Helicobacter sp. strain Mainz isolated from an AIDS patient with septic arthritis: case report and nonradioactive analysis of 16S rRNA sequence.
ABSTRACT: A campylobacter-like organism was isolated from an effusion of the left knee joint of an AIDS patient 2 weeks after bacteremia with a morphologically identical organism. Amplified genomic 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed by a nonradioactive blotting technique. The closest match was found with Helicobacter fenelliae (97.7% homology). Sequence data and phenotype suggest that the isolate may represent a so far unrecognized species of the genus Helicobacter.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The metastatic status of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is the most relevant prognostic factor in breast cancer, melanoma, and other tumors. The conventional standard to label SLNs is lymphoscintigraphy with technetium Tc 99m. A worldwide shortage and known disadvantages of Tc 99m have intensified efforts to establish alternative, nonradioactive imaging techniques.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess a new nonradioactive method using multispectral optoacoustic tomographic (MSOT) imaging in comparison with conventional lymphoscintigraphic imaging for SLN biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Analysis of a cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Hospital-Essen, Skin Cancer Center, Essen, Germany. Between June 2, 2014, and February 22, 2019, 83 patients underwent SLNB with an additional preoperative indocyanine green (ICG) application. Sentinel lymph node basins were preoperatively identified by MSOT imaging, and ICG-labeled SLNs were intraoperatively detected using a near-infrared camera. The surgeons were blinded to the lymphoscintigraphic imaging results in the beginning of the SLNB. Use of a ? probe was restricted until the SLNB procedure was attempted by the nonradioactive method.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Concordance of SLN basins and SLNs identified by MSOT imaging plus near-infrared camera vs lymphoscintigraphic imaging plus single-photon emission computed tomographic or computed tomographic imaging was assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 83 patients (mean [SD] age, 54.61 [17.53] years), 47 (56.6%) were men. In 83 surgical procedures, 165 SLNs were excised. The concordance rate of ICG-labeled and Tc 99m-marked detected SLN basins was 94.6% (n?=?106 of 112). Intraoperatively, 159 SLNs were detected using a near-infrared camera and 165 were detected by a ? probe, resulting in a concordance rate of 96.4%. Multispectral optoacoustic tomographic imaging visualized SLNs in all anatomic regions with high penetration depth (5 cm).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The findings of this study suggest that nonradioactive SLN detection via MSOT imaging allows identification of SLNs at a frequency equivalent to that of the current radiotracer conventional standard. Multispectral optoacoustic tomographic imaging appears to be a viable nonradioactive alternative to detect SLNs in malignant tumors.
Project description:The human body is in a constant state of turnover, that is, being synthesized, broken down and/or converted to different compounds. The dynamic nature of in vivo kinetics of human metabolism at rest and in stressed conditions such as exercise and pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes and cancer can be quantitatively assessed with stable, nonradioactive isotope tracers in conjunction with gas or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and modeling. Although measurements of metabolite concentrations have been useful as general indicators of one's health status, critical information on in vivo kinetics of metabolites such as rates of production, appearance or disappearance of metabolites are not provided. Over the past decades, stable, nonradioactive isotope tracers have been used to provide information on dynamics of specific metabolites. Stable isotope tracers can be used in conjunction with molecular and cellular biology tools, thereby providing an in-depth dynamic assessment of metabolic changes, as well as simultaneous investigation of the molecular basis for the observed kinetic responses. In this review, we will introduce basic principles of stable isotope methodology for tracing in vivo kinetics of human or animal metabolism with examples of quantifying certain aspects of in vivo kinetics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
Project description:An unusual Helicobacter sp. was isolated from the blood of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. This organism had spiral morphology, with single amphitrichous flagella, and was negative for hippurate hydrolysis, production of urease, and reduction of nitrate. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis verified that the isolate was a species of Helicobacter, most closely related to an undescribed Helicobacter-like isolate from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and to Helicobacter westmeadii, a recently described species from Australia. Both organisms had also been isolated from the blood of HIV-infected patients. These blood isolates, along with Helicobacter cinaedi, form a cluster of closely related Helicobacter spp. that may represent an emerging group of pathogens in immunocompromised patients.
Project description:Myristoyl-CoA (CoA):protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes protein modification through covalent attachment of a C14 fatty acid (myristic acid) to the N-terminal glycine of proteins, thus promoting protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. NMT is essential for the viability of numerous human pathogens and is also up-regulated in several tumors. Here we describe a new, nonradioactive, ELISA-based method for measuring NMT activity. After the NMT-catalyzed reaction between a FLAG-tagged peptide and azido-dodecanoyl-CoA (analog of myristoyl-CoA), the resulting azido-dodecanoyl-peptide-FLAG was coupled to phosphine-biotin by Staudinger ligation, captured by plate-bound anti-FLAG antibodies and detected by streptavidin-peroxidase. The assay was validated with negative controls (including inhibitors), corroborated by HPLC analysis, and demonstrated to function with fresh or frozen tissues. Recombinant murine NMT1 and NMT2 were characterized using this new method. This versatile assay is applicable for exploring recombinant NMTs with regard to their activity, substrate specificity, and possible inhibitors as well as for measuring NMT-activity in tissues.
