Essential role of c-Cbl in amphiregulin-induced recycling and signaling of the endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor.
ABSTRACT: The intracellular processing of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) has been studied meticulously, with the former resulting in EGFR degradation and the latter in EGFR recycling to the plasma membrane. However, little is known about how other EGF family growth factors affect the trafficking of the EGFR. Additionally, although both EGF and TGF-alpha have been shown to effectively induce initial c-Cbl (ubiquitin ligase)-mediated ubiquitination of the EGFR, limited information is available regarding the role of c-Cblin the trafficking and signaling of recycling EGFR. Thus, in this study, we investigated the roles of c-Cblin endogenous EGFR trafficking and signaling after stimulation with amphiregulin (AR). We demonstrated that a physiological concentration of AR induced recycling of the endogenous EGFR to the plasma membrane, which correlated closely with transient association of the EGFR with c-Cbl and transient EGFR ubiquitination. Most importantly, we used c-Cbl small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes and ac-Cbl dominant negative mutant to show that c-Cbl is critical for the efficient transition of the EGFR from early endosomes to a recycling pathway and that c-Cbl regulates the duration of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) phosphorylation. These data support novel functions of c-Cbl in mediating recycling of EGF receptors to the plasma membrane, as well as in mediating the duration of activation (transient vs sustained) of ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation.
Project description:Endocytic downregulation is a pivotal mechanism turning off signalling from the EGF receptor (EGFR). It is well established that whereas EGF binding leads to lysosomal degradation of EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha causes receptor recycling. TGF-alpha therefore leads to continuous signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor recycling. EGF leads to lysosomal degradation of the majority but not all EGFRs. Amphiregulin does not target EGFR for lysosomal degradation but causes fast as well as slow EGFR recycling. The Cbl ubiquitin ligases, especially c-Cbl, are responsible for EGFR ubiquitination after stimulation with all ligands, and persistent EGFR phosphorylation and ubiquitination largely correlate with receptor degradation.
Project description:Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ?PIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. ?PIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, ?PIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both ?PIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction ?PIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of ?PIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of ?PIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or ?PIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of ?PIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator ?PIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed ?PIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow.
Project description:BACKGROUND INFORMATION:ARAP1 is an Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor)-directed GAP (GTPase-activating protein) that inhibits the trafficking of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) to the early endosome. To further understand the function of ARAP1, we sought to identify proteins that interact with ARAP1. RESULTS:Here we report that ARAP1 associates with the CIN85 (Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa). Arg86 and Arg90 of ARAP1 and the SH3 (Src homology 3) domains of CIN85 are necessary for the interaction. We found that a mutant of ARAP1 with reduced affinity for CIN85 does not efficiently rescue the effect of reduced ARAP1 expression on EGFR trafficking to the early endosome. Reduced expression of CIN85 has a similar effect as reduced expression of ARAP1 on traffic of the EGFR. Cbl proteins regulate the endocytic trafficking of the EGFR by mediating ubiquitination of the EGFR. Overexpression of ARAP1 reduced ubiquitination of the EGFR by Cbl and slowed Cbl-dependent degradation of the EGFR. Reduced expression of ARAP1 accelerated degradation of EGFR but did not affect the level of ubiquitination of the receptor that was detected. CONCLUSION:ARAP1 interaction with CIN85 regulates endocytic trafficking of the EGFR and affects ubiquitination of EGFR. We propose a model in which the ARAP1-CIN85 complex drives exit of EGF-EGFR-Cbl complex from a pre-early endosome into a pathway distinct from the early endosome/lysosome pathway.
Project description:EGF, but not TGF alpha, efficiently induces degradation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). We show that EGFR was initially polyubiquitinated to the same extent upon incubation with EGF and TGF alpha, whereas the ubiquitination was more sustained by incubation with EGF than with TGF alpha. Consistently, the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl was recruited to the plasma membrane upon activation of the EGFR with EGF and TGF alpha, but localized to endosomes only upon activation with EGF. EGF remains bound to the EGFR upon endocytosis, whereas TGF alpha dissociates from the EGFR. Therefore, the sustained polyubiquitination is explained by EGF securing the kinase activity of endocytosed EGFR. Overexpression of the dominant negative N-Cbl inhibited ubiquitination of the EGFR and degradation of EGF and EGFR. This demonstrates that EGF-induced ubiquitination of the EGFR as such is important for lysosomal sorting. Both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors blocked degradation of EGF and EGFR, and proteasomal inhibitors inhibited translocation of activated EGFR from the outer limiting membrane to inner membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Therefore, lysosomal sorting of kinase active EGFR is regulated by proteasomal activity. Immuno-EM showed the localization of intact EGFR on internal membranes of MVBs. This demonstrates that the EGFR as such is not the proteasomal target.
