Trypanosoma brucei spliced leader RNA maturation by the cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase and SLA1 H/ACA snoRNA pseudouridine synthase complex.
ABSTRACT: Kinetoplastid flagellates attach a 39-nucleotide spliced leader (SL) upstream of protein-coding regions in polycistronic RNA precursors through trans splicing. SL modifications include cap 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first four nucleotides and pseudouridine (psi) formation at uracil 28. In Trypanosoma brucei, TbMTr1 performs 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide, or cap 1. We report the characterization of an SL RNA processing complex with TbMTr1 and the SLA1 H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) particle that guides SL psi(28) formation. TbMTr1 is in a high-molecular-weight complex containing the four conserved core proteins of H/ACA snoRNPs, a kinetoplastid-specific protein designated methyltransferase-associated protein (TbMTAP), and the SLA1 snoRNA. TbMTAP-null lines are viable but have decreased SL RNA processing efficiency in cap methylation, 3'-end maturation, and psi(28) formation. TbMTAP is required for association between TbMTr1 and the SLA1 snoRNP but does not affect U1 small nuclear RNA methylation. A complex methylation profile in the mRNA population of TbMTAP-null lines indicates an additional effect on cap 4 methylations. The TbMTr1 complex specializes the SLA1 H/ACA snoRNP for efficient processing of multiple modifications on the SL RNA substrate.
Project description:The spliced leader-associated (SLA1) RNA is a trypanosome-specific small RNA with unknown function. SLA1 carries a Sm-like site, and is associated with core Sm proteins. Here we found that SLA1 belongs to a family of hairpin-containing RNAs that are implicated in directing pseudouridylation. A potential for base-pair interaction between SLA1 and spliced leader (SL) RNA agrees with the canonical rules for guiding pseudouridylation on SL RNA. Direct RNA analysis showed that this uridine is indeed pseudouridylated in the SL RNA of Leptomonas collosoma, Leishmania major, and Trypanosoma brucei. This position is conserved in all trypanosomatid SL RNAs. Mutations introduced in the SL RNA to disrupt the interaction domain of SLA1/SL RNA abolished the formation of the pseudouridine. SLA1 is localized both to the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. This study solves a long-standing question regarding the function of this novel RNA and describes the first H/ACA RNA, which, unlike all other pseudouridine guides, is also a bona fide snRNA.
Project description:Through trans-splicing of a 39-nt spliced leader (SL) onto each protein-coding transcript, mature kinetoplastid mRNA acquire a hypermethylated 5'-cap structure, but its function has been unclear. Gene deletions for three Trypanosoma brucei cap 2'-O-ribose methyltransferases, TbMTr1, TbMTr2 and TbMTr3, reveal distinct roles for four 2'-O-methylated nucleotides. Elimination of individual gene pairs yields viable cells; however, attempts at double knock-outs resulted in the generation of a TbMTr2-/-/TbMTr3-/- cell line only. Absence of both kinetoplastid-specific enzymes in TbMTr2-/-/TbMTr3-/- lines yielded substrate SL RNA and mRNA with cap 1. TbMTr1-/- translation is comparable with wildtype, while cap 3 and cap 4 loss reduced translation rates, exacerbated by the additional loss of cap 2. TbMTr1-/- and TbMTr2-/-/TbMTr3-/- lines grow to lower densities under normal culture conditions relative to wildtype cells, with growth rate differences apparent under low serum conditions. Cell viability may not tolerate delays at both the nucleolar Sm-independent and nucleoplasmic Sm-dependent stages of SL RNA maturation combined with reduced rates of translation. A minimal level of mRNA cap ribose methylation is essential for trypanosome viability, providing the first functional role for the cap 4.
Project description:mRNA cap 1 2'-O-ribose methylation is a widespread modification that is implicated in processing, trafficking, and translational control in eukaryotic systems. The eukaryotic enzyme has yet to be identified. In kinetoplastid flagellates trans-splicing of spliced leader (SL) to polycistronic precursors conveys a hypermethylated cap 4, including a cap 0 m7G and seven additional methylations on the first 4 nucleotides, to all nuclear mRNAs. We report the first eukaryotic cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase, TbMTr1, a member of a conserved family of viral and eukaryotic enzymes. Recombinant TbMTr1 methylates the ribose of the first nucleotide of an m7G-capped substrate. Knockdowns and null mutants of TbMTr1 in Trypanosoma brucei grow normally, with loss of 2'-O-ribose methylation at cap 1 on substrate SL RNA and U1 small nuclear RNA. TbMTr1-null cells have an accumulation of cap 0 substrate without further methylation, while spliced mRNA is modified efficiently at position 4 in the absence of 2'-O-ribose methylation at position 1; downstream cap 4 methylations are independent of cap 1. Based on TbMTr1-green fluorescent protein localization, 2'-O-ribose methylation at position 1 occurs in the nucleus. Accumulation of 3'-extended SL RNA substrate indicates a delay in processing and suggests a synergistic role for cap 1 in maturation.
