An alternative form of replication protein a prevents viral replication in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding complex, is essential for multiple processes in cellular DNA metabolism. The "canonical" RPA is composed of three subunits (RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3); however, there is a human homolog to the RPA2 subunit, called RPA4, that can substitute for RPA2 in complex formation. We demonstrate that the resulting "alternative" RPA (aRPA) complex has solution and DNA binding properties indistinguishable from the canonical RPA complex; however, aRPA is unable to support DNA replication and inhibits canonical RPA function. Two regions of RPA4, the putative L34 loop and the C terminus, are responsible for inhibiting SV40 DNA replication. Given that aRPA inhibits canonical RPA function in vitro and is found in nonproliferative tissues, these studies indicate that RPA4 expression may prevent cellular proliferation via replication inhibition while playing a role in maintaining the viability of quiescent cells.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding complex that is essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination in eukaryotic cells. In addition to this canonical complex, we have recently characterized an alternative replication protein A complex (aRPA) that is unique to primates. aRPA is composed of three subunits: RPA1 and RPA3, also present in canonical RPA, and a primate-specific subunit RPA4, homologous to canonical RPA2. aRPA has biochemical properties similar to those of the canonical RPA complex but does not support DNA replication. We describe studies that aimed to identify what properties of aRPA prevent it from functioning in DNA replication. We show aRPA has weakened interaction with DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) and that aRPA is not able to efficiently stimulate DNA synthesis by pol alpha on aRPA-coated DNA. Additionally, we show that aRPA is unable to support de novo priming by pol alpha. Because pol alpha activity is essential for both initiation and Okazaki strand synthesis, we conclude that the inability of aRPA to support pol alpha loading causes aRPA to be defective in DNA replication. We also show that aRPA stimulates synthesis by DNA polymerase alpha in the presence of PCNA and RFC. This indicates that aRPA can support extension of DNA strands by DNA polymerase partial differential. This finding along with the previous observation that aRPA supports early steps of nucleotide excision repair and recombination indicates that aRPA can support DNA repair synthesis that requires polymerase delta, PCNA, and RFC and support a role for aRPA in DNA repair.
Project description:Replication Protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein essential for DNA replication, repair, recombination and cell-cycle regulation. A human homolog of the RPA2 subunit, called RPA4, was previously identified and shown to be expressed in colon mucosal and placental cells; however, the function of RPA4 was not determined. To examine the function of RPA4 in human cells, we carried out knockdown and replacement studies to determine whether RPA4 can substitute for RPA2 in the cell. Unlike RPA2, exogenous RPA4 expression did not support chromosomal DNA replication and lead to cell-cycle arrest in G2/M. In addition, RPA4 localized to sites of DNA repair and reduced gamma-H2AX caused by RPA2 depletion. These studies suggest that RPA4 cannot support cell proliferation but can support processes that maintain the genomic integrity of the cell.
Project description:The replication protein A (RPA)-ssDNA complex formed at arrested replication forks recruits key proteins to activate the ATR-CHK1 signalling cascade. When CHK1 is inhibited during DNA replication stress, RPA2 is extensively hyperphosphorylated. Here, we investigated the role of RPA2 hyperphosphorylation in the fate of cells when CHK1 is inhibited. We show that proteins normally involved in DNA repair (RAD51) or control of RPA phosphorylation (the PP4 protein phosphatase complex) are not recruited to the genome after treatment with CHK1 and DNA synthesis inhibitors. This is not due to RPA2 hyperphosphorylation as suppression of this response does not restore loading suggesting that recruitment requires active CHK1. To determine whether RPA2 hyperphosphorylation protects stalled forks from collapse or induction of apoptosis in CHK1 inhibited cells during replication stress, cells expressing RPA2 genes mutated at key phosphorylation sites were characterized. Mutant RPA2 rescued cells from RPA2 depletion and reduced the level of apoptosis induced by treatment with CHK1 and replication inhibitors however the incidence of double strand breaks was not affected. Our data indicate that RPA2 hyperphosphorylation promotes cell death during replication stress when CHK1 function is compromised but does not appear to be essential for replication fork integrity.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junctions or breaks, and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic weakens the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates interactions of RPA with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 shows that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.
Project description:ATR is an essential kinase activated in response to DNA-replication stress, with a known target being the RPA2 subunit of human replication protein A (RPA). We find that S33-RPA2 phosphorylation by ATR occurs primarily in the late-S and G2 phases, probably at sites of residual stalled DNA-replication forks, with S33-P-RPA2 contained within nuclear repair centers. Although cells in which endogenous RPA2 was ;replaced' with an RPA2 protein with mutations T21A and S33A (T21A/S33A-RPA) had normal levels of DNA replication under non-stress conditions, the mutant cells were severely deficient in the amount of DNA synthesis occurring during replication stress. These cells also had abnormally high levels of chromatin-bound RPA, indicative of increased amounts of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and showed defective recovery from stress. Cells replaced with the mutant RPA2 also generated G1 cells with a broader DNA distribution and high levels of apoptosis following stress, compared with cells expressing wild-type RPA2. Surprisingly, cells expressing the wild-type RPA2 subunit had increased levels of stress-dependent DNA breaks. Our data demonstrate that RPA phosphorylation at the T21 and S33 sites facilitates adaptation of a DNA-replication fork to replication stress.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric (70, 32 and 14 kDa subunits), single-stranded DNA-binding protein required for cellular DNA metabolism. All subunits of RPA are essential for life, but the specific functions of the 32 and 14 kDa subunits remains unknown. The 32 kDa subunit (RPA2) has multiple domains, but only the central DNA-binding domain (called DBD D) is essential for life in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To define the essential function(s) of RPA2 in S. cerevisiae, a series of site-directed mutant forms of DBD D were generated. These mutant constructs were then characterized in vitro and in vivo. The mutations had minimal effects on the overall structure and activity of the RPA complex. However, several mutants were shown to disrupt crosslinking of RPA2 to DNA and to dramatically lower the DNA-binding affinity of a RPA2-containing subcomplex. When introduced into S. cerevisiae, all DBD D mutants were viable and supported normal growth rates and DNA replication. These findings indicate that RPA2-DNA interactions are not essential for viability and growth in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that DNA-binding activity of RPA2 is dispensable in yeast and that the essential function of DBD D is intra- and/or inter-protein interactions.
