Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history.
ABSTRACT: The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years.
Project description:Although low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are beneficial for the organism ensuring normal cell and vascular function, the overproduction of ROS and increased oxidative stress levels play a significant role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This paper aims at providing a thorough review of the available literature investigating the effects of acute and chronic exercise training and detraining on redox regulation, in the context of CVDs. An acute bout of either cardiovascular or resistance exercise training induces a transient oxidative stress and inflammatory response accompanied by reduced antioxidant capacity and enhanced oxidative damage. There is evidence showing that these responses to exercise are proportional to exercise intensity and inversely related to an individual's physical conditioning status. However, when chronically performed, both types of exercise amplify the antioxidant defense mechanism, reduce oxidative stress and preserve redox status. On the other hand, detraining results in maladaptations within a time-frame that depends on the exercise training intensity and mode, as high-intensity training is superior to low-intensity and resistance training is superior to cardiovascular training in preserving exercise-induced adaptations during detraining periods. Collectively, these findings suggest that exercise training, either cardiovascular or resistance or even a combination of them, is a promising, safe and efficient tool in the prevention and treatment of CVDs.
Project description:Active travel bouts are healthy, but bout-specific motives, social, and physical contexts have been poorly characterized. Adults (n= 421 in 2012, 436 in 2013) described their moderate activity bouts over the past week, aided by accelerometry/GPS data integration. Participants viewed maps indicating date, time, and starting and ending locations of their past week moderate-to-vigorous active travel bouts of 3 or more minutes. These prompts helped participants recall their social and physical contexts and motives for the bouts. Three bout motivations were modeled: leisure, transportation, and their "T-L" difference scores (transportation minus leisure scores). Blends of leisure and transportation motives characterized most bouts, even though most studies do not allow participants to endorse multiple motives for their active travel. Bouts were often neighborhood-based. Leisure motives were related to pleasant place perceptions, homes, and exercise places; workplaces were associated with stronger transportation and T-L bout motives. Women's bout motives were more closely associated with place than men's. Our novel method of individual bout assessment can illuminate the social-ecological contexts and experiences of everyday healthy bouts of activity.
Project description:Elevated visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) serum concentrations are associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, but increase unexpectedly after long-term physical training. We therefore investigated the effect of an acute exercise bout and the effects of vitamin supplementation on chronic exercise effect and on serum vaspin concentrations. We measured serum vaspin and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in 80 individuals before and after a 1-hour acute exercise bout and independently in 40 healthy young men who were randomly assigned to either antioxidant (vitamin C (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day)) or to no supplementation after a standardized 4-week physical training program as a post hoc analysis. Serum vaspin concentrations significantly decreased after acute physical exercise as well as after 4 weeks of training in individuals without antioxidants. Changes in vaspin serum concentration correlate with increased TBARS serum concentrations both in response to a 1-hour exercise bout (r = -0.42, p < 0.01) and to the 4-week training (r = -0.31, p < 0.05). Interestingly, supplementation with antioxidants rather increased circulating vaspin levels in response to 4 weeks of exercise. In conclusion, vaspin serum concentrations are decreased by exercise-induced oxidative stress, but not by exercise-associated improvement in insulin sensitivity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the affective responses during a single bout of a low-volume HIIE in active and insufficiently active men. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fifty-eight men (aged 25.3 ± 3.6 years) volunteered to participate in this study: i) active (n = 29) and ii) insufficiently active (n = 29). Each subject undertook i) initial screening and physical evaluation, ii) maximal exercise test, and iii) a single bout of a low-volume HIIE. The HIIE protocol consisted of 10 x 60s work bouts at 90% of maximal treadmill velocity (MTV) interspersed with 60s of active recovery at 30% of MTV. Affective responses (Feeling Scale, -5/+5), rating of perceived exertion (Borg's RPE, 6-20), and heart rate (HR) were recorded during the last 10s of each work bout. A two-factor mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA, independent-samples t test, and chi-squared test were used to data analysis. RESULTS:There were similar positive affective responses to the first three work bouts between insufficiently active and active men (p > 0.05). However, insufficiently active group displayed lower affective responses over time (work bout 4 to 10) than the active group (p < 0.01). Also, the insufficiently active group displayed lower values of mean, lowest, and highest affective response, as well as lower values of affective response at the highest RPE than the active group (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the RPE and HR between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Insufficiently active and active men report feelings of pleasure to few work bouts (i.e., 3-4) during low-volume HIIE, while the affective responses become more unpleasant over time for insufficiently active subjects. Investigations on the effects of low-volume HIIE protocols including a fewer number of work bouts on health status and fitness of less active subjects would be interesting, especially in the first training weeks.
