Proteomic analysis of protein tyrosine nitration after ischemia reperfusion injury: mitochondria as the major target.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO and its derivative, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), suppresses oxygen consumption by nitration of mitochondrial proteins after reperfusion. However, very few nitrated proteins are identified to date. In this paper, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in mouse heart by ligation and release of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Western blotting showed that tyrosine nitration was higher in I/R hearts. Nitrated proteins were identified by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 23 proteins were identified as being nitrated after I/R and 10 of them were from mitochondria. The nitrated mitochondrial proteins included 4 subunits from the oxidative phosphorylation system (the 24 and the 30 kDa subunits of complex I, the Rieske ISP of complex III, and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase), five enzymes in the matrix, and voltage-dependent anion channel. In purified complex I treated with ONOO(-), 3-NT was identified locating at the residue of Y247 of the 30 kDa subunit and the residues of Y47, Y53 of the 49 kDa subunit. In conclusion, I/R induced protein nitration and mitochondrial proteins were the major targets. Selective nitration of proteins from the oxidative phosphorylation system at the beginning of reperfusion may contribute to the suppression of oxygen consumption.
Project description:Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) exhibits a well-documented nitration activity in relation to proteins and lipids; however, the interaction of ONOO- with nucleic acids remains unknown in plants. The study uncovers RNA and mRNA nitration as an integral event in plant metabolism intensified during immune response. Using potato-avr/vr Phytophthora infestans systems and immunoassays we documented that potato immunity is accompanied by two waves of boosted ONOO- formation affecting guanine nucleotides embedded in RNA/mRNA and protein tyrosine residues. The early ONOO- generation was orchestrated with an elevated level of protein nitration and a huge accumulation of 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-G) in RNA and mRNA pools confirmed as a biomarker of nucleic acid nitration. Importantly, potato cells lacking ONOO- due to scavenger treatment and attacked by the avr pathogen exhibited a low level of 8-NO2-G in the mRNA pool correlated with reduced symptoms of programmed cell death (PCD). The second burst of ONOO- coincided both with an enhanced level of tyrosine-nitrated proteins identified as subtilisine-like proteases and diminished protease activity in cells surrounding the PCD zone. Nitration of both RNA/mRNA and proteins via NO/ONOO- may constitute a new metabolic switch in redox regulation of PCD, potentially limiting its range in potato immunity to avr P. infestans.
Project description:The nitric oxide-mediated actions are mostly due to cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation, but cGMP-independent mechanisms, such as tyrosine nitration, have been suggested as potential signaling pathways modulating the NO-induced responses. However, the mechanisms that lead to tyrosine nitration in platelets are poorly studied, and the protein targets of nitration have not been identified in these cells. Therefore, we have used the model of platelet adhesion to fibrinogen-coated plates to investigate the cGMP-independent mechanisms of the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) that leads to inhibition of platelet adhesion. SNP concentration-dependently inhibited platelet adhesion, as observed at 15-min and 60-min adhesion. Additionally, SNP markedly increased the cGMP levels, and the soluble guanylate inhibitor ODQ nearly abolished the SNP-mediated cGMP elevations in all experimental conditions used. Nevertheless, ODQ failed to affect the adhesion inhibition obtained with 1.0 mM SNP at 15 min. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase or peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenger epigallocatechin gallate significantly reversed the inhibition of platelet adhesion by SNP (1 mM, 15 min). Western blot analysis in SNP (1 mM, 15 min)-treated platelets showed a single tyrosine-nitrated protein with an apparent mass of approximately 105 kDa. Nanospray LC-MS/MS identified the human alpha-actinin 1 cytoskeletal isoform (P12814) as the protein contained in the nitrated SDS gel band. Thus, tyrosine nitration of alpha-actinin, through ONOO(-) formation, may be a key modulatory mechanism to control platelet adhesion.
Project description:Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI) can be found in all gluten containing cereals and are, therefore, ingredient of basic foods like bread or pasta. In the gut ATI can mediate innate immunity via activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on immune cells residing in the lamina propria, promoting intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal, inflammation. Inflammatory conditions can induce formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and, thereby, endogenous protein nitration in the body. Moreover, air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can cause exogenous protein nitration in the environment. Both reaction pathways may lead to the nitration of ATI. To investigate if and how nitration modulates the immunostimulatory properties of ATI, they were chemically modified by three different methods simulating endogenous and exogenous protein nitration and tested in vitro. Here we show that ATI nitration was achieved by all three methods and lead to increased immune reactions. We found that ATI nitrated by tetranitromethane (TNM) or ONOO- lead to a significantly enhanced TLR4 activation. Furthermore, in human primary immune cells, TNM nitrated ATI induced a significantly higher T cell proliferation and release of Th1 and Th2 cytokines compared to unmodified ATI. Our findings implicate a causative chain between nitration, enhanced TLR4 stimulation, and adaptive immune responses, providing major implications for public health, as nitrated ATI may strongly promote inhalative wheat allergies (baker's asthma), non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), other allergies, and autoimmune diseases. This underlines the importance of future work analyzing the relationship between endo- and exogenous protein nitration, and the rise in incidence of ATI-related and other food hypersensitivities.