Project description:Phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA) by Cdk2 and the checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) during replication fork stalling stabilizes the replisome, but how these modifications safeguard the fork is not understood. To address this question, we used single-molecule fiber analysis in cells expressing a phosphorylation-defective RPA2 subunit or lacking phosphatase activity toward RPA2. Deregulation of RPA phosphorylation reduced synthesis at forks both during replication stress and recovery from stress. The ability of phosphorylated RPA to stimulate fork recovery is mediated through the PALB2 tumor suppressor protein. RPA phosphorylation increased localization of PALB2 and BRCA2 to RPA-bound nuclear foci in cells experiencing replication stress. Phosphorylated RPA also stimulated recruitment of PALB2 to single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell-free system. Expression of mutant RPA2 or loss of PALB2 expression led to significant DNA damage after replication stress, a defect accentuated by poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ribose polymerase inhibitors. These data demonstrate that phosphorylated RPA recruits repair factors to stalled forks, thereby enhancing fork integrity during replication stress.
Project description:The specific function of PP2A, a major serine/threonine phosphatase, is mediated by regulatory targeting subunits, such as members of the B55 family. Although implicated in cell division and other pathways, the specific substrates and functions of B55 targeting subunits are largely undefined. In this study we identified over 100 binding proteins of B55? and B55? in Xenopus egg extracts that are involved in metabolism, mitochondria function, molecular trafficking, cell division, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell signaling. Among the B55? and B55?-associated proteins were numerous mitotic regulators, including many substrates of CDK1. Consistently, upregulation of B55? accelerated M-phase exit and inhibited M-phase entry. Moreover, specific substrates of CDK2, including factors of DNA replication and chromatin remodeling were identified within the interactomes of B55? and B55?, suggesting a role for these phosphatase subunits in DNA replication. In particular, we confirmed in human cells that B55? binds RPA and mediates the dephosphorylation of RPA2. The B55-RPA association is disrupted after replication stress, consistent with the induction of RPA2 phosphorylation. Thus, we report here a new mechanism that accounts for both how RPA phosphorylation is modulated by PP2A and how the phosphorylation of RPA2 is abruptly induced after replication stress.
Project description:Maintenance of genome integrity is critical for proper cell growth. This occurs through accurate DNA replication and repair of DNA lesions. A key factor involved in both DNA replication and the DNA damage response is the heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding complex Replication Protein A (RPA). Although the RPA complex appears to be structurally conserved throughout eukaryotes, the primary amino acid sequence of each subunit can vary considerably. Examination of sequence differences along with the functional interchangeability of orthologous RPA subunits or regions could provide insight into important regions and their functions. This might also allow for study in simpler systems. We determined that substitution of yeast Replication Factor A (RFA) with human RPA does not support yeast cell viability. Exchange of a single yeast RFA subunit with the corresponding human RPA subunit does not function due to lack of inter-species subunit interactions. Substitution of yeast Rfa2 with domains/regions of human Rpa2 important for Rpa2 function (i.e., the N-terminus and the loop 3-4 region) supports viability in yeast cells, and hybrid proteins containing human Rpa2 N-terminal phospho-mutations result in similar DNA damage phenotypes to analogous yeast Rfa2 N-terminal phospho-mutants. Finally, the human Rpa2 N-terminus (NT) fused to yeast Rfa2 is phosphorylated in a manner similar to human Rpa2 in human cells, indicating that conserved kinases recognize the human domain in yeast. The implication is that budding yeast represents a potential model system for studying not only human Rpa2 N-terminal phosphorylation, but also phosphorylation of Rpa2 N-termini from other eukaryotic organisms.
Project description:Failure to reactivate stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks is a potential source of genomic instability. Homologous recombination (HR) is a major mechanism for repairing the DNA damage resulting from replication arrest. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, replication protein A (RPA), plays a major role in multiple processes of DNA metabolism. However, the role of RPA2 hyperphosphorylation, which occurs in response to DNA damage, had been unclear. Here, we show that hyperphosphorylated RPA2 associates with ssDNA and recombinase protein Rad51 in response to replication arrest by hydroxyurea (HU) treatment. In addition, RPA2 hyperphosphorylation is critical for Rad51 recruitment and HR-mediated repair following HU. However, RPA2 hyperphosphorylation is not essential for both ionizing radiation (IR)-induced Rad51 foci formation and I-Sce-I endonuclease-stimulated HR. Moreover, we show that expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of RPA2 leads to increased chromosomal aberrations following HU treatment but not after exposure to IR. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of RPA2 hyperphosphorylation results in a loss of viability when cells are confronted with replication stress whereas cells expressing hyperphosphorylation-defective RPA2 or wild-type RPA2 have a similar sensitivity to IR. Thus, our data suggest that RPA2 hyperphosphorylation plays a critical role in maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival after a DNA replication block via promotion of HR.