Project description:Aberrant expression, activation, and stabilization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are causally associated with several human cancers. Post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions directly modulate the signaling and trafficking of the EGFR. Activated EGFR is internalized by endocytosis and then either recycled back to the cell surface or degraded in the lysosome. EGFR internalization and recycling also occur in response to stresses that activate p38 MAP kinase. Mass spectrometry was applied to comprehensively analyze the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and protein-protein interactions of wild type and endocytosis-defective EGFR variants before and after internalization in response to EGF ligand and stress. Prior to internalization, EGF-stimulated EGFR accumulated ubiquitin at 7 K residues and phosphorylation at 7 Y sites and at S(1104). Following internalization, these modifications diminished and there was an accumulation of S/T phosphorylations. EGFR internalization and many but not all of the EGF-induced S/T phosphorylations were also stimulated by anisomycin-induced cell stress, which was not associated with receptor ubiquitination or elevated Y phosphorylation. EGFR protein interactions were dramatically modulated by ligand, internalization, and stress. In response to EGF, different E3 ubiquitin ligases became maximally associated with EGFR before (CBL, HUWE1, and UBR4) or after (ITCH) internalization, whereas CBLB was distinctively most highly EGFR associated following anisomycin treatment. Adaptin subunits of AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptor complexes also became EGFR associated in response to EGF and anisomycin stress. Mutations preventing EGFR phosphorylation at Y(998) or in the S(1039) region abolished or greatly reduced EGFR interactions with AP-2 and AP-1, and impaired receptor trafficking. These results provide new insight into spatial, temporal, and mechanistic aspects of EGFR regulation.
Project description:The overactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is implicated in various cancers. Endocytosis plays an important role in EGFR-mediated cell signaling. We previously found that EGFR endocytosis during mitosis is mediated differently from interphase. While the regulation of EGFR endocytosis in interphase is well understood, little is known regarding the regulation of EGFR endocytosis during mitosis. Here, we found that contrary to interphase cells, mitotic EGFR endocytosis is more reliant on the activation of the E3 ligase CBL. By transfecting HeLa, MCF-7, and 293T cells with CBL siRNA or dominant-negative 70z-CBL, we found that at high EGF doses, CBL is required for EGFR endocytosis in mitotic cells, but not in interphase cells. In addition, the endocytosis of mutant EGFR Y1045F-YFP (mutation at the direct CBL binding site) is strongly delayed. The endocytosis of truncated EGFR ?1044-YFP that does not bind to CBL is completely inhibited in mitosis. Moreover, EGF induces stronger ubiquitination of mitotic EGFR than interphase EGFR, and mitotic EGFR is trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Furthermore, we showed that, different from interphase, low doses of EGF still stimulate EGFR endocytosis by non-clathrin mediated endocytosis (NCE) in mitosis. Contrary to interphase, CBL and the CBL-binding regions of EGFR are required for mitotic EGFR endocytosis at low doses. This is due to the mitotic ubiquitination of the EGFR even at low EGF doses. We conclude that mitotic EGFR endocytosis exclusively proceeds through CBL-mediated NCE.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is frequently dysregulated in a variety of cancers. The ubiquitin ligase Cbl regulates degradation of activated EGFR through ubiquitination and acts as an adaptor to recruit proteins required for trafficking. We used Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) mass spectrometry (MS) to compare Cbl complexes in the absence and presence of EGF stimulation. We identified over a hundred novel Cbl interactors, and a secondary siRNA screen found that knockdown of Flotillin-2 (FLOT2) led to increased phosphorylation and degradation of EGFR upon EGF stimulation in HeLa cells. In H441 cells, FLOT2 knockdown increased EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and downstream signaling, reversible by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. CRISPR knockout of FLOT2 in HeLa cells confirmed EGFR downregulation, increased signaling, and increased dimerization and trafficking to the early endosome. FLOT2 interacts with both Cbl and EGFR. Downregulation of EGFR upon FLOT2 loss is Cbl-dependent, as co-knockdown of Cbl and Cbl-b restored EGFR levels. Stable overexpression of FLOT2 in HeLa cells decreased EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Overexpression of wild type (WT) FLOT2, but not the soluble G2A FLOT2 mutant, inhibited EGFR phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation in HEK293T cells. FLOT2 loss induces EGFR-dependent proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth. Lastly, FLOT2 knockout increases tumor