Project description:The eukaryotic nucleolus contains a large number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that are involved in preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing. The H box/ACA-motif (H/ACA) class of snoRNAs has recently been demonstrated to function as guide RNAs targeting specific uridines in the pre-rRNA for pseudouridine (psi) synthesis. To characterize the protein components of this class of snoRNPs, we have purified the snR42 and snR30 snoRNP complexes by anti-m3G-immunoaffinity and Mono-Q chromatography of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts. Sequence analysis of the individual polypeptides demonstrated that the three proteins Gar1p, Nhp2p, and Cbf5p are common to both the snR30 and snR42 complexes. Nhp2p is a highly basic protein that belongs to a family of putative RNA-binding proteins. Cbf5p has recently been demonstrated to be involved in ribosome biogenesis and also shows striking homology with known prokaryotic psi synthases. The presence of Cbf5p, a putative psi synthase in each H/ACA snoRNP suggests that this class of RNPs functions as individual modification enzymes. Immunoprecipitation studies using either anti-Cbf5p antibodies or a hemagglutinin-tagged Nhp2p demonstrated that both proteins are associated with all H/ACA-motif snoRNPs. In vivo depletion of Nhp2p results in a reduction in the steady-state levels of all H/ACA snoRNAs. Electron microscopy of purified snR42 and snR30 particles revealed that these two snoRNPs possess a similar bipartite structure that we propose to be a major structural determining principle for all H/ACA snoRNPs.
Project description:In eukaryotes, box H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide sites of pseudouridine (Psi) formation in rRNA. These snoRNAs reside in RNP complexes containing the putative Psi synthase, Cbf5p. In this study we have identified Cbf5p-associated RNAs in Euglena gracilis, an early diverging eukaryote, by immunoprecipitating Cbf5p-containing complexes from cellular extracts. We characterized one box H/ACA-like RNA which, however, does not appear to guide Psi formation in rRNA. We also identified four single Psi-guide box AGA RNAs. We determined target sites for these putative Psi-guide RNAs and confirmed that the predicted Psi modifications do, in fact, occur at these positions in Euglena rRNA. The Cbf5p-associated snoRNAs appear to be encoded by multicopy genes, some of which are clustered in the genome together with methylation-guide snoRNA genes. These modification-guide snoRNAs and snoRNA genes are the first ones to be reported in euglenid protists, the evolutionary sister group to the kinetoplastid protozoa. Unexpectedly, we also found and have partially characterized a selenocysteine tRNA homolog in the anti-Cbf5p-immunoprecipitated sample.
Project description:The kinetoplastid protozoan spliced leader (SL) RNA is the common substrate pre-mRNA utilized in all trans-splicing reactions. Here we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the SL RNA is present in the cytoplasm of Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma brucei. Treatment with the karyopherin-specific inhibitor leptomycin B was toxic to T. brucei and eliminated the cytoplasmic SL RNA, suggesting that cytoplasmic SL RNA was dependent on the nuclear exporter exportin 1 (XPO1). Ectopic expression of xpo1 with a C506S mutation in T. brucei conferred resistance to leptomycin B. A reduction in SL RNA 3' extension removal and 5' methylation of nucleotide U(4) was observed in wild-type T. brucei treated with leptomycin B, suggesting that the cytoplasmic stage is necessary for SL RNA biogenesis. This study demonstrates spatial and mechanistic similarities between the posttranscriptional trafficking of the kinetoplastid protozoan SL RNA and the metazoan cis-spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs.