Project description:The ascorbate-glutathione cycle is a metabolic pathway that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide and involves enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Proteomic studies have shown that some enzymes in this cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) are potential targets for post-translational modifications (PMTs) mediated by nitric oxide-derived molecules. Using purified recombinant pea peroxisomal MDAR and cytosolic and chloroplastic GR enzymes produced in Escherichia coli, the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) which are known to mediate protein nitration and S-nitrosylation processes, respectively, were analysed. Although ONOO(-) and GSNO inhibit peroxisomal MDAR activity, chloroplastic and cytosolic GR were not affected by these molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis of the nitrated MDAR revealed that Tyr213, Try292, and Tyr345 were exclusively nitrated to 3-nitrotyrosine by ONOO(-). The location of these residues in the structure of pea peroxisomal MDAR reveals that Tyr345 is found at 3.3 Å of His313 which is involved in the NADP-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Tyr345 as the primary site of nitration responsible for the inhibition of MDAR activity by ONOO(-). These results provide new insights into the molecular regulation of MDAR which is deactivated by nitration and S-nitrosylation. However, GR was not affected by ONOO(-) or GSNO, suggesting the existence of a mechanism to conserve redox status by maintaining the level of reduced GSH. Under a nitro-oxidative stress induced by salinity (150mM NaCl), MDAR expression (mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels) was increased, probably to compensate the inhibitory effects of S-nitrosylation and nitration on the enzyme. The present data show the modulation of the antioxidative response of key enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle by nitric oxide (NO)-PTMs, thus indicating the close involvement of NO and reactive oxygen species metabolism in antioxidant defence against nitro-oxidative stress situations in plants.
Project description:Damage to cardiac contractile proteins during ischemia followed by reperfusion is mediated by reactive oxygen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), resulting in impairment of cardiac systolic function. However, the pathophysiology of systolic dysfunction during ischemia only, before reperfusion, remains unclear. We suggest that increased ONOO(-) generation during ischemia leads to nitration/nitrosylation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) and its increased degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which leads to impairment of cardiomyocyte contractility. We also postulate that inhibition of ONOO(-) action by use of a ONOO(-) scavenger results in improved recovery from ischemic injury. Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 15 and 60 min. of simulated ischemia. Intact MLC1 levels, measured by 2D gel electrophoresis and immunoblot, were shown to decrease with increasing duration of ischemia, which correlated with increasing levels of nitrotyrosine and nitrite/nitrate. In vitro degradation of human recombinant MLC1 by MMP-2 increased after ONOO(-) exposure of MLC1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analysis of ischemic rat cardiomyocyte MLC1 showed nitration of tyrosines 78 and 190, as well as of corresponding tyrosines 73 and 185 within recombinant human cardiac MLC1 treated with ONOO(-). Recombinant human cardiac MLC1 was additionally nitrosylated at cysteine 67 and 76 corresponding to cysteine 81 of rat MLC1. Here we show that increased ONOO(-) production during ischemia induces MLC1 nitration/nitrosylation leading to its increased degradation by MMP-2. Inhibition of MLC1 nitration/nitrosylation during ischemia by the ONOO(-) scavenger FeTPPS (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-sulfonatophenyl]-porphyrinato-iron[III]), or inhibition of MMP-2 activity with phenanthroline, provides an effective protection of cardiomyocyte contractility.
Project description:Excess superoxide (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) forms peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) during cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, which in turn induces protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-N). Mitochondria are both a source of and target for ONOO(-). Our aim was to identify specific mitochondrial proteins that display enhanced tyr-N after cardiac IR injury, and to explore whether inhibiting O(2)(-)/ONOO(-) during IR decreases mitochondrial protein tyr-N and consequently improves cardiac function. We show here that IR increased tyr-N of 35 and 15kDa mitochondrial proteins using Western blot analysis with 3-nitrotyrosine antibody. Immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by LC-MS/MS identified 13 protein candidates for tyr-N. IP and Western blot identified and confirmed that the 35kDa tyr-N protein is the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Tyr-N of native cardiac VDAC with IR was verified on recombinant (r) VDAC with exogenous ONOO(-). We also found that ONOO(-) directly enhanced rVDAC channel activity, and rVDAC tyr-N induced by ONOO(-) formed oligomers. Resveratrol (RES), a scavenger of O(2)(-)/ONOO(-), reduced the tyr-N levels of both native and recombinant VDAC, while L-NAME, which inhibits NO generation, only reduced tyr-N levels of native VDAC. O(2)(-) and ONOO(-) levels were reduced in perfused hearts during IR by RES and L-NAME and this was accompanied by improved cardiac function. These results identify tyr-N of VDAC and show that reducing ONOO(-) during cardiac IR injury can attenuate tyr-N of VDAC and improve cardiac function.
