A single anti-microRNA antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (AMO) targeting multiple microRNAs offers an improved approach for microRNA interference.
ABSTRACT: Anti-miRNA antisense inhibitors (AMOs) have demonstrated their utility in miRNA research and potential in miRNA therapy. Here we report a modified AMO approach in which multiple antisense units are engineered into a single unit that is able to simultaneously silence multiple-target miRNAs, the multiple-target AMO or MTg-AMO. We validated the technique with two separate MTg-AMOs: anti-miR-21/anti-miR-155/anti-miR-17-5p and anti-miR-1/anti-miR-133. We first verified the ability of the MTg-AMOs to antagonize the repressive actions of their target miRNAs using luciferase reporter activity assays and to specifically knock down the levels of their target miRNAs using real-time RT-PCR methods. We then used the MTg-AMO approach to identify several tumor suppressors-TGFBI, APC and BCL2L11 as the target genes for oncogenic miR-21, miR-155 and miR-17-5p, respectively, and two cardiac ion channel genes HCN2 (encoding a subunit of cardiac pacemaker channel) and CACNA1C (encoding the alpha-subunit of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel) for the muscle-specific miR-1 and miR-133. We further demonstrated that the MTg-AMO targeting miR-21, miR-155 and miR-17-5p produced a greater inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth, compared with the regular single-target AMOs. Moreover, while using the regular single-target AMOs excluded HCN2 as a target gene for either miR-1 or miR-133, the MTg-AMO approach is able to reveal HCN2 as the target for both miR-1 and miR-133. Our findings suggest the MTg-AMO as an improved approach for miRNA target finding and for studying function of miRNAs. This approach may find its broad application for exploring biological processes involving multiple miRNAs and multiple genes.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Previous studies, which characterized miRNA function, revealed their involvement in fundamental biological processes. Importantly, miRNA expression is deregulated in many human diseases. Specific inhibition of miRNAs using chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) can be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases in which a specific miRNA is overexpressed. 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe)-4'-thioRNA is a hybrid type of chemically modified oligonucleotide, exhibiting high binding affinity to complementary RNAs and high resistance to nuclease degradation. Here, we evaluate 2'-OMe-4'-thioribonucleosides for chemical modification on AMOs. Optimization of the modification pattern using a variety of chemically modified AMOs that are perfectly complementary to mature miR-21 revealed that the uniformly 2'-OMe-4'-thioribonucleoside-modified AMO was most potent. Further investigation showed that phosphorothioate modification contributed to long-term miR-122 inhibition by the 2'-OMe-4'-thioribonucleoside-modified AMO. Moreover, systemically administrated AMOs to mouse using a liposomal delivery system, YSK05-MEND, showed delivery to the liver and efficient inhibition of miR-122 activity at a low dose in vivo.
Project description:MiR-21 is an oncogenic miR frequently elevated in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. However, optimization of miRNA or its anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) for delivery is a challenge. Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including AMOs. This study is a continuation of our earlier findings involving poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target gastric cancer cells with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 antisense oligonucleotides (AMO-21). The antibody conjugates (HER-PEG-PCL NPs) act against target cells via antibody-dependent mechanisms and also based on encapsutalated AMO-21. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy validated the presence of trastuzumab on NP surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a stable antibody expression. The cell line specificity, cellular uptake, AMO-21 delivery, and cytotoxicity of the HER-PEG-PCL NPs were investigated. We found that the antibody conjugates significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of NPs. The HER-PEG-PCL NPs effectively suppressed the target miRNA expression in gastric cancer cells, which further up-regulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). As a result, the sensitivity of HER2-expressing gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab was enhanced. The approach enhances the targeting by trastuzumab as well as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of immune effector cells. The antitumor effects of AMO-21-HER-PEG-PCL NPs were compared with trastuzumab in xenograft gastric cancer mice. The results provide insight into the biological and clinical potential of targeted AMO-21 delivery using modified trastuzumab for gastric cancer treatment.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA)-guided argonaute (Ago) controls gene expression upon binding to the 3' UTR of mRNA. The miRNA function can be competitively inhibited by single-stranded anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). In this study, we constructed a novel type of AMO flanked by interstrand cross-linked 2'-O-methylated RNA duplexes (CLs) that confer a stable helical conformation. Compared with other structured AMOs, AMO flanked by CLs at the 5' and 3' termini exhibited much higher inhibitory activity in cells. Anti-miRNA activity, nuclease resistance, and miRNA modification pattern distinctly differed according to the CL-connected positions in AMOs. Moreover, we found that the 3'-side CL improves nuclease resistance, whereas the 5'-side CL contributes to stable binding with miRNA in Ago upon interaction with the 3' part of miRNA. These structure-function relationship analyses of AMOs provide important insights into the function control of Ago-miRNA complexes, which will be useful for basic miRNA research as well as for determining therapeutic applications of AMO.
