictors (genomic grade index (GGI), intrinsic subtype (PAM50), pCR predictor (DLDA30)) were compared. Neoadjuvant study of 310 HER2-negative breast cancer cases treated with taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy pre-operatively and endocrine therapy if ER-positive. Response was assessed at the end of neoadjuvant treatment and distant-relapse-free survival was followed for at least 3 years post-surgery.
Project description:Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics.We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥ 60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses.A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD = 8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor's degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value < 0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value < 0.05). We found positive correlation between participants' global adherence and global knowledge (r = 0.487 and p-value < 0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants' global knowledge and adherence with age (r = -0.236, p-value < 0.001 and r = -0.211 and p-value < 0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r = -0.130, p-value < 0.001) was predicted.We concluded that patients with a higher level of knowledge are more adherent to their medications and that better understanding of socio-demographic factors has a clear influence on the level of knowledge and adherence to medications and thus contributes to the development of guidelines for treatment and may consequently lead to favourable clinical outcomes and savings of health care costs.