Pro-aging effects of glucose signaling through a G protein-coupled glucose receptor in fission yeast.
ABSTRACT: Glucose is the preferred carbon and energy source in prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, and metazoans. However, excess of glucose has been associated with several diseases, including diabetes and the less understood process of aging. On the contrary, limiting glucose (i.e., calorie restriction) slows aging and age-related diseases in most species. Understanding the mechanism by which glucose limits life span is therefore important for any attempt to control aging and age-related diseases. Here, we use the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to study the regulation of chronological life span by glucose. Growth of S. pombe at a reduced concentration of glucose increased life span and oxidative stress resistance as reported before for many other organisms. Surprisingly, loss of the Git3 glucose receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, also increased life span in conditions where glucose consumption was not affected. These results suggest a role for glucose-signaling pathways in life span regulation. In agreement, constitutive activation of the Galpha subunit acting downstream of Git3 accelerated aging in S. pombe and inhibited the effects of calorie restriction. A similar pro-aging effect of glucose was documented in mutants of hexokinase, which cannot metabolize glucose and, therefore, are exposed to constitutive glucose signaling. The pro-aging effect of glucose signaling on life span correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in oxidative stress resistance and respiration rate. Likewise, the anti-aging effect of both calorie restriction and the Deltagit3 mutation was accompanied by increased respiration and lower reactive oxygen species production. Altogether, our data suggest an important role for glucose signaling through the Git3/PKA pathway to regulate S. pombe life span.
Project description:The effect of calorie restriction (CR) on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K) is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR), the only non-genetic intervention known to slow aging and extend life span in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, has been linked to the down-regulation of Tor, Akt, and Ras signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Rim15 is required for yeast chronological life span extension caused by deficiencies in Ras2, Tor1, and Sch9, and by calorie restriction. Deletion of stress resistance transcription factors Gis1 and Msn2/4, which are positively regulated by Rim15, also caused a major although not complete reversion of the effect of calorie restriction on life span. The deletion of both RAS2 and the Akt and S6 kinase homolog SCH9 in combination with calorie restriction caused a remarkable 10-fold life span extension, which, surprisingly, was only partially reversed by the lack of Rim15. These results indicate that the Ras/cAMP/PKA/Rim15/Msn2/4 and the Tor/Sch9/Rim15/Gis1 pathways are major mediators of the calorie restriction-dependent stress resistance and life span extension, although additional mediators are involved. Notably, the anti-aging effect caused by the inactivation of both pathways is much more potent than that caused by CR.
Project description:Calorie restriction extends life span in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanisms.The role of NAD+-dependent deacetylases known as Sirtuins in this process, particularly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is controversial. We measured chronological life span of wild-type and sir2? strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2? extended life span in high glucose complete minimal medium and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie-restriction response under these conditions. Experiments performed on cells grown in rich medium with a newly developed genetic strategy revealed that sir2? shortened life span in low glucose while having little effect in high glucose, again revealing a partial role for Sir2 In complete minimal media, Sir2 shortened life span as glucose levels increased; whereas in rich media, Sir2 extended life span as glucose levels decreased. Using a genetic strategy to measure the strength of gene silencing at HML, we determined increasing glucose stabilized Sir2-based silencing during growth on complete minimal media. Conversely, increasing glucose destabilized Sir-based silencing during growth on rich media, specifically during late cell divisions. In rich medium, silencing was far less stable in high glucose than in low glucose during stationary phase. Therefore, Sir2 was involved in a response to nutrient cues including glucose that regulates chronological aging, possibly through Sir2-dependent modification of chromatin or deacetylation of a nonhistone protein.
Project description:Calorie restriction slows aging and increases life span in many organisms. In yeast, a mechanistic explanation has been proposed whereby calorie restriction slows aging by activating Sir2. Here we report the identification of a Sir2-independent pathway responsible for a majority of the longevity benefit associated with calorie restriction. Deletion of FOB1 and overexpression of SIR2 have been previously found to increase life span by reducing the levels of toxic rDNA circles in aged mother cells. We find that combining calorie restriction with either of these genetic interventions dramatically enhances longevity, resulting in the longest-lived yeast strain reported thus far. Further, calorie restriction results in a greater life span extension in cells lacking both Sir2 and Fob1 than in cells where Sir2 is present. These findings indicate that Sir2 and calorie restriction act in parallel pathways to promote longevity in yeast and, perhaps, higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Loss of the protein kinase Sch9p increases both the chronological life span (CLS) and the replicative life span (RLS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mimicking calorie restriction, but the physiological consequences of SCH9 deletion are poorly understood. By transcriptional profiling of an sch9Delta mutant, we show that mitochondrial electron transport chain genes are upregulated. Accordingly, protein levels of electron transport chain subunits are increased and the oxygen consumption rate is enhanced in the sch9Delta mutant. Deletion of HAP4 and CYT1, both of which are essential for respiration, revert the sch9Delta mutant respiratory rate back to a lower-than-wild-type level. These alterations of the electron transport chain almost completely blocked CLS extension by the sch9Delta mutation but had a minor impact on the RLS. SCH9 thus negatively regulates the CLS and RLS through inhibition of respiratory genes, but a large part of its action on life span seems to be respiration independent and might involve increased resistance to stress. Considering that TOR1 deletion also increases respiration and that Sch9p is a direct target of TOR signaling, we propose that SCH9 is one of the major effectors of TOR repression of respiratory activity in glucose grown cells.
