Mutation in BAG3 causes severe dominant childhood muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are morphologically distinct but genetically heterogeneous muscular dystrophies in which disintegration of Z disks and then of myofibrils is followed by ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins. Cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and dominant inheritance are frequent associated features. Mutations in alphaB-crystallin, desmin, myotilin, Zasp, or filamin-C can cause MFMs and were detected in 32 of 85 patients of the Mayo MFM cohort. Bag3, another Z-disk-associated protein, has antiapoptotic properties, and its targeted deletion in mice causes fulminant myopathy with early lethality. We therefore searched for mutations in BAG3 in 53 unrelated MFM patients.We searched for mutations in BAG3 by direct sequencing. We analyzed structural changes in muscle by histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy, examined mobility of the mutant Bag3 by nondenaturing electrophoresis, and searched for abnormal aggregation of the mutant protein in COS-7 (SV-40 transformed monkey kidney fibroblast-7) cells.We identified a heterozygous p.Pro209Leu mutation in three patients. All presented in childhood, had progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and experienced development of cardiomyopathy and severe respiratory insufficiency in their teens; two had rigid spines, and one a peripheral neuropathy. Electron microscopy showed disintegration of Z disks, extensive accumulation of granular debris and larger inclusions, and apoptosis of 8% of the nuclei. On nondenaturing electrophoresis of muscle extracts, the Bag3 complex migrated faster in patient than control extracts, and expression of FLAG-labeled mutant and wild-type Bag3 in COS cells showed abnormal aggregation of the mutant protein.We conclude mutation in Bag3 defines a novel severe autosomal dominant childhood muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are genetically heterogeneous dystrophies characterized by the disintegration of Z-disks and myofibrils and are associated with mutations in genes encoding Z-disk or Z-disk-related proteins. The c.626 C > T (p.P209L) mutation in the BAG3 gene has been described as causative of a subtype of MFM. We report a sporadic case of a 26-year-old Italian woman, affected by MFM with axonal neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, rigid spine, who carries the c.626 C > T mutation in the BAG3 gene. The patient and her non-consanguineous healthy parents and brother were studied with whole exome sequencing (WES) to further investigate the genetic basis of this complex phenotype. In the patient, we found that the BAG3 mutation is associated with variants in the NRAP and FHL1 genes that encode muscle-specific, LIM domain containing proteins. Quantitative real time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of the patient's muscular biopsy showed the absence of NRAP expression and FHL1 accumulation in aggregates in the affected skeletal muscle tissue. Molecular dynamic analysis of the mutated FHL1 domain showed a modification in its surface charge, which could affect its capability to bind its target proteins. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting, in a BAG3 MFM, the simultaneous presence of genetic variants in the BAG3 and FHL1 genes (previously described as independently associated with MFMs) and linking the NRAP gene to MFM for the first time.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Some pathologic features of the FHL1 myopathies and the myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) overlap; we therefore searched for mutations in FHL1 in our cohort of 50 patients with genetically undiagnosed MFM. METHODS: Mutations in FHL1 were identified by direct sequencing. Polymorphisms were excluded by using allele-specific PCR in 200 control subjects. Structural changes in muscle were analyzed by histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: We detected 2 novel and 1 previously identified missense mutation in 5 patients. Patients 1-4 presented before age 30, display menadione-nitro blue tetrazolium-positive reducing bodies, and harbor mutations in the FHL1 LIM2 domain. Patient 5 presented at age 75 and has no reducing bodies, and his mutation is not in a LIM domain. The clinical features include progressive muscle weakness, hypertrophied muscles, rigid spine, and joint contractures, and 1 patient also has peripheral neuropathy. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals the reducing bodies composed of 13-nm tubulofilaments initially emanating from Z-disks. At a more advanced stage, abundant reducing bodies appear in the cytoplasm and nuclei with concomitant myofibrillar disintegration, accumulation of cytoplasmic degradation products, and aggregation of endoplasmic reticulum and sarcotubular profiles. CONCLUSIONS: FHL1 dystrophies can be associated with MFM pathology. Mutations in the LIM2 domain are associated with reducing bodies composed of distinct tubulofilaments. A mutation extraneous to LIM domains resulted in a mild late-onset phenotype with MFM pathology but no reducing bodies.