Project description:In this study, the principles of surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) were used to develop a nonradioactive method for ex vivo and in vivo measurements of protein synthesis (PS). Compared with controls, we first demonstrate excellent agreement between SUnSET and a [(3)H]phenylalanine method when detecting synergist ablation-induced increases in skeletal muscle PS ex vivo. We then show that SUnSET can detect the same synergist ablation-induced increase in PS when used in vivo (IV-SUnSET). In addition, IV-SUnSET detected food deprivation-induced decreases in PS in the heart, kidney, and skeletal muscles, with similar changes being visualized with an immunohistochemical version of IV-SUnSET (IV-IHC-SUnSET). By combining IV-IHC-SUnSET with in vivo transfection, we demonstrate that constitutively active PKB induces a robust increase in skeletal muscle PS. Furthermore, transfection with Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) revealed that a PKB-independent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin is also sufficient to induce an increase in skeletal muscle PS. Finally, IV-IHC-SUnSET exposed the existence of fiber type-dependent differences in skeletal muscle PS, with PS in type 2B and 2X fibers being significantly lower than that in type 2A fibers within the same muscle. Thus, our nonradioactive method allowed us to accurately visualize and quantify PS under various ex vivo and in vivo conditions and revealed novel insights into the regulation of PS in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human pathogen that is spreading rapidly through the Americas and has been linked to the development of microcephaly and to a dramatically increased number of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases. Currently, no vaccine or therapeutic options for the prevention or treatment of ZIKV infections exist. In the study described in this report, we expressed, purified, and characterized full-length nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) and the NS5 polymerase domain (NS5pol) of ZIKV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using purified NS5, we developed an in vitro nonradioactive primer extension assay employing a fluorescently labeled primer-template pair. Both purified NS5 and NS5pol can carry out in vitro RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in this assay. Our results show that Mn2+ is required for enzymatic activity, while Mg2+ is not. We found that ZIKV NS5 can utilize single-stranded DNA but not double-stranded DNA as a template or a primer to synthesize RNA. The assay was used to compare the efficiency of incorporation of analog 5'-triphosphates by the ZIKV polymerase and to calculate their discrimination versus that of natural ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs). The 50% inhibitory concentrations for analog rNTPs were determined in an alternative nonradioactive coupled-enzyme assay. We determined that, in general, 2'-C-methyl- and 2'-C-ethynyl-substituted analog 5'-triphosphates were efficiently incorporated by the ZIKV polymerase and were also efficient chain terminators. Derivatives of these molecules may serve as potential antiviral compounds to be developed to combat ZIKV infection. This report provides the first characterization of ZIKV polymerase and demonstrates the utility of in vitro polymerase assays in the identification of potential ZIKV inhibitors.
Project description:Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) exists in two interconvertible forms, GPa (phosphorylated form, high activity) and GPb (nonphosphorylated form, low activity). Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) catalyses the phosphorylation of GPb and plays a key role in the cascade system for regulating glycogen metabolism. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and nonradioactive assay for PhK activity by measuring the enhanced GP activity towards a pyridylaminated maltohexaose. The enhanced GP activity (?A) was calculated by the following formula: ?A = A(+) - A(0), where A(+) and A(0) represent the GP activities of the PhK-treated and PhK-nontreated samples, respectively. Using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence spectrophotometer, the product of GP activity could be isolated and quantified at 10 fmol. This method does not require the use of any radioactive compounds and only 1 µg of GPb per sample was needed to obtain A(+) and A(0) values. The remarkable reduction in GPb concentration enabled us to discuss an interesting new role for glycogen in PhK activity.
Project description:Septic peritonitis (SP) is common in dogs and is associated with high mortality. Early recognition is essential to maximizing survival and may be aided by biomarker measurement. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of biomarkers to discriminate septic peritonitis from non-septic ascites (NSA). Eighteen dogs with SP and 19 age-matched controls with NSA were enrolled. Contemporaneous blood and peritoneal effusion samples were obtained. Concentrations of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), cytokines, glucose, lactate, N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP), nucleosomes, and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured using commercial reagents and assays. Paired biomarker concentrations were compared with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test, and biomarker concentrations between groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test. P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess the ability of the above biomarkers to discriminate SP from NSA. Dogs with SP had significantly greater blood CCL2 concentrations than dogs with NSA (P = 0.032). Dogs with SP had significantly greater effusion CCL2, IL-6, IL-10, and lactate concentrations than dogs with NSA (P ? 0.0121). Blood-effusion concentration gradients of CCL2, glucose, IL-6, IL-10, and lactate were significantly different in dogs with SP compared to dogs with NSA (P ? 0.0165). Effusion lactate concentration had the highest AUROC value (0.866, 95% CI 0.751-0.980, P = 0.0001), although other biomarkers performed similarly. An effusion lactate concentration of 4.2 mmol/L was 72.2% (95% CI 46.5-90.3%) sensitive and 84.2% (95% CI 60.4-96.6%) specific for the diagnosis of SP.
Project description:The sheep has served as an informative animal model for investigation of human fetal and newborn erythropoiesis and red blood cell (RBC) kinetics. We previously validated the permanent label (14C)cyanate for measuring red cell volume (RCV) in sheep. Here, we validate biotin labeling of RBCs as a nonradioactive method for measuring RCV in sheep with the anticipation that it can be applied in studies of human infants. The RCV was determined simultaneously using two techniques for quantitation of the biotin label. The first one quantified total blood concentration of biotin label on biotin-labeled RBCs using (125I)streptavidin. The second one enumerated biotin-labeled RBCs by flow cytometry after incubation with fluorescein-conjugated avidin. RCV measurements made using the two biotin quantitation techniques were validated against both (14C)cyanate and 51Cr as reference methods. Both biotin techniques produced RCV values that agreed well with the reference methods and with each other, producing correlation coefficients averaging >or =0.93. Sequential repetitive measurements in the same animal also agreed with the (14C)cyanate method and each other (average difference <10%). These results establish biotin-labeled RBCs as an accurate method for performing RCV measurements in sheep. This biotin method can be applied in studies that model neonatal erythropoiesis.