Project description:Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men.Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting. Blood was collected before and after each bout of exercise for determination of cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (cf n-DNA, cf mt-DNA) by real-time PCR, selected markers of muscle damage, and blood cell count.Each bout induced the increase (p<0.05) in plasma cf n-DNA: from 3.4±1.4 to 38.5±27.5, from 4.1±3.3 to 48.5±26.2, and 3.1±1.6 to 53.8±39.9 ng/mL after the first, second, and third exercise, respectively. In a congruent way, cf mt-DNA rose significantly after the second (from 229±216 to 450±228*103 GE/mL) and third bout of exercise (from 173±120 to 462±314*103 GE/mL). Pre-exercise cf mt-DNA decreased (p<0.05) by 2-times (from 355±219 before the first bout to 173±120*103 GE/mL before the third bout) over the study period and were accompanied by significant increase in white blood cells, platelets, creatine kinase, creatinine and lactate after each bout. However, the exercise induced percentage increment of cf n-DNA was always many times higher than corresponding increments of the afore-mentioned markers at any occasion.Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced remarkable increase in circulating cf n-DNA without signs of tolerance development. Baseline cf mt-DNA decreased in response to series of strenuous exercise. Since percentage increments of cf n-DNA in response to exercise were many times higher than those observed for other markers, measurement of circulating cf n-DNA could be a sensitive tool for monitoring acute exercise effects in human body.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Public health guidelines suggest that physical activity can be accumulated in multiple short bouts dispersed through the day. A synthesis of the evidence for this approach is lacking. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine if exercise interventions consisting of a single bout of exercise compared with interventions comprising the same total duration, mode, and intensity of exercise accumulated over the course of the day have different effects on health outcomes in adults. METHODS:Six electronic databases were searched (Jan 1970-29 August 2018). Two authors identified studies that evaluated the effects of a single bout of exercise compared with the same intensity, total duration, and mode of exercise accumulated in multiple bouts over the course of a day, in community-dwelling adults. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Pooled effects were reported as standardised mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. RESULTS:A total of 19 studies involving 1080 participants met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences between accumulated and continuous groups for any cardiorespiratory fitness or blood pressure outcomes. A difference was found in body mass changes from baseline to post-intervention in favour of accumulated exercise compared with continuous (MD - 0.92 kg, 95% CI - 1.59 to - 0.25, I2 = 0%; five studies, 211 participants). In subgroup analyses, accumulating > 150 min of weekly exercise in multiple bouts per day resulted in small effects on body fat percentage (combined post-intervention and change from baseline values: MD - 0.87%, 95% CI - 1.71 to - 0.04, I2 = 0%; three studies, 166 participants) compared with 150 min of exercise amassed via single continuous bouts per day. There was a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with accumulated versus continuous exercise (MD - 0.39 mmol/l, 95% CI - 0.73 to - 0.06, I2 = 23%; two studies, 41 participants). No differences were observed for any other blood biomarker (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin). CONCLUSIONS:There is no difference between continuous and accumulated patterns of exercise in terms of effects on fitness, blood pressure, lipids, insulin and glucose. There is some evidence from a small number of studies that changes in body mass and LDL cholesterol are more favourable following the accumulated condition. Collectively our findings suggest that adults are likely to accrue similar health benefits from exercising in a single bout or accumulating activity from shorter bouts throughout the day. This review will inform public health guidelines for physical activity at the global and national levels (PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016044122).