Project description:The relationships between mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and life span are complex and remain controversial. Inhibition of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway extends life span in several model organisms. We show here that deletion of the TOR1 gene extends chronological life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, primarily by increasing mitochondrial respiration via enhanced translation of mtDNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits. Unlike previously reported pathways regulating chronological life span, we demonstrate that deletion of TOR1 delays aging independently of the antioxidant gene SOD2. Furthermore, wild-type and tor1 null strains differ in life span only when respiration competent and grown in normoxia in the presence of glucose. We propose that inhibition of TOR signaling causes derepression of respiration during growth in glucose and that the subsequent increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption limits intracellular oxygen and ROS-mediated damage during glycolytic growth, leading to lower cellular ROS and extension of chronological life span.
Project description:We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions.
Project description:Carbon metabolism is a crucial aspect of cell life. Glucose, as the primary source of energy and carbon skeleton, determines the type of cell metabolism and biosynthetic capabilities, which, through the regulation of cell size, may affect the reproductive capacity of the yeast cell. Calorie restriction is considered as the most effective way to improve cellular physiological capacity, and its molecular mechanisms are complex and include several nutrient signaling pathways. It is widely assumed that the metabolic shift from fermentation to respiration is treated as a substantial driving force for the mechanism of calorie restriction and its influence on reproductive capabilities of cells. In this paper, we propose another approach to this issue based on analysis the connection between energy-producing and biomass formation pathways which are closed in the metabolic triangle, i.e., the respiration-glycolysis-pentose phosphate pathway. The analyses were based on the use of cells lacking hexokinase 2 (?hxk2) and conditions of different glucose concentration corresponding to the calorie restriction and the calorie excess. Hexokinase 2 is the key enzyme involved in central carbon metabolism and is also treated as a calorie restriction mimetic. The experimental model used allows us to explain both the role of increased respiration as an effect of calorie restriction but also other aspects of carbon metabolism and the related metabolic flux in regulation of reproductive potential of the cells. The obtained results reveal that increased respiration is not a prerequisite for reproductive potential extension but rather an accompanying effect of the positive role of calorie restriction. More important seems to be the changes connected with fluxes in central carbon metabolic pathways resulting in low biosynthetic capabilities and improved proteostasis.
Project description:Calorie restriction can extend life span in a variety of species including mammals, flies, nematodes, and yeast. Despite the importance of this nearly universal effect, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms that mediate the life-span-extending effect of calorie restriction in metazoans. Sir2 is known to be involved in life span determination and calorie restriction in yeast mother cells. In nematodes increased Sir2 can extend life span, but a direct link to calorie restriction has not been demonstrated. We now report that Sir2 is directly involved in the calorie-restriction life-span-extending pathway in Drosophila. We demonstrate that an increase in Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) extends life span, whereas a decrease in dSir2 blocks the life-span-extending effect of calorie reduction or rpd3 mutations. These data lead us to propose a genetic pathway by which calorie restriction extends life span and provides a framework for genetic and pharmacological studies of life span extension in metazoans.
Project description:Aging varies among individuals due to both genetics and environment, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using a highly recombined Saccharomyces cerevisiae population, we found 30 distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control chronological life span (CLS) in calorie-rich and calorie-restricted environments and under rapamycin exposure. Calorie restriction and rapamycin extended life span in virtually all genotypes but through different genetic variants. We tracked the two major QTLs to the cell wall glycoprotein genes FLO11 and HPF1 We found that massive expansion of intragenic tandem repeats within the N-terminal domain of HPF1 was sufficient to cause pronounced life span shortening. Life span impairment by HPF1 was buffered by rapamycin but not by calorie restriction. The HPF1 repeat expansion shifted yeast cells from a sedentary to a buoyant state, thereby increasing their exposure to surrounding oxygen. The higher oxygenation altered methionine, lipid, and purine metabolism, and inhibited quiescence, which explains the life span shortening. We conclude that fast-evolving intragenic repeat expansions can fundamentally change the relationship between cells and their environment with profound effects on cellular lifestyle and longevity.