Project description:H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles are essential for ribosomal RNA and telomerase RNA processing and metabolism. Shq1p has been identified as an essential eukaryotic H/ACA small nucleolar (sno) ribonucleoparticle (snoRNP) biogenesis and assembly factor. Shq1p is postulated to be involved in the early biogenesis steps of H/ACA snoRNP complexes, and Shq1p depletion leads to a specific decrease in H/ACA small nucleolar RNA levels and to defects in ribosomal RNA processing. Shq1p contains two predicted domains as follows: an N-terminal CS (named after CHORD-containing proteins and SGT1) or HSP20-like domain, and a C-terminal region of high sequence homology called the Shq1 domain. Here we report the crystal structure and functional studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shq1p CS domain. The structure consists of a compact anti-parallel beta-sandwich fold that is composed of two beta-sheets containing four and three beta-strands, respectively, and a short alpha-helix. Deletion studies showed that the CS domain is required for the essential functions of Shq1p. Point mutations in residues Phe-6, Gln-10, and Lys-80 destabilize Shq1p in vivo and induce a temperature-sensitive phenotype with depletion of H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs and defects in rRNA processing. Although CS domains are frequently found in co-chaperones of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, no interaction was detected between the Shq1p CS domain and yeast Hsp90 in vitro. These results show that the CS domain is essential for Shq1p function in H/ACA snoRNP biogenesis in vivo, possibly in an Hsp90-independent manner.
Project description:Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-hybrid interactions with the poly-Gln-expanded N-proximal fragment of human huntingtin, which promotes Huntington disease-associated aggregation. The Sup35N-Sla1C interaction is inhibited by Sup35N alterations that make Sup35 unable to propagate the [PSI(+)] state and by the absence of the chaperone protein Hsp104, which is essential for [PSI] propagation. In a Sla1(-) background, [PSI] curing by dimethylsulfoxide or excess Hsp104 is increased, while translational readthrough and de novo [PSI] formation induced by excess Sup35 or Sup35N are decreased. These data show that, in agreement with the proposed function of Sla1 during cytoskeletal formation, Sla1 assists in [PSI] formation and propagation, but is not required for these processes. Sla1(-) strains are sensitive to some translational inhibitors, and some sup35 mutants, obtained in a Sla1(-) background, are sensitive to Sla1, suggesting that the interaction between Sla1 and Sup35 proteins may play a role in the normal function of the translational apparatus. We hypothesize that Sup35N is involved in regulatory interactions with intracellular structural networks, and [PSI] prion may be formed as a by-product of this process.
Project description:Small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs) mainly catalyze the modification of rRNA. The two major classes of snoRNPs, box H/ACA and box C/D, function in the pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation, respectively, of specific nucleotides. The emerging view based on studies in yeast is that each class of snoRNPs is composed of a unique set of proteins. Here we present a characterization of mammalian snoRNPs. We show that the previously characterized NAP57 is specific for box H/ACA snoRNPs, whereas the newly identified NAP65, the rat homologue of yeast Nop5/58p, is a component of the box C/D class. Using coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we show that the nucleolar and coiled-body protein Nopp140 interacts with both classes of snoRNPs. This interaction is corroborated in vivo by the exclusive depletion of snoRNP proteins from nucleoli in cells transfected with a dominant negative Nopp140 construct. Interestingly, RNA polymerase I transcription is arrested in nucleoli depleted of snoRNPs, raising the possibility of a feedback mechanism between rRNA modification and transcription. Moreover, the Nopp140-snoRNP interaction appears to be conserved in yeast, because depletion of Srp40p, the yeast Nopp140 homologue, in a conditional lethal strain induces the loss of box H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs. We propose that Nopp140 functions as a chaperone of snoRNPs in yeast and vertebrate cells.
Project description:Box H/ACA small nucleolar (sno) ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are responsible for the formation of pseudouridine in a variety of RNAs and are essential for ribosome biogenesis, modification of spliceosomal RNAs, and telomerase stability. A mature snoRNP has been reconstituted in vitro and is composed of a single RNA and four proteins. However, snoRNP biogenesis in vivo requires multiple factors to coordinate a complex and poorly understood assembly and maturation process. Among the factors required for snoRNP biogenesis in yeast is Shq1p, an essential protein necessary for stable expression of box H/ACA snoRNAs. We have found that Shq1p consists of two independent domains that contain casein kinase 1 phosphorylation sites. We also demonstrate that Shq1p binds the pseudourydilating enzyme Cbf5p through the C-terminal domain, in synergy with the N-terminal domain. The NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain has striking homology to the 'Chord and Sgt1' domain of known Hsp90 cochaperones, yet Shq1p does not interact with the yeast Hsp90 homologue in vitro. Surprisingly, Shq1p has stand-alone chaperone activity in vitro. This activity is harbored by the C-terminal domain, but it is increased by the presence of the N-terminal domain. These results provide the first evidence of a specific biochemical activity for Shq1p and a direct link to the H/ACA snoRNP.