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study examines whether performance of bout-related physical activity (PA) during morning hours is related to greater overall bout-related PA increases within a preoperative PA intervention for bariatric surgery (BS) patients. METHODS:Participants with severe obesity (n = 33; mean age = 45.6 ± 9.6 years; BMI = 45.7 ± 7.0 kg/m2) seeking BS were randomized to and completed 6 weeks of preoperative PA counseling (retention = 82.5%). Participants were encouraged to walk daily at a moderate intensity in bouts ≥ 10 minutes during morning hours to overcome time-related obstacles and establish a PA habit. Timing and amount of bout-related moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed via objective monitor at pre- and postintervention. RESULTS:Greater proportion of bout-related MVPA performed during morning hours (4:00 AM-12:00 PM) at postintervention was associated with larger total increases in bout-related MVPA minutes/day (β = .40, P = .03). At postintervention, a greater proportion of participants whose longest MVPA bouts occurred during morning hours (n = 11) achieved the public health guideline (ie, ≥150 bout-related MVPA minutes/week) versus those whose longest MVPA bouts occurred during nonmorning hours (n = 19; 63.6% vs. 26.3%, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS:Intervention-related increases in PA tended to be greatest when PA was performed in the morning. Morning exercise may be a viable strategy for promoting habitual PA in inactive BS patients.
Project description:Acute resistance exercise (RE) increases muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC), and chronic resistance exercise training (RT) results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Although MPS in response to RE is blunted over time during RT, no effective restorative strategy has been identified. Since eccentric muscle contraction (EC) has the potential to strongly stimulate mTORC1 activation and MPS, changing the muscle contraction mode to EC might maintain the MPS response to RE during chronic RT. Male rats were randomly divided into RE (1 bout of RE) and RT (13 bouts of RE) groups. Additionally, each group was subdivided into isometric contraction (IC) and EC subgroups. The RE groups performed acute, unilateral RE using IC or EC. The RT groups performed 12 bouts of unilateral RE using IC. For bout 13, the RT-IC subgroup performed a further IC bout, while the RT-EC subgroup changed to EC. All muscle contractions were induced by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Muscle samples were obtained at 6 h post exercise in all groups. After the 1st RE bout, the EC group showed significantly higher p70S6K Thr389 phosphorylation than the IC group. However, the phosphorylation of other mTORC1-associated proteins (4E-BP1 and ribosomal protein S6) and the MPS response did not differ between the contraction modes. After the 13th bout of RE, mTORC1 activation and the MPS response were significantly blunted as compared with the 1st bout of RE. Changing from IC to EC did not improve these responses. In conclusion, changing the contraction mode to EC does not reinvigorate the blunted mTORC1 activation and MPS in response to RE during chronic RT.
Project description:Epidemiological evidence shows that physical activity lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence [1,2]. The main hypothesis on the positive effects of exercise-oncology has focused on lowering the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. Recently, the effects of cancer progression control by components released after acute exercise bouts have gained attention [3,4]. However, the evaluation of the antiproliferative potential of a single exercise bout needs technical improvement. Here, we present data of a pilot study showing how to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of single exercise bouts with an in vitro three-dimensional cell growth assay, using a triple-negative breast cancer cell line cultured with exercise-conditioned serum.
Project description:A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training. We hypothesized that regular high-intensity exercise training primes the transcriptome for the demands of high-intensity exercise.An extensive set of genes was observed to be significantly differentially regulated in response to a single bout of high-intensity exercise in the untrained cohort (3241 genes) and following multiple bouts of high-intensity exercise training over a six-month period (3405 genes). Approximately one-third of these genes (1025) and several biological processes related to energy metabolism were common to both the exercise and training responses. We then developed a novel network-based computational analysis pipeline to test the hypothesis that these transcriptional changes also influence the contextual molecular interactome and its dynamics in response to exercise and training. The contextual network analysis identified several important hub genes, including the autophagosomal-related gene GABARAPL1, and dynamic functional modules, including those enriched for mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and V, that were differentially regulated and had their putative interactions 're-wired' in the exercise and/or training responses.Here we have generated for the first time, a comprehensive set of genes that are differentially expressed in Thoroughbred skeletal muscle in response to both exercise and training. These data indicate that consecutive bouts of high-intensity exercise result in a priming of the skeletal muscle transcriptome for the demands of the next exercise bout. Furthermore, this may also lead to an extensive 're-wiring' of the molecular interactome in both exercise and training and include key genes and functional modules related to autophagy and the mitochondrion.