formation and tumor volume in nude mice and NSG mice, respectively. These data demonstrate that FLOT2 negatively regulates EGFR activation and dimerization, as well as its subsequent ubiquitination, endosomal trafficking, and degradation. FLOT2 negatively regulates proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Aberrant expression, activation, and down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have causal roles in many human cancers, and post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination and protein-protein interactions directly modulate EGFR function. Quantitative mass spectrometric analyses including selected reaction monitoring (also known as multiple reaction monitoring) were applied to the EGFR and associated proteins. In response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of cells, phosphorylations at EGFR Ser(991) and Tyr(998) accumulated more slowly than at receptor sites involved in RAS-ERK signaling. Phosphorylation-deficient mutant receptors S991A and Y998F activated ERK in response to EGF but were impaired for receptor endocytosis. Consistent with these results, the mutant receptors retained a network of interactions with known signaling proteins including EGF-stimulated binding to the adaptor GRB2. Compared with wild type EGFR the Y998F variant had diminished EGF-stimulated interaction with the ubiquitin E3 ligase CBL, and the S991A variant had decreased associated ubiquitin. The endocytosis-defective mutant receptors were found to have elevated phosphorylation at positions Ser(1039) and Thr(1041). These residues reside in a serine/threonine-rich region of the receptor previously implicated in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent stress/cytokine-induced EGFR internalization and recycling (Zwang, Y., and Yarden, Y. (2006) p38 MAP kinase mediates stress-induced internalization of EGFR: implications for cancer chemotherapy. EMBO J. 25, 4195-4206). EGF-induced phosphorylations at Ser(1039) and Thr(1041) were blocked by treatment of cells with SB-202190, a selective inhibitor of p38. These results suggest that coordinated phosphorylation of EGFR involving sites Tyr(998), Ser(991), Ser(1039), and Thr(1041) governs the trafficking of EGF receptors. This reinforces the notion that EGFR function is manifest through spatially and temporally controlled protein-protein interactions and phosphorylations.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates various cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and tumorigenesis. For the maintenance of homeostasis, EGF signaling should be tightly regulated to prevent the aberrant activation. Smad7 has been known as inhibitory Smad that blocks the signal transduction of transforming growth factor ?. In the process of cell proliferation or transformation, Smad7 has been shown the opposite activities as a promoter or suppressor depending on cell types or microenvironments. We found that the overexpression of Smad7 in human HaCaT keratinocyte cells and mouse skin tissues elevated EGF receptor (EGFR) activity by impairing ligand-induced ubiquitination and degradation of activated receptor, which is induced by the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. The C-terminal MH2 region but not MH1 region of Smad7 is critical for interaction with c-Cbl to inhibit the ubiquitination of EGFR. Interestingly, wild-type Smad7, but not Smad6 or mutant Smad7, destabilized the EGF-induced complex formation of c-Cbl and EGFR. These data suggest a novel role for Smad7 as a promoter for prolonging the EGFR signal in keratinocyte and skin tissue by reducing its ligand-induced ubiquitination and degradation.
Project description:Cylindromatosis tumor suppressor protein (CYLD) is a deubiquitinase, best known as an essential negative regulator of the NFkB pathway. Previous studies have suggested an involvement of CYLD in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent signal transduction as well, as it was found enriched within the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes in cells stimulated with the growth factor. EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling participates in central cellular processes and its tight regulation, partly through ubiquitination cascades, is decisive for a balanced cellular homeostasis. Here, using a combination of mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic approaches with biochemical and immunofluorescence strategies, we demonstrate the involvement of CYLD in the regulation of the ubiquitination events triggered by EGF. Our data show that CYLD regulates the magnitude of ubiquitination of several major effectors of the EGFR pathway by assisting the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b to the activated EGFR complex. Notably, CYLD facilitates the interaction of EGFR with Cbl-b through its Tyr15 phosphorylation in response to EGF, which leads to fine-tuning of the receptor's ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. This represents a previously uncharacterized strategy exerted by this deubiquitinase and tumors suppressor for the negative regulation of a tumorigenic signaling pathway.