Project description:Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are rare genetic and slowly progressive neuromuscular disorders. Several pathogenic mutations have been reported in MFM-related genes including DES, CRYAB, MYOT, LDB3 or ZASP, FLNC, BAG3, FHL1 and DNAJB6. Although MFMs is commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, the inheritance pattern and novel mutated genes are not thoroughly elucidated in some cases. Here, we report discovery of a novel nonsense mutation in a 29-year-old Iranian male patient with motor disorders and deformity in his lower limbs. His parents are second cousins. Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy as initial genetic diagnosis was ruled out. Whole exome sequencing using NGS on Illumina HiSeq4000 platform was performed to identify the disease and possible mutated gene(s). Our data analysis identified a homozygous nonsense unreported c.C415T (p.R139X) variant on kyphoscoliosis peptidase (KY) gene (NM_178554: exon4). Sanger sequencing of this mutation has been performed for his other related family members. Sequencing and segregation analysis was confirmed the NGS results and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of the disease.
Project description:The term myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) refers to uncommon neuromuscular disorders that pathologically are characterized by myofibrillar degeneration and ectopic expression of several proteins. MFM are partly caused by mutations in genes that encode mainly Z-disk-related proteins (desmin, alphaB-crystallin, myotilin, ZASP, filamin C and BAG3). We reviewed clinical, light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and genetic findings of 21 patients with MFM (15 unrelated patients and three pairs of brothers) investigated at our neuromuscular center. MFM patients begin to show symptoms at any age, from juvenile to late adult life and present a different distribution of muscle weakness. Cardiac involvement and peripheral neuropathy are common. Typical histological features include focal areas with reduction/loss of ATPase and oxidative enzyme activity, and amorphous material (eosinophilic on hematoxylin and eosin and dark blue on Engel-Gomori trichrome) in these abnormal fiber areas. Electron microscopy shows disintegration of myofibrils starting from the Z-disk and accumulation of granular and filamentous material among the myofilaments. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate focal accumulation of desmin, alphaB-crystallin and myotilin in abnormal muscle fibers while immunoblot analysis does not highlight differences in the expression of these proteins also including ZASP protein. Therefore, unlike immunoblot, immunohistochemistry together with light and electron microscopy is a useful diagnostic tool in MFM. Finally three of our 21 patients have missense mutations in the desmin gene, two brothers carry missense mutations in the gene encoding myotilin, one has a missense mutation in alphaB-crystallin, and none harbour pathogenic variations in the genes encoding ZASP and BAG3.
Project description:Mutations in the molecular co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are found to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), resulting in systolic dysfunction and heart failure, as well as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), which is characterized by protein aggregation and myofibrillar disintegration in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we generated a CRISPR/Cas9-induced Bag3 knockout zebrafish line and found the complete preservation of heart and skeletal muscle structure and function during embryonic development, in contrast to morpholino-mediated knockdown of Bag3. Intriguingly, genetic compensation, a process of transcriptional adaptation which acts independent of protein feedback loops, was found to prevent heart and skeletal muscle damage in our Bag3 knockout model. Proteomic profiling and quantitative real-time PCR analyses identified Bag2, another member of the Bag protein family, significantly upregulated on a transcript and protein level in bag3-/- mutants. This implied that the decay of bag3 mutant mRNA in homozygous bag3-/- embryos caused the transcriptional upregulation of bag2 expression. We further demonstrated that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Bag2 in bag3-/- embryos evoked severe functional and structural heart and skeletal muscle defects, which are similar to Bag3 morphants. However, Bag2 knockdown in bag3+/+ or bag3+/- embryos did not result in (cardio-)myopathy. Finally, we found that inhibition of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) machinery by knockdown of upf1, an essential NMD factor, caused severe heart and skeletal muscle defects in bag3-/- mutants due to the blockade of transcriptional adaptation of bag2 expression. Our findings provide evidence that genetic compensation might vitally influence the penetrance of disease-causing bag3 mutations in vivo.
Project description:Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are a group of disorders associated with mutations in DES, CRYAB, MYOT, ZASP, FLNC, or BAG3 genes and characterized by disintegration of myofibrils and accumulation of degradation products into intracellular inclusions. We retrospectively evaluated 53 MFM patients from 35 Spanish families. Studies included neurologic exam, muscle imaging, light and electron microscopic analysis of muscle biopsy, respiratory function testing and cardiologic work-up. Search for pathogenic mutations was accomplished by sequencing of coding regions of the six genes known to cause MFM. Mutations in MYOT were the predominant cause of MFM in Spain affecting 18 of 35 families, followed by DES in 11 and ZASP in 3; in 3 families the cause of MFM remains undetermined. Comparative analysis of DES, MYOT and ZASP associated phenotypes demonstrates substantial phenotypic distinctions that should be considered in studies of disease pathogenesis, for optimization of subtype-specific treatments and management, and directing molecular analysis.