Project description:Acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic/antipyretic agent, can cause liver injury through increased nitrative stress, leading to protein nitration. However, the identities of nitrated proteins and their roles in hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Thus, we aimed at studying the mechanism of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by systematic identification and characterization of nitrated proteins in the absence or presence of an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The levels of nitrated proteins markedly increased at 2h in mice exposed to a single APAP dose (350mg/kg ip), which caused severe liver necrosis at 24h. Protein nitration and liver necrosis were minimal in mice exposed to nontoxic 3-hydroxyacetanilide or animals co-treated with APAP and NAC. Mass-spectral analysis of the affinity-purified nitrated proteins identified numerous mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins, including mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, involved in antioxidant defense, energy supply, or fatty acid metabolism. Immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot with anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody confirmed that the aforementioned proteins were nitrated in APAP-exposed mice but not in NAC-cotreated mice. Consistently, NAC cotreatment significantly restored the suppressed activity of these enzymes. Thus, we demonstrate a new mechanism by which many nitrated proteins with concomitantly suppressed activity promotes APAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity.
Project description:Chemokines promote leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The oxidative burst is an important effector mechanism, this leads to the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO). The current study was performed to determine the potential for nitration to alter the chemical and biological properties of the prototypical CC chemokine, CCL2. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess the presence of RNS in kidney biopsies. Co-localisation was observed between RNS-modified tyrosine residues and the chemokine CCL2 in diseased kidneys. Nitration reduced the potential of CCL2 to stimulate monocyte migration in diffusion gradient chemotaxis assays (p?<?0.05). This was consistent with a trend towards reduced affinity of the nitrated chemokine for its cognate receptor CCR2b. The nitrated chemokine was unable to induce transendothelial monocyte migration in vitro and failed to promote leukocyte recruitment when added to murine air pouches (p?<?0.05). This could potentially be attributed to reduced glycosaminoglycan binding ability, as surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that nitration reduced heparan sulphate binding by CCL2. Importantly, intravenous administration of nitrated CCL2 also inhibited the normal recruitment of leukocytes to murine air pouches filled with unmodified CCL2. Together these data suggest that nitration of CCL2 during inflammation provides a mechanism to limit and resolve acute inflammation.
Project description:Using NO specific probe (MNIP-Cu), rapid nitric oxide (NO) accumulation as a response to auxin (IAA) treatment has been observed in the protoplasts from the hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.). Incubation of protoplasts in presence of NPA (auxin efflux blocker) and PTIO (NO scavenger) leads to significant reduction in NO accumulation, indicating that NO signals represent an early signaling event during auxin-induced response. A surge in NO production has also been demonstrated in whole hypocotyl explants showing adventitious root (AR) development. Evidence of tyrosine nitration of cytosolic proteins as a consequence of NO accumulation has been provided by western blot analysis and immunolocalization in the sections of AR producing hypocotyl segments. Most abundant anti-nitrotyrosine labeling is evident in proteins ranging from 25-80 kDa. Tyrosine nitration of a particular protein (25 kDa) is completely absent in presence of NPA (which suppresses AR formation). Similar lack of tyrosine nitration of this protein is also evident in other conditions which do not allow AR differentiation. Immunofluorescent localization experiments have revealed that non-inductive treatments (such as PTIO) for AR develpoment from hypocotyl segments coincide with symplastic and apoplastic localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the xylem elements, in contrast with negligible (and mainly apoplastic) nitration of proteins in the interfascicular cells and phloem elements. Application of NPA does not affect tyrosine nitration of proteins even in the presence of an external source of NO (SNP). Tyrosine nitrated proteins are abundant around the nuclei in the actively dividing cells of the root primordium. Thus, NO-modulated rapid response to IAA treatment through differential distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins is evident as an inherent aspect of the AR development.
Project description:Increased O(2)(*-) and NO production is a key mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In complex II, oxidative impairment and enhanced tyrosine nitration of the 70 kDa FAD-binding protein occur in the post-ischemic myocardium and are thought to be mediated by peroxynitrite (OONO(-)) in vivo [Chen, Y.-R., et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 27991-28003]. To gain deeper insights into the redox protein thiols involved in OONO(-)-mediated oxidative post-translational modifications relevant in myocardial infarction, we subjected isolated myocardial complex II to in vitro protein nitration with OONO(-). This resulted in site-specific nitration at the 70 kDa polypeptide and impairment of complex II-derived electron transfer activity. Under reducing conditions, the gel band of the 70 kDa polypeptide was subjected to in-gel trypsin/chymotrypsin digestion and then LC-MS/MS analysis. Nitration of Y(56) and Y(142) was previously reported. Further analysis revealed that C(267), C(476), and C(537) are involved in OONO(-)-mediated S-sulfonation. To identify the disulfide formation mediated by OONO(-), nitrated complex II was alkylated with iodoacetamide. In-gel proteolytic digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis were conducted under nonreducing conditions. The MS/MS data were examined with MassMatrix, indicating that three cysteine pairs, C(306)-C(312), C(439)-C(444), and C(288)-C(575), were involved in OONO(-)-mediated disulfide formation. Immuno-spin trapping with an anti-DMPO antibody and subsequent MS was used to define oxidative modification with protein radical formation. An OONO(-)-dependent DMPO adduct was detected, and further LC-MS/MS analysis indicated C(288) and C(655) were involved in DMPO binding. These results offered a complete profile of OONO(-)-mediated oxidative modifications that may be relevant in the disease model of myocardial infarction.