Project description:Anti-microRNA (miRNA) oligonucleotides (AMOs) with 2'-O-Methyl (2'OMe) residues are commonly used to study miRNA function and can achieve high potency, with low cytotoxicity. Not withstanding this, we demonstrate the sequence-dependent capacity of 2'OMe AMOs to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 sensing of immunostimulatory RNA, independent of their miRNA-targeting function. Through a screen of 29 AMOs targeting common miRNAs, we found a subset of sequences highly inhibitory to TLR7 sensing in mouse macrophages. Interspecies conservation of this inhibitory activity was confirmed on TLR7/8 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Significantly, we identified a core motif governing the inhibitory activity of these AMOs, which is present in more than 50 AMOs targeted to human miRNAs in miRBaseV20. DNA/locked nucleic acids (LNA) AMOs synthesized with a phosphorothioate backbone also inhibited TLR7 sensing in a sequence-dependent manner, demonstrating that the off-target effects of AMOs are not restricted to 2'OMe modification. Taken together, our work establishes the potential for off-target effects of AMOs on TLR7/8 function, which should be taken into account in their therapeutic development and in vivo application.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNA and play various biological roles. miR-133 was identified as a muscle-specific miRNA that enhanced the proliferation of myoblasts during myogenic differentiation, although its activity in myogenesis has not been fully characterized. Here, we developed a novel retroviral vector system for monitoring muscle-specific miRNA in living cells by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is connected to the target sequence of miR-133 via the UTR and a red fluorescent protein for normalization. We demonstrated that the functional promotion of miR-133 during myogenesis is visualized by the reduction of GFP carrying the miR-133 target sequence, suggesting that miR-133 specifically down-regulates its targets during myogenesis in accordance with its expression. Our cell-based miRNA functional assay monitoring miR-133 activity should be a useful tool in elucidating the role of miRNAs in various biological events.
Project description:Viral microRNAs (miRNAs), most of which are characterized in cell lines, have been found to play important roles in the virus life cycle to avoid attack by the host immune system or to keep virus in the latency state. Viral miRNAs targeting virus genes can inhibit virus infection. In this study, in vivo findings in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp revealed that the viral miRNAs could target virus genes and further promote the virus infection. The results showed that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-encoded miRNAs WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 were transcribed at the early stage of WSSV infection. When the expression of WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 was silenced with sequence-specific anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs), the number of copies of WSSV and the WSSV-infected shrimp mortality were significantly decreased, indicating that the two viral miRNAs had a great effect on virus infection. It was revealed that the WSSV wsv094 and wsv177 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-66 and that the wsv248 and wsv309 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-68. The data demonstrate that the four target genes play negative roles in the WSSV infection. The targeting of the four virus genes by WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 led to the promotion of virus infection. Therefore, our in vivo findings show a novel aspect of viral miRNAs in virus-host interactions.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) represent approximately 4% of the genes in vertebrates, where they regulate deadenylation, translation, and decay of the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The integrated role of miRNAs to regulate gene expression and cell function remains largely unknown. Therefore, to identify the targets coordinately regulated by muscle miRNAs in vivo, we performed gene expression arrays on muscle cells sorted from wild type, dicer mutants, and single miRNA knockdown embryos. Our analysis reveals that two particular miRNAs, miR-1 and miR-133, influence gene expression patterns in the zebrafish embryo where they account for >54% of the miRNA-mediated regulation in the muscle. We also found that muscle miRNA targets (1) tend to be expressed at low levels in wild-type muscle but are more highly expressed in dicer mutant muscle, and (2) are enriched for actin-related and actin-binding proteins. Loss of dicer function or down-regulation of miR-1 and miR-133 alters muscle gene expression and disrupts actin organization during sarcomere assembly. These results suggest that miR-1 and miR-133 actively shape gene expression patterns in muscle tissue, where they regulate sarcomeric actin organization.