Project description:A natural Bayesian approach for mixture models with an unknown number of components is to take the usual finite mixture model with symmetric Dirichlet weights, and put a prior on the number of components-that is, to use a mixture of finite mixtures (MFM). The most commonly-used method of inference for MFMs is reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo, but it can be nontrivial to design good reversible jump moves, especially in high-dimensional spaces. Meanwhile, there are samplers for Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) models that are relatively simple and are easily adapted to new applications. It turns out that, in fact, many of the essential properties of DPMs are also exhibited by MFMs-an exchangeable partition distribution, restaurant process, random measure representation, and stick-breaking representation-and crucially, the MFM analogues are simple enough that they can be used much like the corresponding DPM properties. Consequently, many of the powerful methods developed for inference in DPMs can be directly applied to MFMs as well; this simplifies the implementation of MFMs and can substantially improve mixing. We illustrate with real and simulated data, including high-dimensional gene expression data used to discriminate cancer subtypes.
Project description:The ubiquitously expressed multifunctional cytolinker protein plectin is essential for muscle fiber integrity and myofiber cytoarchitecture. Patients suffering from plectinopathy-associated epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD) and mice lacking plectin in skeletal muscle display pathological desmin-positive protein aggregation and misalignment of Z-disks, which are hallmarks of myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs). Here, we developed immortalized murine myoblast cell lines to examine the pathogenesis of plectinopathies at the molecular and single cell level. Plectin-deficient myotubes, derived from myoblasts, were fully functional and mirrored the pathological features of EBS-MD myofibers, including the presence of desmin-positive protein aggregates and a concurrent disarrangement of the myofibrillar apparatus. Using this cell model, we demonstrated that plectin deficiency leads to increased intermediate filament network and sarcomere dynamics, marked upregulation of HSPs, and reduced myotube resilience following mechanical stretch. Currently, no specific therapy or treatment is available to improve plectin-related or other forms of MFMs; therefore, we assessed the therapeutic potential of chemical chaperones to relieve plectinopathies. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate resulted in remarkable amelioration of the pathological phenotypes in plectin-deficient myotubes as well as in plectin-deficient mice. Together, these data demonstrate the biological relevance of the MFM cell model and suggest that this model has potential use for the development of therapeutic approaches for EBS-MD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) physicians' practice patterns for 22-week delivery management. MEHODS:Surveyed 750 randomly-sampled members of the Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, querying MFMs' practices and policies guiding 22-week delivery management. RESULTS:Three hundred and twenty-five (43%) MFMs responded. Nearly all (87%) would offer induction. Twenty-eight percent would order steroids, and 12% would perform cesarean for a patient desiring resuscitation. Offering induction differed significantly based on the provider's practice setting, region, religious service attendance and political affiliation. In multivariable analyses, political affiliation remained a significant predictor of offering induction (p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Most MFMs offer induction for PPROM at 22 weeks. A noteworthy proportion is willing to order steroids and perform cesarean. Personal beliefs and practice characteristics may contribute to these decisions. While little is known about the efficacy of these interventions at 22 weeks, some MFMs will offer obstetrical intervention if resuscitation is intended.
Project description:Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders, which are characterized by protein aggregations in muscle fibres and can be associated with multisystemic involvement.We screened a large cohort of 38 index patients with MFM for mutations in the nine thus far known causative genes using Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). We studied the clinical and histopathological characteristics in 38 index patients and five additional relatives (n = 43) and particularly focused on the associated multisystemic symptoms.We identified 14 heterozygous mutations (diagnostic yield of 37%), among them the novel p.Pro209Gln mutation in the BAG3 gene, which was associated with onset in adulthood, a mild phenotype and an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, in the absence of giant axons at the nerve biopsy. We revealed several novel clinical phenotypes and unusual multisystemic presentations with previously described mutations: hearing impairment with a FLNC mutation, dysphonia with a mutation in DES and the first patient with a FLNC mutation presenting respiratory insufficiency as the initial symptom. Moreover, we described for the first time respiratory insufficiency occurring in a patient with the p.Gly154Ser mutation in CRYAB. Interestingly, we detected a polyneuropathy in 28% of the MFM patients, including a BAG3 and a MYOT case, and hearing impairment in 13%, including one patient with a FLNC mutation and two with mutations in the DES gene. In four index patients with a mutation in one of the MFM genes, typical histological findings were only identified at the ultrastructural level (29%).We conclude that extraskeletal symptoms frequently occur in MFM, particularly cardiac and respiratory involvement, polyneuropathy and/or deafness. BAG3 mutations should be considered even in cases with a mild phenotype or an adult onset. We identified a genetic defect in one of the known genes in less than half of the MFM patients, indicating that more causative genes are still to be found. Next generation sequencing techniques should be helpful in achieving this aim.