Project description:Zebrafish regenerate cardiac muscle after severe injuries through the activation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes. Little is known about factors that control these events. Here we investigated the extent to which miRNAs regulate zebrafish heart regeneration. Microarray analysis identified many miRNAs with increased or reduced levels during regeneration. miR-133, a miRNA with known roles in cardiac development and disease, showed diminished expression during regeneration. Induced transgenic elevation of miR-133 levels after injury inhibited myocardial regeneration, while transgenic miR-133 depletion enhanced cardiomyocyte proliferation. Expression analyses indicated that cell cycle factors mps1, cdc37, and PA2G4, and cell junction components cx43 and cldn5, are miR-133 targets during regeneration. Using pharmacological inhibition and EGFP sensor interaction studies, we found that cx43 is a new miR-133 target and regeneration gene. Our results reveal dynamic regulation of miRNAs during heart regeneration, and indicate that miR-133 restricts injury-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that downregulate gene expression by base pairing to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Up to now, rare information for the miRNAs is available in decapod crustaceans. Our previous studies showed that many miRNA-binding sites are present in the 3'-UTR of the cyclin B in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, suggesting that the translation or post-transcription of the crab cyclin B might be regulated by miRNAs during meiosis of oocyte. RESULTS: To identify ovarian miRNAs in the mitten crab, ovarian small RNAs were subjected to high-throughput sequencing using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. Of 14,631,328 reads, 55 known miRNAs representing 44 miRNA families were identified and 136 novel miRNA candidates were predicted. The 5' seed sequences of four miRNAs, miR-2, miR-7, miR-79 and miR-133, were revealed to complementary to miRNA binding sites in 3'-UTR of the cyclin B. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed that miR-2 and miR-133 are much more abundant in the first metaphase (MI) of meiosis than in germinal vesicle (GV) stage. But their increasing expressions are independent of induction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Further expression analysis using double-luciferase reporter genes assay showed that miR-2 and miR-133 can downregulate the 3'-UTRs of the crab cyclin B gene, indicating that they could inhibit the translation of the cyclin B. Western blot analysis confirmed that cyclin B protein is completely disappeared in fertilized egg at the metaphase-anaphase transition of meiosis I, suggesting that miR-2 and miR-133 could function in destruction of cyclin B near the end of MI. CONCLUSIONS: A high number of miRNAs have been identified from the crab ovarian small RNA transcriptom for the first time. miR-2 and miR-133 exhibit differential expression during the meiotic maturation of the oocytes and have activity in regulating the 3'-UTR of the crab cyclin B gene. This result is inconsistent with recent finding that miRNA activity is globally suppressed in mouse oocytes.
Project description:miRNA dysregulation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including those involving the retina. Up-regulation of miR-1/133 and miR-142, and down-regulation of miR-183/96/182 has been described in the RHO-P347S mouse retina, a model for a common form of inherited blindness. High-throughput LC-MS/MS was employed to analyse the protein expression of predicted targets for these miRNAs in RHO-P347S mouse retinas; 133 potential target genes were identified. Pathway over-representation analysis suggests G-protein signaling/visual transduction, and synaptic transmission for miR-1, and transmembrane transport, cell-adhesion, signal transduction and apoptosis for miR-183/96/182 as regulated functions in retina. Validation of miRNA-target mRNA interactions for miR-1, miR-96/182 and miR-96 targeting Ctbp2, Rac1 and Slc6a9, respectively, was demonstrated in vitro. In vivo interaction of miR-183/96/182 and Rac1 mRNA in retina was confirmed using miR-CATCH. Additional miRNAs (including miR-103-3p, miR-9-5p) were both predicted to target Rac1 mRNA and enriched by Rac1-miR-CATCH. Other Rac1-miR-CATCH-enriched miRNAs (including miR-125a/b-5p, miR-378a-3p) were not predicted to target Rac1. Furthermore, levels of ~25% of the retinal Rac1 interactors were determined by LC-MS/MS; expression of Rap1gds1 and Cav1 was elevated. Our data suggest significant utilisation of miRNA-based regulation in retina. Possibly more than 30 miRNAs interact with Rac1 in retina, targeting both UTRs and coding regions.